Madras Agric. J., 98 (10-12): 367-369, December 2011

Integrated Nutrient Management in Rabi Black Gram K. Vairavan* Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai

Field experiments were conducted at National Pulses Research Centre, Vamban to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield attributes and yield of rabi black gram. The recommended dose of fertilizers @ 12.5:25:12.5:10 kg NPKS/ha was compared with vermi compost @2t/ha and FYM @ 5t/ha, biofertilizers and its combination. The results of the study revealed that application of recommended dose of NPKS/ha in combination with FYM at 5t/ha recorded higher growth, yield attributes and yield compared to other treatment combinations. However, application of recommended dose of fertilizer in combination with seed treatment with rhizobium and phosphobacterium @ 500g/ha recorded comparable yield. Key words: Rhizobium, Phosphobacterium, Black gram, yield.

The nutrient management practices by using chemical fertilizers alone cause some negative impact on soil microbial load and fertility status of the soil. To keep the soil alive, integrated nutrient management offers good scope. Use of chemical fertilizers in combination with organic source of fertilizers supports the microbial population, organic carbon and micronutrient status of the soil. Further, use of biofertilizers enriches the microbial population, which seldom secretes organic acids, resulting mobilization of available form of nutrients from non available form. Use of rhizobium helps the crop to get nitrogen from the atmosphere to the tune of 25% of its requirement. Keeping these views in mind, a trial on integrated nutrient management in rabi black gram on yield and yield attributes was carried out. Materials and Methods Field experiment was conducted for two years (2007-2009) at National Pulses Research Centre, Vamban, Pudukkottai District (Tamil Nadu) to study the response of black gram to integrated nutrient management. The treatments included chemical fertilizers, farm yard manures, vermicompost, biofertilizers and its combinations as follows. T1– control, (No fertilizers), T2–12.5:25.0:12.5:10.0 Kg NPKS/ ha, T3–FYM @5t/ha, T4– Vermi compost @ 2t/ha, T5 – 12.5:25.0:12.5:10.0 kg NPKS/ ha + FYM @ 5t/ha, T6 –12.5:25.0:12.5:10.0 kg NPKS/ha + Vermi compost @ 2t/ha, T7- Rhizobium + Phospho bacterium @ 500g/ha as seed treatment, T8– 12.5: 25.00 : 12.5 : 10 Kg NPKS/ha + Rhizobium + Phosphobacterium @ 500 g each. T9 – FYM @ 5t/ ha + Rhizobium + Phosphobacterium, T10 – Vermi compost @ 2t / ha + Rhizobium + Phospho bacterium.The FYM and vermi compost were applied at the time of last ploughing. Chemical fertilizers were applied as basal before sowing, while, *Corresponding author email: [email protected]

rhizobium and phosphobacterium were treated with seeds. The treated seeds were sown according to the lay out in a randomized block design, replicated thrice. For assessing the effect of treatments on growth, yield attributes and yield. Observations on plant height, number of branches / plant, number of pods / plant, number of seeds / pod, test weight (g) and yield of black gram (Kg/ha) were recorded. The net return and benefit : cost ratio were worked out and analysed. Results and Discussion Application of recommended dose chemical fertilizers in combination with FYM @ 5t/ha recorded maximum plant height of 36.5cm and 36.0 cm in the first and second year respectively, followed by application of recommended dose of fertilizers and seed treatment with rhizobium and phospho bacterium. Similarly, the branches/plant was significantly increased by application of recommended dose of fertilizers along with FYM @ 5t/ha followed by recommended dose of fertilizers in combination with biofertilizers. Similar trend on number of pods/plant was observed in both the years. However, the number of seeds/pod and 100 seed weight did not influence by the application of both chemical, organic and bio fertilizers in both the years. The grain yield was significantly influenced by application of inorganic, organic and biofertilizers. Recommended dose of nitrogen phosphorus, potassium and sulphur in combination with FYM @ 5t/ha registered significantly higher grain yield of 888 kg/ha and 836 kg/ha for the first year and second year respectively. Similarly, application of recommended dose of NPKS/ha incombination with seed treatment of rhizobium and phosphobacterium @ 500g/ha recorded 790 and 703 kg/ha in the first year and second year respectively which was on

368 Table 1. Growth, yield attributes, yield and economics of black gram in rabi, 2007-08 Treatments

T1 Control T2 NPKS (12.5: 25:12.5:10 Kg/ha) T3 FYM @ 5t/ha T4 Vermi compost @ 2t /ha T5 T2 + T3 T6 T2 + T4 T7 Rhizobium + PSB T8 T2 + T7 T9 T3 + T7 T10 T4 + T7 SED2.8 CD (0.05) CV(%)

Plant height (cm) at harvest

No. of branches plant -1

21.5 33.0 25.5 23.5 36.5 24.5 23.5 34.5 24.5 23.5 0.2 6.0 12.9

1.6 2.2 1.8 1.7 2.6 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.9 2.0 0.4 13.5

par with that of application of recommended dose of NPKS/ha incombination with FYM @ 5t/ha. These findings are in line with the finding of Sutaria, et al.,

No. of pods plant -1

No. of Seeds pod-1

12.6 23.0 19.6 18.0 29.0 22.0 19.0 23.0 18.0 16.0 0.6 4.3 12.6

6.0 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 0.16 NS 13.2

100 seed weight (g) 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 64.12 NS 4.9

Grain yield (Kg/ha)

BC ratio

336 680 582 530 888 730 679 790 586 550 134.8 12.7

1.39 2.21 1.75 0.88 2.41 1.10 2.23 2.38 1.74 0.96 -

(2011) who observed improved soil status of organic carbon, and availability of K, S and micro nutrients due to application of enriched compost and vermi

Table 2. Growth, yield attributes, yield and economics of black gram in rabi, 2008-09 Treatments

T1 Control T2 NPKS (12.5: 25:12.5:10 Kg/ha) T3 FYM @ 5t/ha T4 Vermi compost @ 2t /ha T5 T2 + T3 T6 T2 + T4 T7 Rhizobium + PSB T8 T2 + T7 T9 T3 + T7 T10 T4 + T7 SED3.3 CD (0.05) CV(%)

Plant height (cm) at harvest

No. of branches plant -1

20.6 32.2 24.8 22.6 36.0 23.7 22.8 28.5 22.2 21.3 0.2 6.9 15.9

1.4 1.7 1.6 1.5 2.4 1.7 1.5 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.9 0.4 14.7

compost. Similarly, seed inoculation increased the nodulation and availability of phosphorus (Lopes, et al., 1996).

No. of pods plant -1

No. of Seeds pod-1

100 seed weight (g)

11.6 20.8 18.8 16.2 26.8 20.5 18.3 21.2 16.5 13.8 0.6 4.3 13.1

5.8 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 0.2 NS 13.5

3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.9 78.9 NS 10.2

Grain yield (Kg/ha)

BC ratio

282 644 527 483 836 679 563 703 532 492 165.8 16.8

1.27 2.35 1.77 0.92 2.51 1.18 2.37 2.41 1.77 0.96

The results of pooled analysis revealed that in both the year, application of FYM @ 5t/ha before plouging and basal application of recommended

Table 3. Pooled analysis of yield data Grain yield

Treatments T1 Control T2 NPKS (12.5: 25:12.5:10 Kg/ha) T3 FYM @ 5t/ha T4 Vermicompost @ 2t /ha T5 T2 + T3 T6 T2 + T4 T7 Rhizobium + PSB T8 T2 + T7 T9 T3 + T7 T10 T4 + T7 SED CD (0.05) CV(%)

-

Pooled

2007-08

2008-09

336 680 582 530 888 730 679 750 586 550 64.2 134.8 12.7

282 644 527 483 836 679 563 703 532 492 78.9 165.8 16.8

308 661 554 506 862 704 621 726 558 520 73.4 154.2 14.9

369 dose of NPKS/ha (12.5:25:12.5:10 kg/ ha) registered significantly higher yield of 862 kg/ha. This was followed by application of recommended dose of NPKS/ha and seed treatment with rhizobium and phosphobacterium @ 500g/ha by registering 726kg/

ha (T8) and on par with treatment (T5) which received recommended dose of NPKS/ha and FYM @ 5t/ha. The lowest grain yield was obtained in the control plot which received no fertilizer.

Table 4. Economic analysis of Integrated Nutrient Management in Black gram Rabi 2007-08 Treatments

T1

Control

T2

NPKS (12.5: 25:12.5:10 Kg/ha)

T3

FYM @ 5t/ha

T4

Rabi 2008-09

Net return (Rs.ha)

BCR

Net return (Rs.ha)

BCR

2624

1.38

2026

1.27

10427

2.21

13239

2.35

7016

1.75

7611

1.77

Vermicompost @ 2t /ha

-1940

0.88

-1341

0.92

T5

T2 + T3

13751

2.41

15975

2.51

T6

T2 + T4

1877

1.10

3507

1.18

T7

Rhizobium + PSB

9360

2.23

11199

2.37

T8

T2 + T7

12287

2.36

13986

2.41

T9

T3 + T7

7028

1.74

7676

1.77

T10

T4 + T7

-640

0.96

-664

0.96

The economic analysis in both the year revealed that application of recommended dose of NPKS/ha in combination with FYM @ 5t/ha registered higher net return of Rs.1,375/-/ha and Rs.5,975/-/ha and benefit cost of Rs.2.41 and Rs.2.51 for the first year and second year respectively. The lowest net return and benefit cost ratio was recorded in treatment T4, which received vermicompost (T7 ) which might be due to high cost of vermicompost. Hence, it could be inferred from the study that rhizobium and phosphobacterium as seed treatment and recommended dose of NPKS/ha as basal can be adopted in the place of FYM for

alternate years due to non availability of FYM for maximum yield, gross and net returns. References Lopes, A.J., Stamford, N.P., Figuredo, M.U.B, Burity, H. A. and Ferraz, E.B. 1996. Effect of application of ver mi compost mineral nitrogen and mineralizing agents on N2 fixation and yield of cowpea. Revista Brasilera Ciencia Sole. 20: 55-62. Sutaria, G.S., Akhari, K.N., Vora, V.D and Padmani, D.R. 2011. Residual effect of nutrient management on the soil fertility and yield of black gram under dry land conditions. Legume Res. 34: 62-64.

Received: July 11, 2011; Accepted: September 20, 2011

1 Lecture December 2011 final.pmd

(2011) who observed improved soil status of organic carbon, and availability of K, S and micro nutrients due to application of enriched compost and vermi. Table 1. Growth, yield attributes, yield and economics of black gram in rabi, 2007-08. Table 2. Growth, yield attributes, yield and economics of black gram in rabi, 2008-09.

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