A Brief Look at a 240-Year History of the Chattanooga Area

December 15,, 2014 Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.

Often, it seems, things change dramatically even within just a single short generation

December 15, 2014 Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.

Status of the Tri-State Area in 1773 - other than the introduction of European animals and diseases (and their resulting destabilization), contact with Conquistadors almost 240 years prior had little lasting local impact among the interior Aboriginal tribesmen of what is now the Tri-State area - periodic European contact over the next couple of centuries only minimally affected l local l Ab Aboriginal i i l commerce, culture, lt technology t h l or daily d il lif life - over time Cherokees overpowered the Coosa to the south and dominated other Aboriginal tribes north to the Ohio River - the French and Indian War (Fort Loudon) had ended over a decade previously and under British treaty, the Cherokees were in undisputed control of the entire Tri-State area, etc. g more discontent over - the American Colonies were becoming such things as the Stamp Act, the Boston Massacre was two years previous and the Tea Act and Boston Tea Party were on - there were very few European “settlers” around here; instead most Europeans in the area were traders / trappers / hunters - the Cherokees were still relatively primitive and f famed d Ch Cherokee k lilinguist, i t Sequoyah, had not even been born yet



December 15, 2014



Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.



What happened around here from 1773 to 1813? - the American Colonies established their independence from the British Empire (allies of the Cherokees), so the Cherokees were compelled to negotiate new treaties with (and cede territory to) the United States Federal Government (which sought removal) - in addition to Georgia and North Carolina, Tennessee had also become a State whose territory extended into Cherokee land - the more respectable Cherokees at Chota had become much g in the Tri-State area more “civilized” than the Chickamaugas - former British Cherokee Agent John McDonald was under a sort of “house-arrest” in this area with his Eastgate plantation, Chattanooga Creek tannery and cabins (including at Rossville) - the Federal Road(s) brought Europeans and their technology into this area and exposed them to more Cherokees - Vann's Diamond Hill was the Cherokee Nation showplace - the War of 1812 exposed more young Cherokees to the Europeans and their American cities, such as New Orleans, Mobile and Charleston, etc. •

December 15, 2014



Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.



and things also changed a lot from 1813 to 1853 - although the Cherokees appeared firmly entrenched in 1813, within a generation they were scattered, Removed or had died along the Trail of Tears, despite their becoming Christianized, civilized, literate (using an unprecedented syllabary developed by Sequoyah) and operating under Constitution government - chartered in 1819, Hamilton County was expanded in 1838 to encompass formerly Cherokee territory and Vannsville (then renamed Harrison) became the new County seat - ambitious Cherokee plans for a canal system connecting the Tennessee Valley to the Port of Mobile collapsed when the W&ARR instead took passengers and freight out to the Port of Savannah via regular service to Atlanta and Augusta - the th discovery di off iiron, copper and d other th ores as wellll as abundant coal, led to development of iron and coke-based industries, with smelting, foundries, casting and metal-working, supplementing tanning and other industries in the Tri-State area - in addition to trains, Chattanooga enjoyed steamboat service and stages as well as newspapers and telegraph service - pioneer optimism and enthusiasm sa area ea cou could d not o have a e see seen in this what would come to this area in just a few more short years



December 15, 2014



Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.



We know how much changed from 1853 to 1893 - as with the Cherokees, the latest technologies were used to wreak havoc on the new local population during the WBS - however, Union occupation also led to the first real local water system and the first local indoor plumbing (toilets) - entrepreneurial former Union officers returned here to participate in a local economic revolution; others joined them to become inventors, industrialists, developers, bankers, merchants, technicians and a labor force to implement it: former slaves also flocked here for jobs - the Hamilton County Seat was moved to booming Chattanooga and thus James County was born, with the Seat of this fledgling County at Harrison soon being moved east to the Ooltewah rail town - attempts to tame the Grand Canyon of the Tennessee River for improved navigation - Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military Park became the first such in America - water wheels and steam were joined by electrical power; newspapers, photography, publishing bli hi and d th the ttelegraph l h were jjoined i d iin th the T Tri-State i St t area by b telephone t l h technology t h l - the Walnut Street Bridge spanned the mighty Tennessee River December 15, 2014 Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.

From 1893 to 1933 local technology boomed

- although the Tri-State area landscape was transformed by widespread 19th Century agriculture, mining roads, mining, roads railroads railroads, towns to ns and cities, cities etc., etc the next ne t few fe decades were ere e even en more significant significant: more and better roads and bridges, even airports and nautical navigational improvements, dams, locks and reservoirs and electrical power generation, transmission and distribution as well as more and more major local heavy manufacturing facilities - the “Better Roads” movement was followed by the RFD Act, then the automobile, the Lincoln Highway (and locally by the Dixie Highway and Lee Highway), as well as fuel tax-based road-building and maintenance revenues, AASHTO and the current numbered State and US Highways - the Spanish-American War led to creation of the Fort Oglethorpe Cavalry Post - the first powered flight in 1903 was soon followed by fighters and multi-engine bombers in the Great War and by 1933 1933, the Ford Tri-Motor and locally locally, Marr Field (soon to be replaced by Lovell Field) - locally, the Walnut Street Bridge was also joined by the Chief John Ross (Market Street) Bridge - burgeoning local industrialization led to creation of the Chattanooga Manufacturers Association (as well as state and national counterparts) as well as the birth of the now 90-year-old Chattanooga Engineers Club •

December 15,, 2014



Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.



From 1933 to 1973 there were ups and downs - there was a Depression Depression, TVA TVA, EPB EPB, World War II II, Korean War and Vietnam; desegregation and the Interstate Highway System; Beatniks became Hippies, Civil Rights and Anti-War movements, followed by the birth of the contemporary Environmental movement, CWA and Roe vs. Wade - the automobile went from the Deuce Coupe to the M t Mustang Mach M h I (with ( ith more powerful f l V8 engines i and automatic transmissions, 8-track stereos, air conditioning and a host of creature comforts, etc.) and more, bigger and better cars required even better roads and bridges g and other infrastructure - the U.S. Federal Government grew ever larger and more intrusive with more and more regulations and spending on roads, rural electrification and water, traffic and etc., creating suburban sprawl - in Chattanooga, manufacturing matured and slowed; downtown went from big and exciting to old and worn as suburban shopping malls (Eastgate and Northgate) reduced the downtown shopping - nationally, aeronautics went from bi-planes to mono-planes to jet-power to rockets and the space race: by 1960 man was orbiting the earth and by the end of that decade even to the moon and back - Lovell Field was opened, enlarged and enhanced; passenger air travel here and elsewhere went from Tri-Motor, to DC-3, to Constellation, to Boeing 707, 727, 737 and 757; private planes likewise •

December 15,, 2014



Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.



Things also certainly changed from 1973 to 2013 - Chattanooga went from the dirtiest industrial City in America to the Lean and Green City it is today - regional water and wastewater planning resulted in MBWWTP becoming a regional facility, serving communities in two states and four counties as urbanizing areas became sanitary sewer-served - air quality regulations ended much of the local heavy industry as it had been known known, resulting in a Much-improved air quality, but a struggling economy that has now generally recovered somewhat - who would have thought the wound-down V.A.A.P. would be assembling Volkswagen automobiles? - engineering i i d done b by slide lid rule l gave way tto calculators l l t and d powerful f l microcomputers i t and d software ft and standard desk phones have yielded to wireless telecommunications and Gig-City broad-band - the Tri-State area is now defined as the 16-County Thrive 2055 region and Chattanooga is once again a growing community with a vibrant economy, but un- and under-employment yet remain - the Tennessee River waterfront has again been leveraged, but the Chickamauga Lock is an issue; but local natural, scenic, cultural and historic opportunities attract visitors from near and far g is also re-embracing g its railroad heritage g with the Tennessee Valley y Railroad Museum - Chattanooga - Chattanooga has a powerful and reliable electrical power grid unparalleled in many respects via long-term investments by both TVA and the local EPB, facilitating new industries - Chattanooga is also experiencing a wave of 21st Century entrepreneurial spirit in many respects even better than anything ever before it, creating unimaginable new kinds of opportunities and technologies and economic growth

December 15,, 2014 Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.

Realize, also that it is not only Chattanooga that has changed over the last couple of centuries - The Gapminder Foundation is a Swedish Health and Development Research Non-Profit which is focused on the use of available data and statistical analysis to plot trends and measure changes on in the health and wealth of nations, both in past decades and centuries as well as identifying factors that can potentially improve outcomes or serve as obstacles of desired improvements - Dr. Hans Rosling is a Swedish Medical Doctor, academic, statistician and presenter, Professor of International Health at the Karolinska Institute and co-founder and is chairman of the Gapminder Foundation, which developed the “Trendalyzer” software system and spokesman for Gapminder

December 15,, 2014 Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.

Now: what might things may be like here in 2053: - continued regionalization will improve the connectivity among Chattanooga, Chattanooga Cleveland and Dalton and alter not only their character, but that of all the communities within their spheres of influence - continued digitization of information, analysis and intelligence will alter the workplace for many in Information-based employment and dramatically reduce the need for regular work commuting - a balance between technically possibility and economic feasibility will lead to improvements in the quality of air, water, soils and environmental habitat in the most developed world economies as incremental improvements in the quality of life become smaller, smarter and more cost-effective - increasing urbanization and increasing ruralization will result in a general de-suburbanization - improved cradle-to-grave analysis and cost-assessment will alter the manufacture, shipment, use, maintenance, re-cycling and disposal of wide-ranging both consumables and durable goods - chronic international governmental deficits and debt must be replaced with sustainability - I-75 by-pass of Chattanooga? north Atlanta airport in the greater Chattanooga area? Tennessee River water to Atlanta? will the VW site be active or marketed for re-development?

December 15,, 2014 Terry D. Reynolds, A.I.C.P.

2014-12-15 Chattanooga Engineers Club Presentation.pdf ...

compelled to negotiate new treaties with (and cede territory to). the United States Federal Government (which sought removal). - in addition to Georgia and North Carolina, Tennessee had also. become a State whose territory extended into Cherokee land. - the more respectable Cherokees at Chota had become much.

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