Madras Agric. J., 97 (4-6): 138-141, June 2010

Bioefficacy Evaluation and Residue Analysis of Pretilachlor for Weed Control in Transplanted Rice-Rice Cropping System M. Suganthi*, O.S. Kandasamy, P. Subbian and R. Rajkumar Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003

Field experiments were conducted during rabi season and summer season at experimental farm of the Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore). The treatments included were five doses of new formulation of pretilachlor (0.5,0.75,1.0,1.5, 3.0 kg ha-1), butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1, anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1 and rifit 0.75 kg ha-1 (M/s. Gharda chemical formulation) compared with hand weeding twice and unweeded control. The experiments were laid out in a randomised block design with three replications. The predominant weeds of the experimental fields were Echinochloa crus-galli, Leptchloa chinensis among monocots and Marsilea quadrifoliata among dicots. The results of the experiments revealed that, pre emergence application of pretilachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 and pretilachlor 0.75 kg ha-1 with a hand weeding at 45 DAT offered better weed control and resulted in increased yield and economics of transplanted rice, compared to the recommended weed control methods of butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1, anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1 and rifit 0.75 kg ha-1 and hand weeding twice. Key words: Pretilachlor, weed control, yield, rice

Weed infestation is one of the major constraints and contribute heavily for the loss of rice yields. Rice is the staple food and there is almost no scope for increasing rice production through an increase in rice area and hence, increasing the productivity of rice is of great concern through proper crop management (Sunada dev et al., 2009). Risk in labour cost and availability warrant for alternate effective and economic weed control practices. Weed control spectrum of widely used herbicides like butachlor, rifit and anilofos is quite narrow. Continuous use of herbicides with similar mode of action may lead to the shifting of weed flora and also herbicide resistance. Over dose of the herbicide will also result in residual toxicity (Singh et al., 2001). In the view of the above facts, it would be desirable to develop alternative herbicide. Pretilachlor (2chloro-2’6' diethyl-N (2 propoxyethyl acetanilide) is one of the important pre-emergence herbicide, the efficacy of which have to be worked out for effective and economical weed control in transplanted rice. Hence, these experiments were planned to evaluate the efficacy of pretilachlor in transplanted rice. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted during rabi and summer seasons at the experimental farm of the Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The soil of the experimental field was clay loam in texture, alkaline in reaction (pH 8.5), medium in organic carbon (0.7%), available nitrogen (258 kg/ha) and available *Corresponding author email: [email protected].

phosphorus (34.5 kg/ ha) and high in available potassium (465 kg/ ha). The treatments included were five doses of new formulation of pretilachlor (0.5,0.75,1.0,1.5, 3.0 kg ha-1), butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1, anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1 and rifit 0.75 kg ha-1 (M/s. Gharda chemical formulation) compared with hand weeding twice and unweeded control. The experiments were laid out in a randomised block design with three replications. The herbicides were applied as spray using 750 litre of water per hectare and knapsack sprayer fitted with WFN 40 nozzle, keeping a thin film of water in the field. The hand weeding treatment (T9) received two hand weedings at 20 and 45 days after transplanting (DAT). The experiment was conducted with rice variety CO 43 and CO 47 were used in rabi and summer respectively, following all recommended package of practices. Results and Discussion Weed flora

The weed density was grouped into monocot and dicot wee ds.The predominant weeds of the experimental fields were Echinochloa crus-galli (18%), Leptchloa chinensis (49.5%) among monocots and Marsilea quadrifoliata (32.1%) among dicot weeds Weed density

All the weed control treatments significantly reduced the weed density in rabi season. (Table 1) Higher dose of Pretilachlor (3.0 kg ha-1) reduced the individual weed density significantly. As per the F test,

139 Table 1. Effect of treatments on weed density (No m-2) at panicle initiation stage Treatments

Pretilachlor 0.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 0.75kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 3.0 kg ha-1 Rifit 0.75 kg ha-1 Anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1 Butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1 Hand weeding twice Unweeded control SEd CD (P=0.05)

First season (rabi)

Leptochloa chinensis 1.14 (13.3) 1.03 (10.0) 1.03 (10.0) 0.946 (8.0) 0.897 (7.3) 1.08 (12.0) 1.05 (11.3) 1.12 (15.3) 0.917 (6.6) 1.07 (11.3) 0.07 NS

Second season (summer)

Echinochloa crus-galli 1.01 (9.3) 0.673 (4.0) 0.532 (1.3) 0.159 (0.6) 0.156 (0.6) 0.823 (5.3) 0.832 (6.0) 0.709 (4.6) 0.624 (3.3) 1.08 (11.3) 0.06 0.416

Marsilea Leptochloa quadrifoliata chinensis 1.03 1.44 (10.6) (26.6) 0.856 1.25 (6.6) (17.3) 0.796 1.22 (5.3) (16.0) 0.669 1.15 (4.0) (13.3) 0.548 1.06 (2.6) (10.6) 0.796 1.11 (5.3) (12.0) 0.960 1.15 (9.3) (13.3) 0.910 1.15 (7.3) (13.3) 0.832 1.18 (6.0) (14.6) 1.259 1.55 (16.6) (35.3) 0.06 0.04 0.251 0.057

Echinochloa Marsilea crus-galli quadrifoliata 0.881 1.06 (6.6) (10.6) 0.982 1.01 (8.6) (9.3) 0.698 0.881 (4.0) (6.6) 0.698 0.881 (4.0) (6.6) 0.550 0.698 (2.6) (4.0) 1.04 1.01 (10.0) (9.3) 0.799 1.15 (5.3) (13.3) 0.954 0.796 (8.0) (5.3) 0.698 0.747 (4.0) (4.6) 1.32 1.41 (20.6) (25.3) 0.20 0.08 0.104 0.099

Figures in the parenthesis are original values All herbicide treatments were followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAT

critical difference at five percent level of probability was computed for comparison of treatment means. In summer season also the same trend was observed. At panicle initiation, pretilachlor 3.0 kg ha-1 was followed by hand weeding twice and pretilachlor 1.5 kg ha-1 in reducing the weed density. In both seasons, the standard herbicides rifit, anilofos and butachlor recorded relatively higher density of individual weeds compared to higher doses of test herbicide (pretilachlor 3.0,1.5 and 1.0 kg ha-1 ).

of reduction of weed density by herbicidal action (Table 2). Pretilachlor 1.5 and 1.0 kg ha-1 also offered effective and comparable weed control similar to its higher dose (3.0 kg ha-1) and rifit, but better than the standard herbicide (anilofos and butachlor). Invariably, the lowest dose of the test herbicide (pretilachlor 0.5 kg ha-1) did not inhibit either the weed seed germination or weed growth, might probably be a sublethal dose for the weed species present in the present study. The same trend was observed in both the seasons. Sanjoy Saha and Rao (2008) also have reported an increase in weed dry weight as the crop growth advanced.

Weed dry weight

Pre emergence application of Pretilachlor 3.0 kg ha-1 registered lower weed biomass as a result

Table 2. Effect of treatments on dry weight (kg ha-1) of total weeds Second season (summer)

First season (rabi) Treatments

Active tillering

Panicle intiation

Harvest

Active tillering

Panicle intiation

Harvest

Pretilachlor 0.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 0.75kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 3.0 kg ha-1 Rifit0.75 kg ha-1 Anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1 Butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1 Handweeding twice Unweeded control SEd CD (P=0.05)

73.1 44.4 40.6 34.2 32.9 43.1 50.3 49.3 38.6 142.0 11.3 23.7

175.0 138.0 84.8 72.7 62.6 124.0 142.0 167.0 80.6 222.0 14.0 29.0

325 277 215 193 188 256 265 273 221 395 32 69

96.2 79.4 61.2 55.3 38.8 68.2 68.4 57.8 17.8 175.0 7.8 16.3

246.0 154.0 92.4 89.7 63.6 129.0 105.0 86.4 85.7 347.0 14.0 29.0

290.0 167.0 154.0 105.0 94.4 216.0 173.0 162.0 122.0 472.0 45.0 95.0

Herbicide treatment were followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAT

140 Weed control efficiency

growth in rabi season in contrast to summer season where there was increase in weed control efficiency as the crop growth stage progressed. Invariably higher dose of pretilachlor (3.0,1.5,1.0 kg ha-1) enhanced the weed control efficiency as against the anilofos, butachlor and rifit. The same trend was observed in all growth stages in summer season also.

Analysis of weed control efficiency is important because it is directly correlated with yield (Table 3). Saha Sanjoy (2006) stated that 43.2% yield loss in rice due to severe crop weed competition. The data on weed control efficiency revealed that there was general decrease in weed control efficiency over stages of

Table 3. Weed control efficiency (%) of various weed control treatments First season (rabi) Treatment

Pretilachlor 0.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 0.75kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 3.0 kg ha-1 Rifit0.75 kg ha-1 Anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1 Butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1 Handweeding twice Unweeded control

Active tillering

Panicle intiation

48.8 68.9 71.6 76.1 77.0 69.8 64.7 65.5 72.9 -

21.3 37.9 61.9 67.4 71.9 44.0 36.2 25.0 63.8 -

Harvest 17.6 29.8 45.6 51.5 52.4 35.2 32.8 30.9 43.9 -

Second season (summer) Active tillering 45.0 54.6 65.0 68.4 77.8 61.0 60.9 66.9 94.8 -

Panicle intiation 29.1 55.6 73.3 74.9 81.7 62.8 69.7 75.1 75.3 -

Harvest 38.6 64.6 67.4 77.8 80.0 54.2 63.3 65.6 74.1 -

Herbicide treatment were followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAT

Phytotoxicity -1

Pretilachlor at 1.5 and 3.0 kg ha exhibited severe crop phytotoxicity, which affected crop growth adversely. No crop phytotoxicity was seen with Pretilachlor at 1.0 kg ha-1, 0.75 kg ha-1 and other standard herbicides viz., butachlor, anilofos and rifit (Table 2). Even though Pretilachlor at 3.0 and 1.5 kg ha-1 recorded lower weed density, due to crop phytotoxicity crop yields were reduced . Pretilachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 recorded higher yield, which was on par with pretilachlor 0.75 kg ha-1, butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1, anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1, rifit 0.75 kg ha-1 and hand weeding twice. Correlation analysis

Simple correlation between weed characters and plant characters were calculated assuming a cause and effect relationship. All the growth and yield component correlated significantly and positively with

grain yield in both seasons, except plant height in the rabi season (Table 4). However, the association was the closest during summer season, indicating that these parameters studied were the yield contributing factor in summer than in rabi. Among the parameters, leaf area index and grains panicle -1 associated maximum with grain yield followed by tillers and panicles in both the seasons. Herbicide residue analysis

The herbicide residues in the post harvest soil, rice grain and straw analysed for various doses of pretilachlor during rabi, indicated that the residue were below detectable levels (Table 5). During summer all other treatments, except the highest dose of pretilachlor recorded the terminal residues below detectable levels in grain, straw and post harvest soil. Highest dose of pretilachlor 3.0 kg ha-1

Table 4. Correlation coefficient between weed character and crop (Rice) Treatment

Grain yield

Weed DMP

-0.804**

Weed population

Weed DMP

Weed population

Plant height at harvest

Tillers at harvest

LAI at flowering

-0.877**

0.890**

Plant height at harvest

0.698**

-0.483**

-0.546**

Tillers at harvest

0.776**

-0.675**

-0.677**

0.886**

LAI at flowering

0.872**

-0.668**

0.754**

0.896**

0.892**

Productive tillers

0.746**

-0.612**

-0.678**

0.934**

0.907**

0.911**

Thousand grain weight

0.670**

-0.510**

-0.606**

0.756**

0.758**

0.782**

Productive tillers

1000 grain weight

0.771**

0.708**

** significant at 0.01%

registered minimum residues in paddy straw and post harvest soil. As such there was no residue build up either in plant produce or rice soil. The

same results were observed in anilofos and no detectable amount was found in the soil at harvest of the crop (Krishnamurthi, 2001)

141 Table 5. Effect of treatments on yield attributes and yield (kg ha-1) of rice Treatment

First season (rabi)

Second season (summer)

Panicles Yield Panicles Yield (no m-2) (kg ha-1) (no m-2) (kg ha-1) Pretilachlor 0.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 0.75kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 1.5 kg ha-1 Pretilachlor 3.0 kg ha-1 Rifit 0.75 kg ha-1 Anilofos 0.4 kg ha-1 Butachlor 1.25 kg ha-1 Hand weeding twice Unweeded control SEd 27.3 CD (P=0.05)

240 315 315 249 256 274 280 286 315 235 187 57.4

5249 5580 5737 5395 5292 5522 5524 5466 5680 3047 3.8 393

304 320 345 314 309 326 334 336 341 289 142 7.9

4977 5588 5822 5417 5296 5515 5491 5566 5800 2773 298

Herbicide treatment were followed by one hand weeding at 45 DAT

Yield and yield attributes

The grain yield of rice was significantly influenced by the weed control treatments over unweeded control (Table 5). The grain yield ranged from 3047 to 5737 and from 2773 to 5822 kg ha -1 during rabi and summer respectively. The highest grain yield of 5737 and 5822 kg ha-1 were obtained with pretilachlor at 1.0 kg ha-1 during rabi and summer respectively. This was due to reduced weed population, dry weight and no residual effect in the corresponding season. It enhanced the uptake of nutrients by crop coupled with growth characters and yield favouring attributes. The most important factors deciding the grain yield

viz., panicles m-2 (no.), panicle length, grains panicle1 and 1000 grain weight were the highest with pretilachlor at 1.0 kg ha -1. Hand weeding twice followed the treatment T3 and this might be due to increased competition free environment with no crop toxicity and consequent growth and increase in yield parameters and yield. Conclusion It can be concluded that pre emergence application of pretilachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 with a hand weeding at 45 DAT provided better weed control and resulted in increased yield and economics of transplanted rice, compared to the recommended weed control methods. References Sunada Dev, T., Sounda, G. and Bandyopadhyay, P. 2009. Effect of irrigation and herbicide on growth, yield and water use efficiency of transplanted hybrid rice under new alluvial zone of West Bengal. Indian Agriculturist. 53: 85. Singh, R.N., Garg, D.K. and Jeswani, M.D. 2001. Integrated pest management in rice. Pesticide Information, Jan. - March, 1-5. Krishnamurthi,V.V. 2001. Evaluation of anilofos and oxadiazone residues in transplanted rice. Madras Agric.J.,. 85: 183. Sanjoy Saha and Rao, K.S. 2010.Evaluation of Bensulfuron –methyl for weed control in wet direct sown summer rice. Oryza, 47: 38-41. Saha Sanjoy 2006. Efficacy of herbicides in wet direct – sown summer rice. Indian J .Weed Sci., 38: 45-48

Received: December 29, 2009; Accepted: June 15, 2010

12 151 09 article final.pmd

Weed Control in Transplanted Rice-Rice Cropping System. M. Suganthi*, O.S. ..... Effect of irrigation and herbicide on growth, yield and water use efficiency of ...

38KB Sizes 0 Downloads 268 Views

Recommend Documents

12 76 09 article Final.pmd
super phosphate (SSP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP) @ 0, 30 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with ...

KHS-24-09-151.pdf
Trades Training. Mr Alexander-Crawford advised Tertiary Education Commission has provisionally. approved funding support for 30 learners over a two year ...

2 13 09 article final.pmd
genotypes + 5 checks namely, KRL 19, HD 2009,. PBW 343, HD 4530 and Kharchia 65) maintained at the Division of Crop Improvement, Central Soil.

5 36 09 article final.pmd
x 15 cm between rows and plants respectively during summer, 2005. Each of the ..... Kukadia, M.U., Desai, K.B., Desai, M.S., Patel, R.H. and. Gupta, V.K.1983.

20 144 09 article Final.pmd
such as S, Zn and B are being observed in many parts of the country (Jahiruddin et al., 1995). .... Devpt., 8: 65-68. Chowdhury, M.M.U., Ullah, M.H., Rahman, M.A. and Islam,. M. S. 2000. Effect of boron and nitrogen fertilization on cowpea growth, no

22 31 09 article Final.pmd
Experiments were conducted at the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu. Agricultural University, Coimbatore to assess the compatibility of ...

10 133 09 article final.pmd
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Seed Centre. Tamil Nadu .... M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,. Coimbatore. Ridley, H.N. ...

17 146 09 article final.pmd
*Corresponding author email:[email protected]. Madras Agric. J., 97 (4-6): 157-160, June 2010. Combination of Flubendiamide + Thiacloprid 480 ..... recorded higher seed cotton yield (1946 kg ha-1) compared to standard checks of spinosad and. T

26 138 09 article final.pmd
*Corresponding author email: [email protected]. Madras Agric. J., 97 (1-3): .... at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm level to find out the recovery of thiacloprid.

1 10 09 article final.pmd
Studies were conducted to find out the influence of presowing treatments on germination and seedling vigour of 9 month-old teak drupes (fruit with seed). The presowing treatments included were soaking in water followed by drying (S-D) for 6days at 12

4 152 09 article final.pmd
C. procera contains resin, cardenolids, steroid glucosides, useharin, calotoxin, and calactin. Leaves and stalks contains a bioactive chemical constituents of sterols, resins, cardenolides, calotropin, calotropagenin etc., In flower, the chemical con

10 84 09 article final.pmd
Field investigation was carried out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during summer 2006 and winter 2006-2007 to elicit information on the effect of intercropping system, inorganic fertilizers, biofertilizers and leaf extract sp

2 98 09 article final.pmd
long leaves with high leaf stem ratio than the existing variety CO 2. As the palatability is very high and also free from anti nutritional factors, the milch animals, sheep, goats, pigs and Emu birds relish the fodder without rejection. As it is tole

10 133 09 article final.pmd
tiger lily or tiger claws, is an important medicinal plant of the Tropics (Ridley, 1924). The glory lily is native to both Asia and Africa. Paramasivam and. Arumugam, (1991) reported that major problems in the cultivation of glory lily were scarcity

28 143 09 article final.pmd
the pests crossed economic threshold level (ETL) during 60 DAS (days after sowing) and untreated check plots were maintained with water spray. Two.

21 65 09 article final.pmd
management, health control and total knowledge regarding dairy farming. The available dairy .... opinion that information on breeding were of less useful and ...

1 73 09 article final.pmd
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri (Karnataka), during rabi seasons of 2004-05 and 2005-06 to study the growth and dry matter production in ashwagandha as influenced by spacings and fertilizer levels. The resu

7 64 09 article final.pmd
Azospirillum biofertilizer, using 10% wheat flour gruel on seed and seedling quality characters including storability was evaluated in a study conducted with sesame cv CO1. ... material for the study. The field experiments and laboratory experiments

11 135 09 article final.pmd
Studies were under taken to standardize the concentration of salt solution for upgrading. CORH 3 hybrid rice and its parental line seeds through floatation technique in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University

16 145 09 article final.pmd
... out with the var. ADT 43 in plots of 5 x 5 m ... sine values and the population number into square root values. .... exposure, uptake of residues by contact with.

23 92 09 article final.pmd
*Corresponding author email: [email protected]. Madras Agric. ... hosts (Farish, 1965). Among the insect orders,. Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera attract more mites. The Mesostigmata (Acari) mites are in general ... Host inse

5 153 09 article final.pmd
minimum towards divergence were leaf width, TSS, pseudostem girth, leaves per plant, suckers per plant, hand weight, pulp/peel ratio, fruit volume and acidity. Key words: banana, genetic divergence, cluster analysis, genotypes. The use of Mahalanobis

8 109 09 article final.pmd
several unique characteristics, it finds an important place in the farming systems adopted by small holders farmers in a larger number of developing countries. Seed protein content in pigeonpea. (approximately 21%) compares well with that of other im

18 150 09 article final.pmd
Termite. (Insecta:Isoptera) Fauna of Gujarat and Rajasthan-. Present state of Knowledge. Records of the. Zoological Survey of India, 223: 73. Stansly, P.A., Nan-Yao Su. and Conner, J.M. 2001. Management of subterranean termites, Reticulitermes spp. (