TCRP PROJECT H-52

Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation

A CASE STUDY FOR: ConnDOT CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HARTFORD, CT

JULY 15, 2016

Prepared for:

Transit Cooperative Research Program Transportation Research Board National Research Council

LIMITED USE DOCUMENT This working paper, not released for publication, is furnished only to members of, or participants in the work of, the Transit Cooperative Research Program. It is to be regarded as fully privileged, and dissemination of the information included therein must be approved by the TCRP.

Prepared by:

In association with: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Kathryn Coffel Consulting, LLC

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. ii List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ ii Connecticut Department of Transportation CTfastrak Bus Rapid Transit ........................... 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1 Background ................................................................................................................................. 1 Brief Description of ConnDOT .............................................................................................. 1 Governance ............................................................................................................................. 2 Transit Modes ......................................................................................................................... 2 Park-and-Ride ......................................................................................................................... 3 CTfastrak Park-and-Ride ........................................................................................................ 4 Planning and Estimating Demand for Parking............................................................................ 5 Methodology to Estimate Demand ......................................................................................... 5 Benefit-Cost Analysis ............................................................................................................. 7 Factors That Influence Demand .............................................................................................. 7 Predicted versus Actual Experience........................................................................................ 8 Expanding Park-and-Ride Capacity........................................................................................ 8 Environmental Justice/Title VI ............................................................................................... 8 Summary—Notable Practices ..................................................................................................... 8 Summary—Lessons Learned ...................................................................................................... 9 Works Cited ................................................................................................................................. 10

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LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. ConnDOT Fares ................................................................................................................ 3 Table 2. ConnDOT Park-and-Ride Facilities and Spaces ............................................................... 3 Table 3. CTfastrak Parking Capacity .............................................................................................. 5

LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Various ConnDOT Logos................................................................................................ 1 Figure 2. CTfastrak Service Map .................................................................................................... 4

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CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INTRODUCTION The Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) provides a variety of public transportation services in local areas and regions in Connecticut and coordinates services with other public transportation agencies both in Connecticut and in adjacent states. ConnDOT was selected as a targeted case study due to its long, innovative history of including park-and-ride facilities in a majority of programmed major transportation projects since the 1970s and its recent innovative modeling of park-and-ride demand with the CTfastrak bus rapid transit (BRT) line. Case study efforts included phone-based interviews with ConnDOT staff involved in modeling park-and-ride demand and collection of data from various relevant websites.

BACKGROUND Brief Description of ConnDOT ConnDOT has statewide jurisdiction and reports services to the Federal Transit Administration’s Urban National Transit Database (Urban NTD) but is not the only public transportation agency in the state. The transit agency coordinates services with other public transportation agencies in Connecticut as well as adjacent states in the Northeastern United States. ConnDOT provides a variety of transit services under several monikers and in a variety of rural, small urban, and large urban contexts. Services include bus, commuter bus, bus rapid transit, commuter rail, ferry, and vanpool; all services use a uniform marketing brand to appear seamless to riders (see Figure 1). Figure 1. Various ConnDOT Logos CTrides is a transportation demand management program that also acts as a resource for connecting commuters to relevant public transportation providers. CTrail currently owns two commuter rail services and will soon add service on a third line: the New Haven Line (currently operated by Metro-North Railroad), Shore Line East (currently operated by Amtrak), and Hartford Line (a future line to be operated by a ConnDOT contractor). CTtransit is the ConnDOT-owned provider of local bus, commuter bus, and bus rapid transit in many locations and regions in the state. CTfastrak is a BRT service in central Connecticut; the service began operation in spring of 2015 on a primarily separated bus-only guideway at high frequency.

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Governance ConnDOT is a statewide agency involved in all modes of transportation. The agency’s Bureau of Public Transportation is ConnDOT’s lead on all matters related to public transportation services. The mission of the ConnDOT Bureau of Public Transportation is to develop, maintain, and operate a safe and efficient system of motor carrier and rail facilities for the movement of people and goods, such as bus transit, rail operations, and ridesharing programs. For ease of reading, this case study uses the term ConnDOT to specifically refer to the Bureau of Public Transportation. ConnDOT has varying levels of involvement in public transportation across the state. The transit agency serves populations and territory representing the full spectrum of rural to urban land development patterns. In some areas of the state, ConnDOT is the direct owner of public transportation services provided by contractors, and in other areas, the transit agency is indirectly involved through planning, research, and/or funding. There are 11 other Urban NTD reporting agencies in Connecticut. Transit Modes ConnDOT supports a variety of alternatives to driving alone, including express and local buses, two rail lines, and a statewide vanpool system, to reduce traffic congestion and improve mobility in Connecticut and throughout the region. ConnDOT services are provided through direct operations and through a variety of contracted services. Rail public transportation services carried about 40.3 million unlinked passenger trips in 2015 using a fleet of 405 electric cars and 68 push-pull cars. Bus ridership in fiscal year 2015 was 31.3 million unlinked passenger trips on state-owned fixed-route urban services; 743,000 trips on Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complimentary paratransit in state-owned urban services; and about 11.5 million on other urban, rural, and ADA system trips regardless of ownership. The bus fleet as of June 2016 consisted of 557 heavy-duty transit or commuter buses and 270 body-on-chassis light-duty buses or vans. ConnDOT services are provided in or between rural areas and six wholly or partially served urbanized areas:  Hartford, CT.  New Haven, CT.  Springfield, MA-CT.  Waterbury, CT.  Bridgeport-Stamford, CT-NY.  New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT. The U.S. Census Bureau (Census) estimated the population of Connecticut to be 3,574,118 in 2010 and 3,590,886 in 2015. Therefore, the population increased by 16,768 (0.5 percent) in the five-year period; the population of the United States increased 4.1 percent during the same time period. Eighty-five percent of Connecticut’s population resides in urban areas; the other 15 percent is rural. The 2014 American Community Survey estimates 11 percent of the population is in poverty (much lower than national average). About 68 percent of the population age 16 and over is in the labor force. The mean travel time to work was 25.1 minutes (slightly 2

lower than national average). Seventy-nine percent of commuters drove alone to work (slightly higher than national average), 8 percent carpooled, 5 percent used public transportation, 3 percent walked, 1 percent used other means, and 4 percent worked primarily at home. Table 1 documents ConnDOT’s fares for fixed-route transit services. Table 1. ConnDOT Fares Service Local Bus 2-Hour Local Bus Day Pass Hartford Express Bus Zone 2

One Way Fare $1.50 $3.00 $2.70

Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 I-Bus Express Bus 2-Hour Day Pass

$3.50 $4.30 $5.15 $3.00 $6.00

Park-and-Ride ConnDOT began including park-and-ride facilities in most transportation projects affecting highway intersections in the 1970s to facilitate carpool, vanpool, and transit use during periods of fuel shortage. The relative additional cost to incorporate a park-and-ride facility into programmed construction projects was generally considered low and the benefits were considered worthwhile. The transit agency continues to incorporate park-and-ride facilities where feasible. The transit agency now has 237 park-and-ride facilities with 34,021 parking spaces (see Table 2). Of those facilities, 98 percent are lit, 96 percent are paved, 30 percent have shelter(s), 26 percent receive express bus service, and 26 percent receive local bus service. (Please note that the percent amounts are summary statistics and not mutually exclusive.) Table 2. ConnDOT Park-and-Ride Facilities and Spaces Stations/Lots Spaces Bus 82 10,284* Rail 61 18,410* Ferry 2 80* Other (non-transit) 92 5,247* 237 34,021 Total *May include spaces not served directly by ConnDOT services.

ConnDOT’s network of park-and-ride facilities serves transit riders and drivers alike. The 237 facilities are found in a variety of locations across the state, but most occupy space in the right of way adjacent to highway intersections or at leased private lots:  Eight have both express and local bus service.  37 have express bus service only. 3



37 have local bus service only.

CTfastrak Park-and-Ride The case study of ConnDOT specifically targeted information regarding how the transit agency estimated demand for CTfastrak BRT services. CTfastrak is the first instance of BRT in Connecticut and began operation in spring of 2015. The route has 10 stations and uses a 9.4-mile separated guideway. Buses operate as frequently as every four minutes during rush hour, and travel time is under 30 minutes end-to-end. Limited surface parking is available at no cost at most stations. CTtransit local and express bus routes provide access to CTfastrak from nine parkand-ride facilities with a total capacity of 1,614 spaces. The service connects a corridor region of 10 communities (see Figure 2). Parking is free of charge and first-come, first-served. In addition, ConnDOT formed an agreement with the City of New Britain allowing riders to park in a municipal parking garage for a reduced rate. Weekend parking is free in the garage.

Figure 2. CTfastrak Service Map Table 3 shows available parking at CTfastrak stations and park-and-ride facilities.

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Table 3. CTfastrak Parking Capacity Community

Location Downtown New Britain Station Note: Kiss-and-ride passenger drop-off and pick-up locations on Truman Overpass/Route 71 and Main Street New Britain East Street Station Corbin Park & Ride Newington Junction Station Newington Cedar Street Station Elmwood Station West Hartford Flatbush Avenue Station Hartford Parkville Station Waterbury Waterbury/Hamilton Avenue Park & Ride Rt. 70 (Exit 26) Park & Ride Cheshire Cheshire/Milldale Park & Ride Southington Southington/Plantsville Park & Ride Lake Avenue Park & Ride Bristol Todd Street Park & Ride Manchester Spencer Street Park & Ride East Hartford Park & Ride East Hartford CTfastrak 121 bus stop located 0.2 mile north on Main Street at the corner of Main Street and Silver Lane Source: http://ctfastrak.com/how-to-ride/where-to-park.

Parking Spaces Szczesny Municipal Parking Garage (weekday discounts with ticket; weekend parking free) 23 227 27 45 27 31 9 178 146 118 102 143 200 245 255

Researchers interviewed transit agency staff to understand the demand estimation process and how ridership and parking estimates compared to realized utilization in the first year of operation. Case study findings are presented in the following order: planning and estimating demand for parking, notable practices, and lessons learned.

PLANNING AND ESTIMATING DEMAND FOR PARKING ConnDOT has decades of experience developing park-and-ride facilities for carpool, vanpool, bus transit, and rail transit use. Transportation improvements at or near highway intersections, rail transit, or bus rapid transit facilities typically include construction of park-and-ride facilities on a right-of-way space-available basis. However, CTfastrak BRT was a new mode entirely for ConnDOT. Connecticut is a slow-growth state, and the new busway extended through existing population centers. Station sites were constrained and parking was accommodated after other station features. This section describes how ConnDOT estimated demand for parking in regard to CTfastrak BRT service. Methodology to Estimate Demand ConnDOT used a regional SUMMIT travel model to estimate ridership on CTfastrak. ConnDOT planners worked closely with Capitol Region Council of Governments planners to model ridership demand for the new BRT line and improved public transportation services. The model horizon year was 25 years out as per typical long-range transportation modeling. The modeling and planning process took place in the mid-2000s prior to many of the models now available,

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such as the Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA’s) STOPS model. ConnDOT will continue using the regional travel demand model for demand estimation but also intends to implement STOPS because it will help with reporting and grant requirements. The modeling process included assumptions for parking utilization. However, the model underestimated both total ridership and utilization of parking. ConnDOT conducted site intercept surveys at park-and-rides in late 2015, about six months after service began. It found a largerthan-anticipated portion of park-and-ride users had trip origins a significant distance away from CTfastrak stations. Users were willing to drive approximately half their trip and then park and ride CTfastrak to their destination. Higher-than-anticipated ridership resulted in excess demand for parking spaces at some park-and-ride facilities. ConnDOT has added parking spaces to accommodate excess demand in the few stations where space was available. Future major transit improvements are likely to follow the same planning and demand estimation process, but with adjusted assumptions for rider origins and access mode split. CTfastrak stations were all nearly landlocked by existing development. Surface parking was developed on a space-available basis, and kiss-and-ride, bike parking, and walkable access were modeled into each station. The modeling process revealed significantly higher potential demand for parking than ConnDOT knew could be developed with given resources and considering the balance of factors surrounding implementation of a new transit mode in a slow-growth urbanized area. Modeled demand and parking utilization estimates were taken and compared to site constraints; as-built parking capacity is roughly 10 percent the modeled estimate of demand at the average station. ConnDOT was not interested in using eminent domain to take property to construct larger stations, nor were funds available to construct multilevel parking structures. The transit agency did need to acquire some property to accommodate the busway and in cases where project development would result in a non-conforming adjacent land use. Amtrak sold ConnDOT a permanent easement for just over half of the double-track-width busway. ConnDOT developed the case for the new service based on modest parking and modest ridership estimates. CTfastrak BRT began operation in spring of 2015. Ridership quickly outpaced estimates of firstyear utilization in terms of total riders and parking utilization. The goal for year-one ridership was 11,800 one-way trips each weekday, and actual ridership was about 15,000 one-way trips. Surveys revealed that about 9,000 of the one-way boardings (60 percent) were net new one-way boardings for public transportation in central Connecticut. ConnDOT estimates that these new riders (~4,500) represent about a 20 percent growth in unique riders who most likely switched from driving alone. ConnDOT attributes the mode shift to creating a busway that increases the overall system pipeline to move people and the power of high-capacity, frequent transit to attract riders not willing to ride infrequent services with more complex schedules and transfers. ConnDOT does not have a formal definition of effective capacity for CTfastrak station parking facilities because parking is viewed as ancillary to successful BRT service. Some CTfastrak stations will become joint rail-BRT stations in the next five years. ConnDOT has developed parking structures for heavy or commuter rail modes in the past, but BRT was developed without such capacity intentionally. The transit agency may alter development around some stations long term by developing an adjacent surface lot with the potential to transition into a transit-oriented development (TOD) partnership with the private sector. For example,

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ConnDOT’s model found that parking demand at a particular station was for 350 spaces when the current station configuration accommodates significantly fewer spaces. The transit agency may look more closely at the situation to see if the road network could handle the increased traffic and if adjacent land has TOD potential, and ultimately consider a private-public partnership (P3) TOD. ConnDOT uses regular customer feedback to monitor how CTfastrak is performing and to consider future needs. The transit agency did not operate a demonstration BRT service to observe potential demand since no dedicated busway was available prior to the project. Planners used, and continue to use, Census journey-to-work flow data to get a good visual handle of the potential markets for additional or refined services. ConnDOT conducts periodic origindestination surveys to inform planning for public transportation services. ConnDOT becomes aware of parking constraints through staff observation, customer feedback, and surveys. The transit agency has partnered with local governments, such as the City of New Britain, to provide low-cost additional park-and-ride spaces to transit riders by written agreement. ConnDOT looks forward to future opportunities to improve services and creative P3 partnerships in TOD, if such opportunities present themselves. Benefit-Cost Analysis ConnDOT deliberately chose not to employ a formal benefit-cost planning tool specific to parking capacity at BRT stations for two reasons. First, station sites were extremely space constrained by surrounding land use. Second, ConnDOT carefully managed stakeholder and public sentiment for the project and early on decided multilevel structures were high risk because they would significantly increase project costs. ConnDOT routinely balances its role as both a service planner/operator and a state agency. ConnDOT’s ability and desire to affect local politics is limited; therefore, the transit agency models demand for services and strategically communicates needs to regional and local stakeholders. Parking facility maintenance is included in the financial management of each station’s state of good repair. Parking is free of charge at CTfastrak stations. Costs to operate and maintain the park-and-rides are distributed across the entire BRT line and related local and express bus services. Factors That Influence Demand The region around CTfastrak is by most measures a very mature transportation system with an established development pattern. Travel patterns stay fairly consistent year to year as economic growth is low, and although sprawling suburban development exists, such areas are not rapidly expanding. Developing scenarios for CTfastrak in the regional SUMMIT travel model was straightforward since the service primarily was designed to enlarge the overall capacity of the transportation network with a dedicated busway and high-capacity transit for the existing population. Long-term population change will likely have some positive impact on BRT ridership but was not the primary project impetus.

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The modeling process included assumptions for parking utilization. However, the model underestimated both total ridership and utilization of parking. ConnDOT has identified a larger-thananticipated portion of park-and-ride users with trip origins a significant distance away from CTfastrak stations. These users are willing to drive approximately half their trip and then park and ride CTfastrak to their destinations. Predicted versus Actual Experience CTfastrak ridership was estimated to be 11,800 one-way trips each weekday in year one. Actual ridership in year one was nearly 15,000 one-way trips. Most station parking facilities are highly utilized. ConnDOT expected parking to be in high demand since stations were space constrained, so capacity was limited compared to modeled potential demand. ConnDOT planners were challenged by modeling BRT with existing travel demand models. The statewide model was found to be too gross in predictions for modeling a 10-mile busway. The regional travel demand model that existed at the beginning of CTfastrak planning did not incorporate enough of the real factors that influence BRT transit ridership. Staff looked into using the New Starts model that predated FTA’s STOPS model and were not convinced by the tool at that time (ConnDOT is now implementing STOPS concurrent to SUMMIT). ConnDOT and Capitol Region Council of Governments planners decided to collaborate on an adapted version of the regional travel demand model SUMMIT. ConnDOT collected first-year survey data and now knows that SUMMIT over-predicted demand for some population cohorts, such as suburban riders, and under-predicted for some other cohorts, such as bicyclists. Expanding Park-and-Ride Capacity Some CTfastrak stations will become joint rail-BRT stations in the next five years. ConnDOT has developed parking structures for heavy or commuter rail modes in the past, but BRT was developed without such capacity intentionally. Parking facility expansion for CTfastrak is very unlikely to occur on station sites. However, the transit agency may find ways to work with local public- and private-sector partners to develop adjacent surface lots with future TOD potential through P3s. Environmental Justice/Title VI ConnDOT always includes environmental justice (EJ) and Title VI considerations in long-range plans for public transportation service and facility development. The transit agency has placed a special emphasis on EJ and Title VI over the last 10 years. CTfastrak planners investigated both matters and incorporated findings into the final design and operation.

SUMMARY—NOTABLE PRACTICES ConnDOT has several notable practices in planning and managing park-and-rides, including:  ConnDOT includes park-and-ride facilities in most transportation projects affecting either highway intersections or high-capacity transit services.  ConnDOT has participated in a couple of transit-oriented development proposals tied in with rail stations. The transit agency may consider other P3 TOD opportunities in the

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 

future, such as redeveloping a park-and-ride facility near a high-value highway intersection or CTfastrak BRT station. ConnDOT provides park-and-ride facilities and related public transportation services independently but does allow shared use of facilities by local or regional public agencies, churches, and non-profit organizations. ConnDOT understands how to adjust service development based on the nuanced difference between high-growth or high-congestion areas compared to low-growth and moderately congested areas. CTfastrak BRT serves the low-growth Hartford region, so looking 25 years into the future with 1.5 percent growth in travel demand meant the busway was needed, but in a moderate-demand way. The transit agency was careful to communicate clearly with stakeholders and the public to build reasonable expectations of what successful implementation and operations would look like and why the project was warranted.

SUMMARY—LESSONS LEARNED ConnDOT has several lessons learned from its work with CTfastrak and planning and managing other park-and-ride facilities:  It is easier to plan for additional parking spaces early on in the planning of park-andrides, rather than to retrofit additional spaces down the road, after the facility is built.  ConnDOT has numerous cameras at CTfastrak stations and parking areas and also has a pilot program studying the effectiveness of security cameras at one remote park-and-ride facility. Adequate lighting is a high priority at every park-and-ride facility.  Planning and modeling to estimate demand for park-and-ride services must consider that rider willingness to use transit may vary by mode in unanticipated ways. ConnDOT found a larger-than-anticipated portion of park-and-ride users were willing to drive approximately half their trip and then park and ride CTfastrak BRT to complete their trip than were willing to do so when only frequent local or express bus on public roadways was available.

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WORKS CITED American Public Transit Association. Public Transportation Infrastructure Database—2014 Edition. www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Pages/OtherAPTAStatistics.aspx. Accessed Dec. 8, 2015. Connecticut Department of Transportation (A). Guide to Park-and-Ride Locations. www.ct.gov/dot/cwp/view.asp?a=1390&Q=259406. Accessed Dec. 8, 2015. Connecticut Department of Transportation (B). CTfastrak Website. http://ctfastrak.com/. Accessed Jan. 7, 2016. Connecticut Department of Transportation (C). CTFastrak Where to Park. ctfastrak.com/how-to-ride/where-to-park. Accessed Jun. 6, 2016. Federal Transit Administration. 2014 Urban National Transit Database, Annual Agency Profiles #10045, #10048, #10055, #10056, #10102, #10128, and #10230. www.transit.dot.gov/ntd/transit-agency-profiles. Accessed Jun. 6, 2016.

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A CASE STUDY FOR: ConnDOT

Jul 15, 2016 - The Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) provides a variety of public transportation services in local areas and regions in Connecticut and coordinates services with other public transportation agencies both in Connecticut and in adjacent states. ConnDOT was selected as a targeted case ...

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