After studying this lesson, you will have a clear understanding of, Ø

what an Operating System is


functions of an Operating System


User Interfaces


how to use Windows Operating System

5.1 Introduction As a student who studies Information Communication, you may be a frequent user of the computer. If someone asks you the most essential software system for the function of the computer, your answer should be the 'Operating System'. We cannot use the computer without the Operating System. When we activate the computer, the operating system functions automatically, creating the environment necessary for us to use the computer. MS DOS, Windows (XP, ME, Vista, 7) UNIX, Linux and Mac OS can be mentioned as some of the most commonly used operating systems. The main function of a computer operating system is to provide an interface for its users by hiding the complxity of computer hardware and other software so that users can easily access the relevant software. Moreover, the computer operating system should coordinate all the devices to get the maximum benefit out of them. However, the user sees a user-friendly interface as the operating system and does not the internal operations.


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The relationship between the modern computer system and user can be shown in the following format. User


Application Software Operating System Hardware Figure 5.1

The user resorts to Application software and utility software to perform his activities. However, these software cannot work directly with computer hardware. Very often the co-ordination between hardware and software is performed by the operating system. Application Software The software utilized for day to day activities come under Application Software. Eg. Word Processing Software, Spreadsheet Software. Utility Software These are the software that help the user efficiently use the computer. Eg. Anti-virus software, Trouble Shooting Tools/Diagnostic Tools.

Functions of an Operating System The basic functions of an operating system can be divided into five categories: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. For free distribution

Process Management Memory Management Device Management File Management Security Management 97

1. Memory Management Providing allocations in the memory for various tasks too is another function of an operating system. Computer memory is managed in an organized manner by the operating system when several processes are done simultaneously so that there will be no clash among them. Another function of an operating system is to release the memory to perform a new task when the previous task is totally completed. It is the responsibility of the operating system to manage memory to avoid clashes when there are many users of the computer.

2. Process Management Computer programs are the set of instructions that programmers write in language (eg; C, Java) for the computers to follow. When a program is running in the computer it is called a "process". Process management is a basic function of modern operating systems. However, only one process operates at one time in the Central Processing Unit when several processes are in operation. The processes are activated one at a time in a selected order.

3. Device Management Device Management is another function that has to be performed by the operating system. An operating system has to handle various devices in various ways. Some examples for these can be the hardware segments of a computer system such as the printer. Factors such as the speed of the devices, amount of information, its purpose, direction where information flows, protocol used to transmit information (communication protocol) affect the management of devices. For example, if you want to read a letter in the hard disk, even though accessing the hard disk will appear to be a very simple task, it can be considered a collection of a number of small processes. This task will be fulfilled by the coordination of Input / Output Hardware (I/O Hardware) and Input / Output Software (I/O Software).


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4. File Management The data/information is stored in secondary storage in the form of 'files'. You may have used them to save information in computer and retrieved those later. It is very important for a computer to save files in a place we want and to manage them properly. The operating system manages the processes of creating, naming, organizing, accessing, using and protecting the files. It gives opportunity to create, copy, move, rename, retrieve and delete files and directories (a collection of files). Another name for a directory is a folder.

5. Security Management The operating system also protects a computer system from external and internal dangers. For example, the use of the user name and the password are two mechanisms used by the operating system to control unauthorized entry into a computer.


User Interfaces According to the nature of the computer user interface, there are two types. 1. CLI – Command Line Interface 2. GUI – Graphical User Interface

1. CLI – Command Line Interface In the CLI a prompt is found in the screen. The user should type according to the given instructions or special commands here. Command Line Interfaces are found in operating systems such as MS DOS, Unix and Linux. (see Figure 5.2)

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Figure - 5.2 Ms Dos Interface

2. GUI – Graphical User Interface A graphical interface is used here to make use of the computer easier and simpler for the user. There is no need to keep the commands in mind and the computer can be handled very easily using graphics. The first GUI was designed in 100

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1970’s by Xerox Corporation’s Palo Alto Research Centre. With the widespread use of the GUI interface in Apple Macintosh computers, they were introduced in for many operating systems. The following elements can be seen in the operating systems that give GUIs. 1.








1. Windows One major facility found in operating systems with GUI (Graphical User Interface) is the varieties of separate windows to perform different requirements. These Windows can be moved here and there on computer screen and their sizes can be changed to suit the requirements. Moreover, they can be minimized and maximized as required.

2. Icons Small pictures which represent commands, files or Windows are called icons. We can operate the commands or software by using these icons.

3. Menu A list of options out of which to choose is called a menu. Very often under the Main Menu Bar there are sub-menus.

4. Pointer The mouse pointer is used to show the place where the mouse is located on the computer screen. Mostly this is shown in the shape of an arrow head.

The Desktop When the computer is switched on the Desktop appears. By using the icons or Taskbar that appears on it, we can perform the required functions (Figure 5.3) For free distribution


Windows Title bar

Address bar

Tool bar

Minimize Button

Maximize Button


Figure 5.3 Graphical User Interface of windows

Advantages of using Graphical User Interface 1. The user can use the menus and icons displayed in a GUI very easily. Not only selecting icons and the menu, but also operating the computer can be done very easily as the pointing device can be moved throughout the computer screen. 2. Even the users who do not have a sound knowledge in handling computers can use the computer using the Graphical User Interface (GUI). 3. Very often by gaining a knowledge of a tooltip that is displayed on the screen describing an icon, it is easy to understand the relevant functions.


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Close Button


Files and Folders in the Windows Operating System Windows Explorer

Windows Explorer is the graphical user interface for File Management in Microsoft Windows. This enables us to access files and folders. Further we can access all the storage devices through the same window. You can start the Windows Explorer by selecting the Explorer option from the popup menu by right clicking on the My Computer Icon on the Desktop or pressing the letter ‘E’ with Windows Key (Win key) on the key board or using the start button on the Taskbar. This section is explained according to Windows XP, which is in wide use at present (There can be slight changes in other windows operating systems).

Figure - 5.4 - Windows Explorer Window

The main menu of Windows Explorer will appear on the top of window (Figure 5.4). There are three toolbars below that. They are: For free distribution


1. Standard Toolbar 2. Address Bar. 3. Links.

1. Standard Toolbar You can change this as you wish. Some commands can be operated using the tools in this Toolbar. You can change the tools as follows; View è Toolbars



2. Address Bar Apart from accessing internal and external data storages, this enables us to access the outside web pages. The Address Bar can be used as a Command Line as well.

3. Links You can change the links as you wish using the short cuts for the web pages you frequently browse. 1. Explore your folder saved in My Documents using the Address Bar. Assignment 5.1

2. Prepare the Standard Toolbar as you wish.

3. Add the short cuts of the search engines you browse frequently to links tool bar. The area below the toolbars mentioned above is called the data area. This is normally divided into two.

Explorer Bar This is the left, vertical column of the Windows Explorer. This shows a hierarchical view of the storage of your computer. 104

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You can see the content of any folder by clicking on + sign which is by the folders. Further, you can collapse the folder by clicking the – sign by the folder. When you click on the main folder or sub folder in Explorer Bar, the content is displayed on the right side of the screen. Drives The storage displayed on the Windows Explorer are as follows: A: and B: show floppy disk drives and then from C: onward represent the storage devices like hard disks, CDs and DVDs. Recycle bin When a file is deleted, it is removed from the hard disk and it goes to the folder called recycle bin. It can be restored if necessary. However, if you delete the file from the recycle bin, you cannot restore the file.

1.Create the folder structure shown below on the desktop. Assignment 5.2


Draw a picture using MS Paint and save it as PaintEx1 in the folder ‘Paint’ you made.

3. Save a copy of PaintEx1 in the 'Documents' folder. 4. Change the file name of PaintEx1 in the folder 'Documents' to 'My picture' 5. Delete 'My picture' in the folder 'Documents' 6. Note down what you can observe in the Recycle Bin.

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File and File Extensions A file in a hard disk, CD/DVD or devices connected by USB ports are recognized by its file name. The file type can be identified by its extension. For instance, if the file extension is ‘exe’, that file can be executed by double clicking on the file. The file extension ‘doc’, represent a file created by MS word. A dot (.) is used to separate the file name and the file extension.

Prepare a list of file extensions in your computer. Assignment 5.3

For your further knowledge...

Linux Operating System Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and the group created the operating system called UNIX in 1969. Based on the copies issued of UNIX, later on the operating systems such as BSD, Solaris and Mac OS were created. In addition, taking the concepts of UNIX as models, Andrew Tanenbaum created the operating system called Minix to facilitate teaching operating systems to students. After obtaining a computer, Linus Torvalds who was studying computer science at the University of Helsinki used the operating system Minix. As he was not satisfied with that operating system, he started creating his own. Though his creation had similarities with Minix, he did not use programs taken from Minix. This new operating system was named as Linux. Later on, incorporating GNU software created by the Free Software Foundation in Massachusets, Linux Operating system was upgraded to be of a higher standard. Therefore, that operating system is called as GNU/Linux too. 106

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From the beginning itself Linux programs were created as a free and open source operating system. It was popular only among friends in the universities and later it became widespread. At the same time software which could be used in Linux operating systems came to be widely developed all over the world. This type of software created to meet the demands of certain people are today competing with the commercial software. Numerous companies and associations in the world amend these software to suit the different needs and release them through internet or in purchasable CD’s. Among these release Ubuntu, Debian, Redhat and Suse have become very popular. They are in two forms such as live CD’s and installed CD’s. Unlike Windows Operating system, there are various interface set-ups created to use in Linux. Among them, Gnome, KDE3, KDE4, XFCE4 and Enlightenment can be stated in the descending order of popularity. Figure 5.5 depicts the screen of Gnome interface setup. Though it was somewhat inconvenient to use Linux for the users in the past, the increasing number of common users at present proves it to be convenient now.

Interface set up of the Gnome Interface Figure 5.5

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chapter 5.pdf

Memory Management. 3. Device Management. 4. File Management. 5. Security Management. User. Utilities Application Software. Operating System. Hardware.

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