Madras Agric. J., 98 (10-12): 331-333, December 2011

Short Note

Inheritance of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Pigeonpea Ch. Sreelakshmi*, D. Shivani and C.V. Sameer Kumar Agricultural Research Station, TANDUR – 501 141 ANGRAU, Ranga Reddy Dt. A.P.

Five female parents viz, ICPL 85063, MRG 66, LRG 30, LRG 41 and Nallakandi (local popular cultivar) and ICPL 87119 as male parent were selected and crossed to study the inheritance pattern of reistance to Fusarium wilt. The F2 population of crosses LRG 30 x ICPL 87119, MRG 66 x ICPL 87119 and ICPL 85063 x ICPL 87119 segregated into a 13 R: 3 S. When back crossed with resistant parent ICPL 87119, it segregates in a 3R: 1S phenotypic ratio, and with susceptible parent, it segregated into a phenotypic ratio of 1R: 1S. LRG 41 x ICPL 87119 and Nallakandi x ICPL 87119, F2 population segregated into a ratio of 9R: 7S. The back cross population B1 to the susceptible parent in both the crosses segregated in the phenotypic ratio of 1 R: 3S and to the resistant parent segregated in the ratio of 3R: 1S. Inheritance studies on Fusarium wilt resistance affirmed the dominance of resistance to susceptibility and the role of two gene interactions viz., inhibitory (13:3) and complementary (9:7) types. Keywords: Pigeonpea, Fusarium wilt, inheritance

Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea caused by Fusarium udum f.sp cajani is a major constraint to yield potential in India. The fungus is soil borne inflicting disease on the crop at any growth stage from seedling to pod formation. It can cause losses ranging from 28-100% under conditions favouring the disease (Kannaiyan et al.,1984). The long lasting achievable and economical method to combat disease is varietal resistance. Despite the fact that considerable efforts have been put to generate resistant varieties with durable resistance, still this has not been fully achieved, probably due to the fact that the genetics of resistance of the host is not studied. One dominant, one recessive or two dominant with complementary and inhibitory gene action were reported in crosses of various resistant genotypes with diverse susceptible varieties (Okiror, 2002). However, it is not clear whether these reported genes represent the same loci because allelic tests in most cases were not performed. The situation is further complicated because of the lack of near isogenic lines and knowledge of expression of the genes. The present study describes the inheritance of disease in two tolerant and three susceptible cultivars of pigeonpea in combination with resistant variety, ICPL 87119. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted from kharif 200607 to 2009-10 at Agricultural Research Station, Tandur to know the inheritance of Fusarium wilt resistance in pigeonpea. During kharif 2006-07, five female parents viz, ICPL 85063, MRG 66, LRG 30, *Corresponding author email: [email protected]

LRG 41 and Nallakandi (local popular cultivar) (wilt susceptible parents) and ICPL 87119 (resistant parent) as male parent were selected and crossed to generate enough F1 seeds and these were further back crossed with both the parents to generate B1 and B2 progenies. The F1 from all the crosses were advanced for testing the F 2 generation against Fusarium wilt. Some F1 seeds were also kept for testing along with the F2 in the next growing season. One row of parents alternating with the F1, B1, B2 and 12-15 rows of F2 progenies of the crosses were sown in July, 2009 in the wilt sick plot at Agricultural Research Station, Tandur. The row length was kept as 5 m with row spacing of 100 cm. Mass culture of Fusarium udum was prepared on sorghum grains. The flasks were inoculated with the culture and incubated for seven days to get profuse fungal growth. The contents of the flasks were mixed with soil to build up inoculum in the wilt sick plot to ensure higher disease buildup especially in drought conditions. The spray of inoculum was given 20-25 days after sowing and humid conditions were maintained for a period of 3-4 days after inoculation. Further water spray technique was used to maintained high disease pressure during crop season. The disease severity and the observations were recorded following 1-9 scale. Results and Discussion In the present investigation, the progeny F1 of the five crosses selected viz., LRG 41 x ICPL 87119, LRG 30 x ICPL 87119, MRG 66 x ICPL 87119, Nallakandi x ICPL 87119 and ICPL 85063 x ICPL 87119 were found to be resistant just like their

332 Table 1. Mode of inheritance of Fusarium wilt resistance in various segregating generations of pigeonpea in five different crosses Generations

Total plants

Observed frequencies Resistant (R)

LRG 41 x ICPL 87119 P1 P2 F1 B1 B2 F2 LRG 30 x ICPL 87119 P1 P2 F1 B1 B2 F2 MRG 66 x ICPL 87119 P1 P2 F1 B1 B2 F2 Nallakandi x ICPL 87119 P1 P2 F1 B1 B2 F2 ICPL 85063 x ICPL 87119 P1 P2 F1 B1 B2 F2

Susceptible (S)

Expected frequencies Resistant (R)

Ratio R:S

X2

Susceptible (S)

44 62 38 41 43 244

9 55 33 13 43 143

35 7 5 28 101

10 137.25

31 106.75

1:3 9:7

0.90 0.24

62 62 28 38 27 266

0 55 23 16 19 206

62 7 5 22 8 60

19 20.25 216.12

19 6.75 49.88

1:1 3:1 13:3

0.47 0.07 0.47

47 62 37 45 43 238

13 55 31 28 31 201

34 7 6 17 12 37

22.5 32.25 193.37

22.5 10.75 44.63

1:1 3:1 13:3

1.34 0.05 0.30

43 62 38 44 39 193

4 55 30 10 26 102

39 7 8 32 13 91

11 29.25 108.56

33 9.75 84.43

1:3 3:1 9:7

0.09 0.36 0.39

47 62 34 33 45 169

16 55 28 18 35 141

31 7 6 15 10 28

16.5 33.75 137.3

16.5 11.25 31.7

1:1 3:1 13:3

0.13 0.04 0.09

resistant parent (Table 1). The F 2 population of crosses LRG 30 x ICPL 87119, MRG 66 x ICPL 87119 and ICPL 85063 x ICPL 87119 segregated into a 13 R: 3 S. When back crossed with resistant parent ICPL 87119, the population segregated in a 3R : 1S phenotypic ratio, and when back crossed to the susceptible parent, if segregated into 1R : 1S phenotypic ratio. On the other hand, the crosses viz., LRG 41 x ICPL 87119 and Nallakandi x ICPL 87119 in F2 population segregated into a ratio of 9R : 7S. The back cross population B1 to the susceptible parent in both the crosses segregated in the phenotypic ratio of 1 R: 3S and to the resistant parent segregated in the ratio of 3R: 1S for the cross Nallakandi x ICPL 87119. In the cross LRG 41 x ICPL 87119, when back crossed with resistant parent ICPL 87119, the entire B2 population showed resistance to Fusarium wilt.

The results of present study are in agreement with some of the earlier findings that resistant is dominant to susceptibility (Odeny, et al., 2001 and Sameer Kumar, 2006). Dominant nature of this resistance is especially encouraging since its incorporation and selection would be easier than otherwise. The crosses LRG 30 x ICPL 87119, MRG 66 x ICPL 87119 and ICPL 85063 x ICPL 87119, digenic gene interaction was in an inhibitory manner (13:3) whereas in the crosses LRG 41 x ICPL 87119 and Nallakandi x ICPL 87119, digenic interaction was in a complementary manner (9 : 7). The back cross populations to the resistant parent under the two situations stated above segregated into 3 : 1 (resistant : susceptible) phenotypic ratio which affirms a digenic condition as reported by Okiror, 2002.

333 On contrary, different types of gene action was revealed for Fusarium wilt resistance, viz., by two complementary genes with recessive and dominant expression (Shaw, 1936), duplicate genes (Joshi, 1957), a single dominant gene (Pawar and Mayee, 1986), a major dominant gene for resistance and minor poly genes for disease resistance, Sharma (1986) and a single recessive gene (Jain and Reddy, 1995). Whereas Singh et al. (1998) confirmed that resistance is under the control of two independent loci. The present investigation enabled to incorporate resistance from ICPL 87119 into well adapted popular cultivars of the tract viz., LRG 41, LRG 30, MRG 66, Nallakandi and ICPL 85063. References Jain, K.C. and Reddy, M.V. 1995. Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L Millsp). Ind. J. Gen.Pl. Br. 55: 434-437.

Eastern and South Africa. Proceedings of Regional Workshop Nairobi, Kenya 12-15, September, 43-47. Okiror, M.A. 2002. Genetics of resistance to Fusarium udum in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp). Ind. J. Gen. Pl. Br. 62: 218-220. Pawar, N.B. and Mayee, C.D. 1986. Reaction of pigeonpea genotypes and their crosses to Fusarium wilt. Ind. Phytopath. 39: 70-74. Reddy, M.V., Nene, Y.L., Raju, T.N., Shiela, V.K., Kannaiyan, J. and Beniwal, S.P.S. 1989.Evaluation of pigeonpea lines for resistance to wilt, sterility mosaic and Phytopthora blight. Int. Pigeonpea Newsletter, 10: 2224. Sameer Kumar, C.V. 2006. Genetics of resistance to Fusarium wilt and yield contributing characters in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp). Ph.D thesis submitted to Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.

Joshi, A.B. 1957. Genetics of resistance to diseases and pests. Ind. J. Gen.Pl. Br. 17: 305-317.

Sharma, D. 1986. Breeding of disease resistance varieties of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp). In piegeonpea genetics and improvement. (ed. Tikka S B S), Sharada Publishing Academy. Gujarat, India, 103-139p.

Kannaiyan, J., Nene, Y.L., Reddy, M.V., Ryan, J.G. and Raju, T.N. 1984. Prevalence of pigeonpea diseases and associated crop losses in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Tropical Pest Management, 30: 62-71.

Shaw, F.J.F. 1936. Studies in Indian Pulses: The inheritance of morphological characters and wilt resistance in arhar (Cajanus indicus Spring). Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 6: 139-187.

Odeny, D.A., Silim, S.N., Mergeai, G. and Kimani, P.M. 2001 Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt in pigeonpea. Status and potential of pigeonpea in

Singh, I.P., Vishwadhar, Chaudhary, R.G. and Dhar, V. 1998. Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt in pigeonpea. Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 68: 729-731.

Received: August 8, 2011; Accepted: November 11, 2011

1 Lecture December 2011 final.pmd

potential in India. The fungus is soil borne inflicting disease on the crop at any growth stage from seedling to pod ... of disease in two tolerant and three susceptible cultivars of pigeonpea in combination with resistant variety .... Tropical Pest Management, 30: 62-71. Odeny, D.A., Silim, S.N., Mergeai, G. and Kimani, P.M. 2001.

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