IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2014, Pg: 303-308

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT) www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

A Review on Prevention of Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad-hoc Network Priyanka Sharma1, Dr. H.P.Sinha2, Er. Abhay Bindal3. 1 M.Tech Final Year Student, Deptt. Of ECE, MMEC, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India [email protected] 2 Professor, Deptt. Of ECE, MMEC, MMU, Mullana, Ambala Haryana, India [email protected] 3 Assistant Professor, Deptt. Of ECE, MMEC, MMU, Mullana, Ambala Haryana, India [email protected]

Abstract: Security is one of the major issues in Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) because of its inherent liabilities. Its infrastructureless network with dynamic topology pose a number of challenges to security design and makes it vulnerable for different types of security attacks. In wormhole attack a pair of colluding nodes makes a tunnel using a high speed network. These colluding nodes create an illusion that the two remote nodes of a MANET are directly connected through nodes that appear to be neighbours but are actually distant from one another. This paper is a review of some ways to prevent the wormhole attack.

Keywords: MANET, Ad-hoc, AODV, RREQ, RREP, DoS, MHA.

1. Introduction An Ad-Hoc network is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes and wireless communication network is used to connect these mobile nodes. This type of network is known as Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET). Each device in a MANET is free to move independently. MANET is an infrastructure less network with no fixed BS for communication. Intermediate mobile nodes act as router to deliver the packets between the two nodes. So, MANET is a highly dynamic network and hence more vulnerable to attack. Nodes in an Ad-hoc networks are computing and communication devices, which can be laptop computers, PDAs, mobile phones, or even sensors that communicate with each other over wireless links and works in a distributed manner in order to provide the network functionality. Applications of Ad-hoc networks include military communication, emergency relief operations, commercial and educational use in remote areas, and in meetings and other situations where the networking is mission oriented and communication based.

2. Security Goals Security services include the functionality required to provide a secure networking environment. The main security service can be summarized as follows:

2.1 Authentication: This service verifies user’s identity and assures the recipient that the message is from the source that it claims to be from. Firstly, at the time of communication initiation, the service assures that the two parties are authentic, that each entity is what it tells. And next, it must assure that the third party doesn’t interfere by impersonating one of the two authentic parties for the purpose of authorized transmission and reception. Priyanka Sharma, IJRIT

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2.2 Confidentiality: This service ensures that the data transmitted over the network is not disclosed to unauthorized users. Confidentiality can be achieved by using different encryption techniques. 2.3 Access Control: This limits and controls the access of such a resource which can be an application or a host system.

2.4 Integrity: The function of integrity control is to assure that the data is received in verbatim as sent by authorized user. The data received contains no modification, deletion or insertion.

3. Security Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Network MANET is vulnerable to various types of attacks. Some attacks affect to general network, some affect to wireless network, and some are particular to MANETs. These security attacks can be classified according to different criteria, such as the domain of the attackers, or the techniques used in attacks. These security attacks in MANET and all other networks can be generally classified by the following criteria: passive or active, internal or external, different protocol layer, stealthy or non-stealthy, cryptography or non-cryptography related.

3.1 Passive vs. Active attacks: The attacks in MANET can generally be classified into two major categories, namely passive attacks and active attacks. A passive attack obtains data exchanged in the network without disrupting the operation of the communications, while an active attack involves information interruption, modification, or fabrication, thereby disrupting the normal functionality of a MANET. Examples of passive attacks are eavesdropping, traffic analysis, and traffic monitoring. Examples of active attacks include jamming, impersonating, modification, denial of service (DoS), and message replay. 3.2 Internal vs. External attacks: The attacks can also be classified into external attacks and internal attacks, according the domain of the attacks. Nodes that do not belong to the domain of the network carry out external attacks. Internal attacks are from compromised nodes, which are actually part of the network. Internal attacks are more harmful when compared with outside attacks since the insider knows valuable and secret information, and possesses confidential access rights. 3.3 Eavesdropping: Eavesdropping is the intercepting and reading of messages and conversations by unintended receivers. The mobile hosts in mobile ad hoc networks share a wireless medium. The majorities of wireless communications use the RF spectrum and broadcast by nature. Signals broadcast over airwaves can be easily intercepted with receivers tuned to the proper frequency. Thus, messages transmitted can be overheard, and fake messages can be injected into network.

3.4 Interference and Jamming: Radio signals can be blocked or interfered with, which causes the message to be corrupted or lost. If the attacker has a powerful transmitter, a signal can be generated that will be strong enough to overwhelm the targeted signals and disrupt communications. The most common types of this form of signal jamming are random noise and pulse. 3.5 Black Hole Attack: The black hole attack has two properties. First, the node exploits the mobile ad hoc routing protocol, such as AODV, to advertise itself as having a valid route to a destination node, even though the route is false, with the intention of intercepting packets. Second, the attacker consumes the intercepted packets without any forwarding.

3.6 Byzantine Attack: A compromised intermediate node works alone, or a set of compromised intermediate nodes works in collusion and carry out attacks such as creating routing loops, forwarding packets through nonoptimal paths, or selectively dropping packets, which results in disruption or degradation of the routing services. 3.7 Rushing Attack: Two colluded attackers use the tunnel procedure to make a wormhole. If a fast transmission path exists between the two ends of the wormhole, the tunneled packets can transmit faster than those through a normal multi- hop route. This forms the rushing attack. The rushing attack can act as an effective denial-of- service attack against all currently proposed on-demand MANET routing protocols. 3.8 Malicious Code Attacks: Malicious code, such as viruses, worms, spywares, and Trojan Horses, can attack both operating systems and user applications. These malicious programs usually spread themselves through the network and cause the computer system and networks to slow down or even damaged. In MANET, an attacker can produce similar attacks to the mobile system of the ad hoc network. Priyanka Sharma, IJRIT

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3.9. Denial of Service: Denial of service (DoS) attacks could be launched from several layers. An attacker can employ signal jamming at the physical layer, which disrupts normal communications. At the link layer, malicious nodes can occupy channels through the capture effect, which takes advantage of the binary exponential scheme in MAC protocols and prevents other nodes from channel access. At the network layer, the routing process can be interrupted through routing control packet modification, selective dropping, table overflow, or poisoning. At the transport and application layers, SYN flooding, session hijacking, and malicious programs can cause DoS attacks. 3.10 Impersonation Attacks: Impersonation attacks are launched by using other node’s identity, such as MAC or IP address. Impersonation attacks sometimes are the first step for most attacks, and are used to launch further, more sophisticated attacks. 3.11 Man-in-the-Middle Attacks: An attacker sits between the sender and the receiver and sniffs any information being sent between two ends. In some cases, the attacker may impersonate the sender to communicate with the receiver, or impersonate the receiver to reply to the sender. 3.12 Wormhole Attacks: In a wormhole attack, two attacker nodes join together. One attacker node receives packets at one point and “tunnels" them to another attacker node via a private network connection, and then replays them into the network.

4. Related Work Sweety Goyal et.al.[1] focused on providing a solution for secure transmission through the network and proposed a neighbour node analysis approach to identify wormhole attack and removes wormhole link in MANET. The proposed work was simulated using NS-2 and was analyzed using certain parameters such as throughput, loss rate and delay rate. Pravin Khandare et.al.[2] used the RSA technique for encryption and decryption purposes. It used the 2Ack scheme to check that data was reached to the authentic node. This scheme can take acknowledgment from one hope and two hop nodes and finds the misbehaving node. If attacker does not forward the received message to the next node and tries to drop them into another location. This scheme prevents this by taking the acknowledgments from the next two nodes. Yudhvir Singh et.al.[5] proposed a new technique for wormhole avoidance which has been implemented with NS2 simulator over the DSR protocol. This technique for wormhole avoidance addresses the malicious nodes and avoids the routes having wormhole nodes without affecting the overall performance of the network. The performance metrics used for evaluating network performance are jitter, throughput and end to end delay. The performance of proposed techniques is good. In [6] authors used the scheme called multihop count analysis (MHA) with verification of legitimate nodes in network through its digital signature. Destination on node analyses the number of hop count of every path and selects the best path for replying. For checking the authentication of selected path, proposed methodology used verification of digital signature of all sending node by receiving node. If there is no malicious node between the paths from source to destination, then source node creates a path for secure data transfer. Marti et al. proposed two techniques that improve throughput in an ad hoc network in the presence of selfish and malicious nodes [8]. The watchdog method is used for each node to detect misbehaving nodes in the network. When a node sends a packet to next hop, it tries to overhear the packet forwarded by next hop. If it hears that the packet is forwarded by next hop and the packet matches the previous packet that it has sent itself, it considers the next hop node behaves well. Otherwise it considers the next hop node is misbehaving. The pathrater uses the knowledge about misbehaving nodes acquired from watchdog to pick the route that is most likely to be reliable. Each node maintains a trust rating for every other node. When watchdog detects a node is misbehaving, the trust rating of the node is updated in negative way. When a node wants to choose a safe route to send packets, pathrater calculates a path metric by averaging the node ratings in the path. Viren Mahajan et.al.[10] analyzed the criterion for successful wormhole attack on a MANET. Based on results collected from a qualnet simulation, the evaluation of likelihood of such an attack is done. Further classification Priyanka Sharma, IJRIT

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of the wormhole scenarios into successful, unsuccessful, doubtful, interesting, and uninteresting is made. It is also defines the wormhole strength and observe that the detection ratio of the technique varies with wormhole strength as well as with the network topology. Their simulation statistics also showedthat the wormholes having higher strength have a higher detection ratio as compared to the ones with lower strength. F. Nait-Abdesselam et.al.[11] devised an efficient method to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the OLSR protocol. This method first attempts to pinpoint links that may potentially be part of a wormhole tunnel. Then a proper wormhole detection mechanism is applied to suspicious links by means of an exchange of encrypted probing packets between the two supposed neighbors (endpoints of the wormhole). The proposed solution exhibits several advantages, among which are its non reliance on any time synchronization or location information, and its high detection rate under various scenarios.

5. Wormhole Attack The wormhole attack is a severe threat against packet routing in sensor networks that is particularly challenging to prevent. In the wormhole attack, an adversary receives packets at one location in the network and tunnels them to another location in network, where the packets are resent into the network to consume the bandwidth. The wormhole attack would involve two distant malicious nodes colluding to undertake their distance from each other by relaying the packets along an out-of-band channel which is available only to the attackers. Thus, a false route would be established by the attackers which would shorten the hop distance between any two nonmalicious nodes. Wormhole attacks can also cause Denial-of-service through unauthorized access, Data Traffic, and routing disruptions. The malicious node(s) can add itself in a route and then drop the data packets. Denial of service can prevent the discovery of legitimate routes and unauthorized access could allow access to wireless control systems that are based on physical proximity.

Figure 1.1: Wormhole Attack [4]. Figure 1.1 shows how two colluding nodes X and Y form a tunnel between two distant nodes and create an illusion that the remote nodes are neighbouring nodes. It can be said that here node m believes that node c, d, e are its neighbouring nodes.

Figure 1.2: Example of Wormhole Attack [12]. Figure 1.2 shows an example of the wormhole attack against a reactive routing protocol. In the figure, we assume that nodes A1 and A2 are two colluding attackers and that node S is the target to be attacked. During the attack, when source node S broadcasts an RREQ to find a route to a destination node D, its neighbors J and K for- ward the RREQ as usual. However, node A1, which received the RREQ forwarded by node J, records and tunnels the RREQ to its colluding partner A2. Then, node A2 rebroadcasts this RREQ to its neighbor P. Since this RREQ passed through a high-speed channel, this RREQ will reach node D first. Therefore, node D will

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choose route D-P-J-S to unicast an RREP to the source node S and ignore the same RREQ that arrived later. As a result, S will select route S-J- P-D that indeed passed through A1 and A2 to send its data.

6. Wormhole Attack Modes Wormhole attacks can be achieved using several modes as follows: 6.1 Wormhole with High Power Transmission: In this mode, when an attacker node gets a RREQ, it broadcasts the RREQ at a high power level towards the destination. By this method, the malicious mode attracts the packets to follow path passing from it.

6.2 Wormhole Using Encapsulation: When the source node broadcast the RREQ packet, a malicious node which is at one part of the network receives the RREQ packet. Then it tunnels that packet to a second malicious node via legitimate path only, it then rebroadcasts the RREQ. When the neighbors of the second colluding party receive the RREQ, it discards all of them and the result is that the routes between source and the destination go through the two malicious nodes that will be said to have formed a wormhole or the tunnel between them. This prevents the other nodes from discovering any other legitimate path that are more than two hops away.

6.3 Wormhole Using Out Of Band Channel: This mode for wormhole attack involves the use of an out of band channel. In this mode, an out-of-band high bandwidth channel is placed between two end points to create a wormhole link.

6.4 Wormhole Using Packet Relay: In this mode also, one malicious node replays packets between two far nodes and this way fake neighbours are created.

7. Types of Wormhole Attack Wormhole attacks are organized on the basis of visibility of selfish node in the route and are hence classified as closed, half open and open.

Figure 1.3: Types of Wormhole Attack

7.1 Open Wormhole Attack: In the open wormhole attack, the attackers include themselves in the RREQ packet header in the route discovery stage. Other authentic nodes are aware that the two colluding parties lie on the path but they would think that they are direct neighbors.

7.2 Half Open Wormhole Attack: One side of the wormhole does not modify the packet and only another side modifies the packet, following the route discovery procedure. This leads to the path S-M 1-D for the packets sent by S for D.

7.3 Closed Wormhole Attack: The attackers do not modify the content of the packet in a route discovery. Instead they simply tunnel the packet from one side of the wormhole to another side and it rebroadcasts the packet.

8. Conclusion This paper presents a survey of various types of threats to ad-hoc networks. It also explains various attacks on MANET, with detailed description of the wormhole attack. Here, the threats of this attack are discussed, and a summarized literature on, the efforts done to combat this attack are provided. The research on MANET security is still in its little stage. Therefore, the existing proposals are typically attack-oriented, where they first identify several security attacks and then enhance the existing protocol or propose a new protocol to eliminate such threats. Because the solutions are designed explicitly with certain attack models in mind, they work well in the presence of designated attacks but may collapse under unanticipated attacks. Therefore, a more ambitious goal Priyanka Sharma, IJRIT

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for ad-hoc network security is to develop a multi- fence security solution that is embedded into possibly every component in the network, resulting in depth protection and provide multiple line of defense against both known and unknown security threats. Ethically, this type of wormhole analysis is important to account for possible new dangers and variations of this attack. Furthermore, it can help in putting some constraints on the network topology to design a robust network for such attacks, and in the design of new and more powerful attack countermeasure.

References [1] Sweety Goyal, Harish Rohil, “Securing MANET Against Wormhole Attack Using Neighbour Node Analysis”, International Journal Of Computer Applications ISSN 0975 – 8887, Volume 81 – no 18, pp: 4448, November 2013. [2] Pravin Khandare, N. P. Kulkarni, “Public Key Encryption And 2Ack Based Approach To Defend Wormhole Attack”, India International Journal Of Computer Trends And Technology- Volume4 Issue3, pp. 247-252, ISSN: 2231-2803, 2013 [3] Jie Zhou1, Jiannong Cao, Jun Zhang1, Chisheng Zhang and Yao Yu, “Analysis and Countermeasure for Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Mesh Networks on a Real Test bed” IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2012 [4] Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher and Isaac Woungang, “E2SIW: An Energy Efficient Scheme Immune to Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks” International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops in IEEE, 2012 [5] Yudhvir Singh, Avni Khatkar, Prabha Rani, Deepika, Dheer Dhwaj Barak, “Wormhole Attack Avoidance Technique in Mobile Adhoc Networks”, IEEE, pp: 283-287, ISSN 7695-4941, 2012 [6] Pallavi Sharma, Prof. Aditya Trivedi “An Approach to Defend Against Wormhole Attack in Ad Hoc Network Using Digital Signature” in IEEE, 2011 [7] Jin Guo, Zhi-yong Lei, “A Kind of Wormhole Attack Defense Strategy of WSN Based on Neighbor Nodes Verification” in IEEE 2011 [8] S. Marti, “Mitigating routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks,” Proceedings of Sixth Annual IEEE/ACM Intl. Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, April 2009, pp: 225-256. [9] Majid Khabbazian, Hugues Mercier, and Vijay K. Bhargava, “Severity Analysis and Countermeasure for the Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks”, IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communications, Vol.8 (2), pp: 736-745, February 2009. [10] Viren Mahajan, Maitreya Natu, and Adarshpal Sethi, “Analysis of Wormhole Intrusion Attacks In MANETs”, IEEE, pp: 978-984, ISSN 4244-2677 August 2008. [11] F. Nait-Abdesselam, B. Bensaou and T. Taleb, “Detecting and Avoiding Wormhole Attacks In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks” IEEE Communication Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 127-133, April 2008. [12] Bounpadith Kannhavong, Hidehisa Nakayama, Yoshiaki Nemoto, And Nei Kato, “A Survey of Routing Attacks In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Wireless Communications, pp. 85-91, ISSN 1536-1284, October 2007.

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