Name:______________________________________________

GEOGRAPHY THEMES ACTIVITY CHAPTER 4

Date:___________________

LOCATION: LOST ATLANTIS According to the Greek philosopher Plato, the deities 9,000 years earlier had decided to punish the people of Atlantis for their wickedness. After a sudden catastrophe, Atlantis sank beneath the sea in a day and a night. Are legends of ancient Greece, such as Plato’s story of Atlantis, rooted in actual geography?

n the 300s B.C., Plato recorded a story supposedly brought from Egypt about 200 years earlier by the Athenian statesman and poet Solon. According to Plato’s account, Atlantis met its end about 9600 B.C. Later, in the A.D. 1500s, when Europeans ventured across the Atlantic Ocean to explore the Americas, their voyages renewed interest in Plato’s story and fueled speculation that Atlantis was a continent lost under the Atlantic Ocean or perhaps was even America. Many writers have since suggested that the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, and the Cape Verde Islands—in the eastern Atlantic—are in fact the mountaintops of a submerged continent. Because Plato’s detailed description of Atlantis matches well what archaeologists know of Bronze Age civilizations, it is unlikely that Atlantis

I

Plato’s Account

But at a later time there occurred portentous [ominous] earthquakes and floods, . . . and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, . . . And . . . [the sea god Poseidon] gave names, giving to him that was eldest and king name after which the whole island was called and the sea spoken of as the Atlantic, because the first king who then reigned has the name of Atlas. —from Timaeus and Critias, 300s B.C.

Scientists’ Theory

This suggested solution is not based on conjecture or myths but on a geological occurrence beyond challenge. . . . In the high Bronze Age around 1500 B.C. [as we interpret Plato’s account] a dominant maritime power, Atlantis, threatening both Egypt and Athens, disappeared in a single day and night in a frightful natural cataclysm. Around 1500 B.C. a round island in the Aegean with now-known Minoan connections—Stron-ghyle-Santorin [Thera]— collapsed into the sea in a large volcanic eruption with side effects which caused such devastation to Minoan Create . . . that [it] never recovered. —A.B. Galanopoulos and Edward Bacon, from Atlantis: The Truth Behind the Legend flourished at a date earlier than the Neolithic Revolution. This discrepancy, along with other evidence, has suggested to some modern scholars in Greece that Plato or Solon was off by a factor of 10 in transcribing ancient Egyptian accounts. In other words, Atlantis was only destroyed about 900 years before Plato wrote, rather than 9,000 years earlier—that is, in prehistoric times. Plato may in fact have left us with a true historical account of the volcanic cataclysm known to have destroyed a great Minoan city on Thera, an island in the Aegean Sea bout 70 miles (110 kilometers) north of Crete.

WORLD GEOGRAPHY: THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE

CHAPTER 4 GEOGRAPHY THEME ACTIVITY

2

FOCUS ON LOCATION 1. What does relative location mean? (1 point)

________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ 2. Using maps in your textbook, give the location of Greece relative to its position on the continent, proximity to water bodies, and surrounding countries. (3 points)

________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

Relative Location

The location of places can be described using absolute or relative terms. Relative location can be given by compass directions or distances from other landmarks. To say that Greece is west of Turkey or that it borders on the Mediterranean Sea is to give a relative location, because the location of Greece is stated in terms of its relation to other landmarks in the area. Plato’s account suggested that Atlantis may have been near Pillars of Hercules, the ancient name for the Rock of Gibraltar.

3. Why does Plato’s mention of Atlantis’s war with both Athens and Egypt suggest the relative location of Atlantis? (1 point)

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. What features of Atlantis might identify it as a Bronze Age civilization rather than a pre-Neolithic society? (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. What information would you want in order to judge claims that Atlantis lies submerged under the Atlantic Ocean? (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Critical Thinking

6. To the Egyptians of about 1500 B.C., the islands of Crete and Thera (about 400 and 480 miles, or 640 and 770 kilometers, from Egypt) seemed very far away. Why have people’s perception of “far away” changed over the years? (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. According to Greek mythology, Atlas supported the pillars that held heaven and Earth apart; the name Atlantic Ocean means “Sea of Atlas.” Why do you think the Atlantic Ocean got his name? (2 points)

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 4 Geography Theme Activity.pdf

was a continent lost under the Atlantic Ocean or. perhaps was even America. Many writers have. since suggested that the Azores, Madeira, the Ca- naries, and the Cape Verde Islands—in the eastern. Atlantic—are in fact the mountaintops of a sub- merged continent. Because Plato's detailed description of Atlan- tis matches ...

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