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Guided Reading & Analysis: Sectionalism 1820-1860 Chapter 9- Sectionalism, pp 173-183 Reading Assignment: Ch. 9 AMSCO; If you do not have the AMSCO text, use chapter 16 of American Pageant and/or online resources such as the website, podcast, crash course video, chapter outlines, Hippocampus, etc.

Purpose: This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for reflections and analysis using your noggin (thinking skills) with new knowledge gained from the reading. This guide, if completed in its entirety BOP (Beginning of Period) by the due date, can be used on the corresponding quiz as well as earn up to 10 bonus points. In addition, completed guides provide the student with the ability to correct a quiz for ½ points back! The benefits of such activities, however, go far beyond quiz help and bonus points.  Mastery of the course and AP exam await all who choose to process the information as they read/receive. This is an optional assignment. So… young Jedi… what is your choice? Do? Or do not? There is no try.

(Image captured from theguardian.com)

Directions: 1. 2. 3.

4.

Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. Skim: Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read! Write Write (do not type) your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Complete it in INK!

Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 4: Main Idea: The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes. Key Concept 4.1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them. Key Concept 4.2: Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods. Key Concept 4.3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives.

Section 1 Guided Reading, pp 173-183 As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column.

1. The North pp 173-176 Key Concepts & Main Ideas

Notes

Analysis

Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy

Read the first two paragraphs on page 173. Why was the nation fragile?

What is the key difference between the Northeast and the Northwest?

What does Daniel Webster refer to in his quote at the top of the page?

Explain the historical significance of Commonwealth v. Hunt. Consider broad context.

Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South.

The North… 1. 2. The Industrial Northeast…

Are you using ink? Remember… no pencil! …The North Continued Key Concepts & Main Ideas Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods. Global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing . Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets. Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low-skilled male workers, no longer relied on semi-subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing. The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power. Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest. The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes, and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations.

Notes

Analysis

Organized Labor…

Identify three reasons why improving working conditions was difficult. 1) 2) 3)

Urban Life… Look at the chart on page 174. By 1860, how had economic development worsened sectionalism?

African Americans… The two main reasons the Old Northwest (Ohio Valley) became closely connected to the Northeast were: 1) The Agricultural Northwest…

2)

How did innovations impact agriculture and market connections? Agriculture…

New Cities… List the causes of the surge in immigration. 1) Immigration… 2) 3)

The North Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power. Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest.

Notes

Analysis

Irish…

Compare and contrast the Irish and German immigrants. Similarities:

Differences: Germans… How did immigration impact northern, free blacks? (see the top of page 175)

Nativists… How is this wave of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s similar to or different from our modern wave of immigrants? (Other Context)

2. The south, pp 177-181 Key Concepts & Main Ideas As over-cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies. Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution.

Notes

Analysis

The South…

Look at the maps on page 177. What do these maps reveal about the growth of agriculture and industry in the first half of the 19th century?

Agriculture and King Cotton…

What was the chief economic connection between south and north?

Slavery, the “Peculiar Institution” …

The South Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas As over-cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities, and strategies. Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution.

The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections, while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth. Enslaved and free African Americans, isolated at the bottom of the social hierarchy, created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and their family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status.

Notes

Analysis

Population…

Look at the map on page 179. How was slavery increasing despite importation being banned in 1809?

Economics… What do Denmark Vessey and Nat Turner have in common with the leaders of the colonial era Stono Rebellion? Slave Life…

Motivation…

Impact of rebellions… Resistance…

Free African Americans…

Why did approximately half of free blacks choose to remain in the south when many northern states had outlawed slavery?

To what extent did Southern society constitute a social hierarchy? White Society…

Aristocracy…

Using the illustration of a pyramid, explain how society was organized in the South. Include free blacks as well as the groups outlined on page 180.

Farmers…

Poor Whites…

Mountain People…

Cities..

How much social mobility was there?

The South Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution. Despite the outlawing of the international slave trade, the rise in the number of free African Americans in both the North and the South, and widespread discussion of various emancipation plans, the U.S. and many state governments continued to restrict African Americans’ citizenship possibilities.

Notes

Analysis

Southern Thought…

Sir Walter Scott was a favorite author of many elite southerners. He wrote many books of chivalry and feudal society that plantation elite identified with. Accused by Mark Twain of having a hand in the Civil War, Scott supposedly aroused southerners to fight for a deteriorating social structure.

Code of Chivalry…

“It was Sir Walter that made every gentleman in the South a Major or a Colonel, or a General or a Judge, before the war; and it was he, also, that made those gentlemen value their bogus decorations. For it was he that created rank and caste down there, and also reverence for rank and caste, and pride and pleasure in them. Enough is laid on slavery, without fathering upon it these creations and contributions of Sir Walter. Sir Walter had so large a hand in making Southern character, as it existed before the war, which he is in great measure responsible for the war.” Mark Twain - Life on the Mississippi.

Education…

Religion…

What does this reveal about Southern culture? Local Context: Food for thought: Colonel is still a badge of honor in

the South. Colonel Sanders, for example, proudly embraced his title given to him in Kentucky (a southern state, although “border state” in the war). He was named Colonel in the 1930s, so the romance lives on.(no he never served in the military)

Another Kentucky Colonel? Muhammad Ali. Times change! 

(images captured from kfc.com and wallart.com)

3. The West, pp 181-182 Key Concepts & Main Ideas Following the Louisiana Purchase, the drive to acquire, survey, and open up new lands and markets led Americans into numerous economic, diplomatic, and military initiatives in the Western Hemisphere and Asia.

Notes The West… In Colonial Era: In the Revolutionary Era: In 1803: After the Civil War:

Broad Context:

Other Context:

How did religion impact sectional tensions?

The West Continued… Key Concepts & Main Ideas The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power. With expanding borders came public debates about whether to expand and how to define and use the new territories. Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control American Indian populations. Various groups of American Indians, women, and religious followers developed cultures reflecting their interests and experiences, as did regional groups and an emerging urban middle class.

Notes

Analysis

American Indians…

How did the Columbian Exchange impact American Indians living on the plains?

Exodus…

Life on the Plains…

Compare and contrast the mountain men and pioneers of the 19th century to the French fur traders of the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Frontier… Motivations:

Mountain Men…

Interaction with Natives:

White Settlers on the Western Frontier… Impact on environment:

Women… Were they more alike or different? Environmental Damage…

4. Historical Perspectives, pp 183-184… What was the nature of slavery? Then… (before 1950s)

What was the nature of slavery? Now… (modern view)

Reading Guide written by Rebecca Richardson, Allen High School Sources include but are not limited to: 2015 edition of AMSCO’s United States History Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination, College Board Advanced Placement United States History Framework, and other sources as cited in document and collected/adapted over 20 years of teaching and collaborating..

chapter 9-Sectionalism.pdf

machinery, steam engines,. interchangeable parts, canals,. railroads, and the telegraph, as well. as agricultural inventions, both. extended markets and brought.

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