Σημειώσεις από το βιβλίο Operating System Concepts Eight Edition Avi Silberschatz Peter Baer Galvin Greg Gagne

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction  What Operating Systems Do  Computer-System Organization  Computer-System Architecture  Operating-System Structure  Operating-System Operations  Process Management  Memory Management

 Storage Management  Protection and Security  Distributed Systems  Special-Purpose Systems  Computing Environments

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

Objectives  To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems

components  To provide coverage of basic computer system organization

Operating System Concepts – 7th Edition, Jan 12, 2005

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

What is an Operating System?  A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a

computer and the computer hardware.  Operating system goals: 

Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier.



Make the computer system convenient to use.

 Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

Operating System Concepts – 7th Edition, Jan 12, 2005

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

Computer System Structure  Computer system can be divided into four components 

Hardware – provides basic computing resources 



Operating system 



Controls and coordinates use of hardware among various applications and users

Application programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users 



CPU, memory, I/O devices

Word processors, compilers, web browsers, database systems, video games

Users 

People, machines, other computers

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Four Components of a Computer System

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Operating System Definition  OS is a resource allocator 

Manages all resources



Decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use

 OS is a control program 

Controls execution of programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer

Operating System Concepts – 7th Edition, Jan 12, 2005

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

Operating System Definition (Cont.)  No universally accepted definition  “Everything a vendor ships when you order an operating system”

is good approximation 

But varies wildly

 “The one program running at all times on the computer” is the

kernel. Everything else is either a system program (ships with the operating system) or an application program

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

Computer Startup  bootstrap program is loaded at power-up or reboot 

Typically stored in ROM or EPROM, generally known as firmware



Initializates all aspects of system



Loads operating system kernel and starts execution

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

Computer System Organization  Computer-system operation 

One or more CPUs, device controllers connect through common bus providing access to shared memory



Concurrent execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

Computer-System Operation  I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently.  Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type.  Each device controller has a local buffer.  CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers  I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller.  Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by

causing an interrupt.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Computer-System Architecture. ▫ Operating-System Structure. ▫ Operating-System ... systems, video games. ○ Users. > People, machines, other computers ...

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