IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2014, Pg. 265-270

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT) www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

Cooperative Caching Strategies for Minimizing Content Provisioning Costs in Distributed Networks Bathula Anil Kumar1, Devapogu Kumar2 1

Final M Tech Student, Dept of CSE, Dr. Samuel George Institute of Engineering and Technology, Markapur- 523316, Prakasam, Andhra Pradesh, India. [email protected] 2

Associate professor, Dept of CSE, Dr. Samuel George Institute of Engineering and Technology, Markapur- 523316, Prakasam, Andhra Pradesh, India. [email protected]

Abstract From last few years there is advancement in mobile devices and wireless networks mobile cloud computing. The characteristics of mobile devices and wireless network makes the implementation of mobile cloud computing more complicated than for fixed clouds. Certain cooperative caching policies were introduced to minimize the content provisioning cost in Social Wireless Networks. SWNETs are formed by mobile devices sharing common interest in electronic contents, and physically gathering together in public places. Electronic object caching in such SWNETs are shown to be able to reduce the content provisioning cost which depends heavily on the service and pricing dependences among various stakeholders including content providers (CP), network service providers, and End Consumers (ES). This paper studies certain practical network, service, and pricing models which are then used for creating two objects caching strategies for minimizing content provisioning costs in networks with homogeneous and heterogeneous objects demands. This paper identified analytical and simulation models for analyzing the proposed caching strategies

Keywords: Mobile Devices, Mobile Cloud Computing, SWNET, Content Providers, Network Service Providers.

1. Introduction Due to the advancement in mobile devices and wireless networks mobile cloud computing, which combines mobile computing and cloud computing has gained momentum since 2009. This section lists some of the major issues in Mobile Cloud Computing. One of the key issues in mobile cloud computing is the end to end delay in servicing a request. Data caching is one of the techniques widely used in wired and wireless networks to improve data access efficiency. Wireless devices have scarcity of resources such as storage capacity and processing power. For WANETs, cooperative caching strategies are proposed in this paper to improve efficiency in information exchange in peer –to-peer fashion. The caching strategies such as small sized caches and large sized caches depend on the estimation of density off information being flown in the network. In the former strategy content replacement takes place when new information is received while in the latter a decision is made as to whether the information is to be cached and for how long. In either case every node is capable of Bathula Anil Kumar,

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deciding as per the content in the caches of nearby nodes. This is to ensure that each node has different content that is content diversity and share the content of other nodes thus managing memory efficiently. Rajkumar etal. expressed that features is the simulations made using NS2 show that our caching strategies are capable of making expected content diversity and improve of information sharing in wireless ad hoc network. Mobile cloud computing has received large interest recently as it allows storage and processing of data outside the mobile device. It has a growing popularity due to the proliferation of smart phones which act as mini PCs. The limitations of the mobile device such as smaller size, low battery life and other features can be overcome by offloading the processing and storage to a cloud. The offloading can happen to a remote data center, nearby computer or cluster of computers, or even to nearby mobile devices. Cloud computing is a frame work for sharing resources, information and software capabilities to different mobile devices. The resources will be available on the cloud and can be shared by the devices on demand. In mobile cloud computing environment the client can use the cloud to back up data in the mobile devices. Generally, there are two approaches to realize mobile cloud computing namely General Purpose Mobile Cloud Computing (GPMCC) and an Application Specific Mobile Cloud Computing (ASMCC). GPMCC is utilizing the internet by the mobile devices to use the computing resources of remote computers without any applications specifically developed for this purpose. In ASMCC, specific applications are developed for mobile devices to use the cloud computing facility. Mobile Service Clouds proposed is a cloud service which uses ASMCC approach for the deployment of autonomic communication services. In mobile cloud computing is broadly classified in into two, those which use mobile devices as thin clients, offloading computation to cloud resources on the internet and the one using mobile devices as computational and storage nodes as a part of cloud computing infrastructure. Although mobile devices have improved much in processing speed, memory and operating systems, they still have some serious drawbacks. The major challenge for a mobile device in cloud computing is the data transfer bottle neck. Battery is the major source of energy for these devices and the development of battery technology has not been able to match the power requirements of increasing resource demand. The average time between charges for mobile phone users is likely to fall by 4.8% per year in the near future. As the cloud grows in popularity and size, infrastructure scalability becomes an issue. Without scalability solution, the growth will result in excessively high network load and unacceptable service response time. Data caching is widely used in wired and wireless networks to improve data access efficiency, by reducing the waiting time or latency experienced by the end users. A cache is a temporary storage of data likely to be used again. Caching succeeds in the area of computing because access patterns in typical computer applications exhibits locality of reference. Caching is effective in reducing bandwidth demand and network latencies. In wireless mobile network, holding frequently accessed data items in a mobile node’s local storage can reduce network traffic, response time and server load. To have the full benefits of caching, the neighbor nodes can cooperate and serve each other’s misses, thus further reducing the wireless traffic. This process is called cooperative caching. Since the nodes can make use of the objects stored in another node’s cache the effective cache size is increased. In this paper we discuss a cooperative cache based data access frame work for mobile cloud computing. The proposed approach uses the cloudlet architecture presented by M. Satyanarayanan. Recent emergence of data enabled mobile devices and wireless-enabled data applications have fostered new content dissemination models in today’s mobile ecosystem. A list of such devices includes Apple’s iPhone, Google's Android, Amazon’s Kindle, and electronic book readers from other vendors. The array of data applications includes electronic book and magazine readers and mobile phone Apps. The level of proliferation of mobile applications is indicated by the example fact that as of October 2010, Apple’s App Store offered over 100,000 apps that are downloadable by the smart phone users. With the conventional download model, a user downloads contents directly from a Content Provider's (C`P server over a Communication Service Provider’s (CSP) network. Downloading content through CSP’s network involves a cost which must be paid either by end users or by the content provider. In this work, we adopt Amazon Kindle electronic book delivery business model in which the CP (Amazon), pays to Sprint, the CSP, for the cost of network usage due to downloaded e-books by Kindle users. When users carrying mobile devices physically gather in settings such as University campus, work place, Mall, Airport and other public places, Social Wireless Networks (SWNETs) can be formed using ad hoc wireless connections between the devices. With the existence of such SWNETs, an alternative approach to content access by a device would be to first search the local SWNET for the requested content before downloading it from the Bathula Anil Kumar,

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CP’s server. The expected content provisioning cost of such an approach can be significantly lower since the download cost to the CSP would be avoided when the content is found within the local SWNET. This mechanism is termed as cooperative caching. In order to encourage the End-Consumers (EC) to cache previously downloaded content and to share it with other end-consumers, a peer-to-peer rebate mechanism is proposed. This mechanism can serve as an incentive so that the end-consumers are enticed to participate in cooperative content caching in spite of the storage and energy costs. In order for cooperative caching to provide cost benefits, this peer-to-peer rebate must be dimensioned to be smaller than the content download cost paid to the CSP. This rebate should be factored in the content provider’s overall cost. Due to their limited storage, mobile handheld devices are not expected to store all downloaded content for long. This means after downloading and using a purchased electronic content, a device may remove it from the storage. For example in Amazon Kindle clients (iPhone, iPad, etc.) an archive mode is available using which a user simply removes a book after reading it, although it remains archived as a purchased item in Amazon’s cloud server. Under the above pricing and data storage model a key question for cooperative caching is: How to store contents in nodes such that the average content provisioning cost in the network is minimized. In this paper we explore the possibility of a cooperative caching approach to enhance data access efficiency in mobile cloud computing.

2. Related Work There is a rich body of the existing literature on several aspects of cooperative caching including object replacements, reducing cooperation overhead and cooperation performance in traditional wired networks. The Social Wireless Networks explored in this paper, which are often formed using mobile ad hoc network protocols, are different in the caching context due to their additional constraints such as topological insatiability and limited resources. As a result, most of the available cooperative caching solutions for traditional static networks are not directly applicable for the SWNETs. In the first scheme, CacheData, a forwarding node checks the passing-by objects and caches the ones deemed useful according to some predefined criteria. This way, the subsequent requests for the cached objects can be satisfied by an intermediate node. A problem with this approach is that storing large number of popular objects in large number of intermediate nodes does not scale well. The second approach, CachePath, is different in that the intermediate nodes do not save the objects; instead they only record paths to the closest node where the objects can be found. The idea in CachePath is to reduce latency and overhead of cache resolution by finding the location of objects. This strategy works poorly in a highly mobile environment since most of the recorded paths become obsolete very soon. The last approach is the HybridCache in which either CacheData or CachePath is used based on the properties of the passing-by objects through an intermediate node. While all three mechanisms offer a reasonable solution, it is shown that relying only on the nodes in an object’s path is not most efficient. Using a limited broadcast-based cache resolution can significantly improve the overall hit rate and the effective capacity overhead of cooperative caching. According to the protocols in the mobile hosts share their cache contents in order to reduce both the number of server requests and the number of access misses. The concept is extended in for tightly coupled groups with similar mobility and data access patterns. This extended version adopts an intelligent bloom filter-based peer cache signature to minimize the number of flooded message during cache resolution. A notable limitation of this approach is that it relies on a centralized mobile support center to discover nodes with common mobility pattern and similar data access patterns. Our work, on the contrary, is fully distributed in which the mobile devices cooperate in a peer-to-peer fashion for minimizing the object access cost. In summary, in most of the existing work on collaborative caching, there is a focus on maximizing the cache hit rate of objects, without considering its effects on the overall cost which depends heavily on the content service and pricing models. This paper formulated two object replacement mechanisms to minimize the provisioning cost, instead of just maximizing the hit rate. Also, the validation of our protocol on a real SWNET interaction trace with dynamic partitions, and on a multi phone Android prototype is unique compared to the existing literature. From a user selfishness standpoint, Laoutaris et al. investigate its impacts and mistreatment on caching. A mistreated node is a cooperative node that experiences an increase in its access cost due to the Bathula Anil Kumar,

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selfish behavior by other nodes in the network. In Chun et al. study selfishness in a distributed content replication strategy in which each user tries to minimize its individual access cost by replicating a subset of objects locally (up to the storage capacity), and accessing the rest from the nearest possible location. Using a game theoretic formulation, the authors prove the existence of a pure Nash equilibrium under which network reaches a stable situation. Similar approach has been used in which the authors model a distributed caching as a market sharing game. Guohong Cao says that cooperative caching, in which multiple nodes share and coordinates cached data, is widely used to improve web performance in wired networks. However, resources constraints and node mobility have limited the application of these techniques in ad hoc networks. We propose caching techniques that use the underlying routing protocols to overcome these constraints and further improve performance. Saihan and Issarny proposed a cooperative caching scheme to increase data accessibility by P2P communication among MHs, when they are out of bound of a fixed infrastructure. It is implemented on the top of Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP).

3. Caching for Optimal Object Placement To understand the optimal object placement under homogeneous object request model we propose the following Split Cache policy in which the available cache space in each device is divided into a duplicate segment and a unique segment. In the first segment, nodes can store the most popular objects without worrying about the object duplication and in the second segment only unique objects are allowed to be stored. Among the Split Cache replacement policy, almost immediately following an object is downloaded from the CP’s server, it is categorized as only one of its kind object as there is only one copy of this object in the network. In addition, when a node downloads an object from another SWNET node, that object is categorized as a replica object as there are now at least two duplicates of that object in the network. For storing a new exclusive object, the least popular object in the whole cache is selected as a candidate and it is replaced with the new object if it is less popular than the new received object. For a duplicated object, however, the evictee candidate is selected only from the first duplicate segment of the cache. In other words, a unique object is never dispossessed in order to put up a duplicated object. The Split Cache object replacement mechanism realizes the optimal strategy. With this mechanism, at steady state all devices’ caches preserve the same object set in their duplicate areas, but distinct objects in their unique areas.

4. Cooperative Caching Framework for Mobile Cloud Computing Mobile cloud computing has found wide applications in many areas like speech synthesis, natural language processing, image processing, augmented reality, information sharing ,information searching , social networking, etc. While many applications like information sharing or social networking are not dependent on the speed of processing, some computation intensive applications like augmented reality, image processing demand high level of responsiveness. Cooperative caching tries to improve the response time by reducing VM synthesis time by caching previous states. If the users that use cloud services have similar interest, cooperative caching increases the response time considerably. A language translator is an interesting application, which we could look into. This is a useful tool for foreign travelers. Using mobile cloud computing, different words, sentences or paragraphs can be independently processed in the cloud. Commonly used words or sentences will be available in the local cache, which can be accessed faster during subsequent searches, thereby improving the responsiveness of the system. Cooperative caching consists of multiple distributed caches to improve system response time. Having distributed caches permits a system to deal with concurrent client request as well as sharing contents. We can also reduce response time by concurrently retrieving objects from different cache sites. Concurrent retrieval of objects from different cache sites is beneficial as opposed to the remote cloud server which will result in latency and bandwidth issues. There are two main cache deployment options: those which are deployed in the strategic points in cloudlet based on user access pattern and those which are deployed between the cloudlets. In this paper we consider the first option, deploying cache in different points (virtual machines) in the cloudlet. The cloudlet consists of virtual machines which are temporary customization of software environment for each client for Bathula Anil Kumar,

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their use. The virtual machines separate the transient client software environment from the permanent host software environment. A local cache can reduce virtual machine’s synthesis delay by caching virtual machine states that are likely be used again. In a cloudlet we can have more than one virtual machine with a local cache. If we are able to share the cache states, availability and accessibility of different states can be improved. Fig.1 shows the different components of cache layer.

Fig 1: Components of Cache Layer The cooperative cache daemon API acts as an interface between the application layer and the cache layer. The core system consists of two modules: data discovery and dissemination and the cache management. The information search module in the data discovery and dissemination layer locates and fetches the required object from the cache module. The cache management layer includes the cache replacement and consistency modules. Cache consistency module is designed to be configurable to maintain data synchronization with the original data. The cache replacement module handles the replacement of objects when the cache is full. The efficiency of a distributed cache depends on three services, discovery, dissemination and delivery of objects. Discovery refers to how the clients locate the cached object. Dissemination is the process of selecting and storing objects in the cache i.e., deciding the objects to be cached, where they are cached and when they are cached. Delivery defines how the objects make their way from the server or cache site to the client. A query based or directory based approach can be used for information discovery. Dissemination may be either client initiated or server initiated. In client initiated dissemination, the client determines what, when and where to cache. The advantage of this scheme is that it automatically adapts to the rapidly changing request pattern. In server initiated dissemination the server chooses the object to be cached. Here the server can maintain a historical data to make the dissemination decision. This approach can provide strong consistency compared to client driven approach. For the proposed approach as the mobile devices act as thin client dissemination decision can be taken by the cloudlet. Another issue we must look into is how to replace the objects from the cache when it is full. A number of cache replacement policies are proposed in literature for wired and wireless networks. The important factors that can influence the replacement process are access probability, recency of request for a data item, number of requests to a data item, size, cost of fetching data from server, modification time, expiration time, distance etc. Based on these parameters we can propose different cache replacement policies suitable for mobile cloud computing. Cooperative caching achieves high hit rates and low response time only if caches are distributed, cache sharing is wide spread and discovery overhead is low.

5. Future Study Several architectures are proposed in literature for this. The full potential of both cloud computing and mobile applications have not been realized yet. Many deployment challenges have to be addressed

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before making this a reality. We expect that the challenges posed in implementing our proposal shall be taken up for future studies. Ongoing work on this topic includes the development of an efficient algorithm for the heterogeneous demand scenario, with a goal of bridging the performance gap between the Benefit Based heuristics and the centralized greedy mechanism which was proven to be optimal Removal of the nocollusion assumption for user selfishness is also being worked on.

6. Conclusions Mobile cloud computing is a very promising approach for mobile devices. It enables the mobile device to act as thin clients by offloading the computation and processing overhead to cloud servers. The main purpose of this paper was to identify and study a cooperative object caching Strategy for provisioning cost minimization in social wireless networks. The key contribution was to demonstrate that the best cooperative caching for provisioning cost reduction requires an optimal split between object duplication and uniqueness. The paper studied and analytically developed optimal split point and subsequently developed caching performance, service and cost formulation. It constructs analytical and simulation models for analyzing the proposed caching strategies in the presence of selfish users that deviate from network-wide cost optimal policies. A co- operative caching strategy, split cache, is proposed numerically analyzed, and theoretically proven to provide optimal object placement for networks with homogeneous content demands. It also report results from an Android phone based prototype SWNET, validating the presented analytical and simulation results.

References [1] S.L.Suganya1 and Dr.R.Indra Gandhi – “Implementation of Cooperative Caching in Social Wireless Networks”, International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242 Volume 3 Issue 5 may, 2014 Page No. 6147-6152. [2] Preetha Theresa Joy & K. Poulose Jacob – “Cooperative Caching Framework for Mobile Cloud Computing”, Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Network, Web & Security Volume 13 Issue 8 Version 1.0 Year 2013, p.p.no 1-7. [3] Dimple Pandya, Manan Shah, Manvi Sinha, Sanika Patil, Anand Magar – “Distributed Cooperative Caching In Social Wireless Network”, Manan Shah et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, Issue 4( Version 1), April 2014, pp.335-338. [4] Hassnen Hazen Azez – “Optimal Cooperative Caching In Social Wireless Networks”, IJESC Research Article, May 2014, p.p.no 549-551. [5] S.Subramanian, M.Madan Mohan, G.Jagannathan – “Distributive Cooperative Caching Using LAN Network”, International Journal for Advance Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, Issue I, Jan. 2014, p.p.no 66-70. [6] Mahmoud Taghizadeh, Kristopher Micinski – “Distributed Cooperative Caching in Social Wireless Networks”, IEEE Transactions On Mobile Computing, Vol. 12, No. 6, June 2013, p.p.no.1037-1054. [7] M.Ramchander, U.Ramya Sree – “Confidentiality Management towards Data Possessor In Cloud System”, IJARES/July 2014/Volume-2/Issue-7/1147-1152.

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