Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

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Chapter 10: Computer Software

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Learning Objectives In this chapter you will learn about: § Term “Software” and its relationship with “Hardware” § Various types of software and their examples § Relationship among hardware, system software, application software, and users of a computer system § Different ways of acquiring software § Various steps involved in software development § Firmware § Middleware

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Chapter 10: Computer Software

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Software § Hardware refers to the physical devices of a computer system. § Software refers to a collection of programs § Program is a sequence of instructions written in a language that can be understood by a computer § Software package is a group of programs that solve a specific problem or perform a specific type of job

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Chapter 10: Computer Software

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Relationship Between Hardware and Software § Both hardware and software are necessary for a computer to do useful job. They are complementary to each other § Same hardware can be loaded with different software to make a computer system perform different types of jobs § Except for upgrades, hardware is normally a onetime expense, whereas software is a continuing expense § Upgrades refer to renewing or changing components like increasing the main memory, or hard disk capacities, or adding speakers, modems, etc.

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Types of Software Most software can be divided into two major categories: § System software are designed to control the operation and extend the processing capability of a computer system § Application software are designed to solve a specific problem or to do a specific task

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

System Software § Make the operation of a computer system more effective and efficient § Help hardware components work together and provide support for the development and execution of application software § Programs included in a system software package are called system programs and programmers who prepare them are called system programmers § Examples of system software are operating systems, programming language translators, utility programs, and communications software

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Chapter 10: Computer Software

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Application Software § Solve a specific problem or do a specific task § Programs included in an application software package are called application programs and the programmers who prepare them are called application programmers § Examples of application software are word processing, inventory management, preparation of tax returns, banking, etc.

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Chapter 10: Computer Software

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Logical System Architecture

HARDWARE (Physical devices/components of the computer system) SYSTEM SOFTWARE

(Software that constitute the operating and programming environment of the computer system)

APPLICATION SOFTWARE (Software that do a specific task or solve a specific problem)

USERS (Normally interact with the system via the user interface provided by the application software)

Relationship among hardware, system software, application software, and users of a computer system.

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Ways of Acquiring Software § Buying pre-written software § Ordering customized software § Developing customized software § Downloading public-domain software Each of these ways of acquiring software has its own advantages and limitations

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Advantages and Limitations of Buying Pre-written Software § Usually costs less § Planned activity can be stared almost immediately § Often, operating efficiency and the capability to meet specific needs of user more effectively in not as good for pre-written software packages as for in-house developed software packages

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Advantages & Limitations of Ordering Customized Software § User need not maintain its own software development team, which is an expensive affair § User needs to always depend on the vendor for carrying out the changes and the vendor may separately charge for every request for change

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Advantages & Limitations of Developing Customized Software § Easier to carry out changes in the software, if it is developed in-house § Developing software in-house means a major commitment of time, money, and resources § In-house software development team needs to be maintained and managed

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Advantage & Limitations of Downloading Public-domain Software §

Available for free or as shareware, and are usually accompanied with source code

§

Usually community-supported as author does not support users directly

§

Can be downloaded and used immediately

§

They may not be properly tested before release

§

Open Source Software (OSS) are becoming popular due to: § Allows any user to download, view, modify, and redistribute § User can fix bugs or change software to suit needs § Copyright is protected for both original and subsequent authors

§

Not all open source software are free and vise-verse

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Software Development Steps Developing a software and putting it to use is a complex process and involves following steps: §

Analyzing the problem at hand and planning the program(s) to solve the problem

§

Coding the program(s)

§

Testing, debugging, and documenting the program(s)

§

Implementing the program(s)

§

Evaluating and maintaining the program(s)

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Firmware § Firmware is software substituted for hardware and stored in read-only memory § Firmware technology has enabled production of various types of smart machines having microprocessor chips with embedded software

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Middleware § Basic idea is to have a separate software layer to: § Act as “glue” between client and server parts of application § Provide programming abstraction § Mask heterogeneity of underlying network, hardware, and OS § Encourages three-tier software architecture against twotier popularized by Server-Client architecture

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Computer Computer Fundamentals: Fundamentals: Pradeep Pradeep K. K. Sinha Sinha & & Priti Priti Sinha Sinha

Key Words/Phrases § § § § § § § § § § § § § § §

Application programmers Application programs Application software Computer program Customized software Database Education software End-to-end solution Entertainment software Firmware Graphics software Hardware Middleware Open Source Software Personal assistance software

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§ § § § § § § § § § § § §

Pre-written software Public-domain software Shareware Software Software package Spreadsheet System programmers System programs System software Turnkey solution User-supported software Utilities Word-processing

Chapter 10: Computer Software

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Chapter 10-CS.pdf

application software, and users of a computer system. § Different ways of acquiring software. § Various steps involved in software development. § Firmware.

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