Introduction This   report   analyses   the   external   environment   of   coffee   industry   in   Spain.   It   uses   the  Porter's Five Forces Model to analysing the competitive industry environment. Firstly, we  introduce coffee industry in Spain and Porter's model. Secondly, we develop the analysis.  And at the end we criticize used model. Coffee market is the biggest commodities market in the world apart from oil. Coffee is  mainly grown by small farmers in south countries. The economies of some of the poorest  countries in the world are highly dependent on coffee trade (Glesser and Tickey, 2002). In  2005, they produced 105,38 millions of bags 1, 87,49 millions of them went to exportation  that meant an amount of  9,82 US$ billions (ICO, 2006). The coffee is usually exported in  green beans to north countries where is processed (roasted, grounded, decaffeinated...)  and consumed. Only 5% of world coffee is processed in south countries (Scholer, 2004).  World consumption is estimated at 116.2 million bags in coffee year 2005 (ICO, 2006).  Spain: Imports of green coffee 1996 – 2006  ­ in bags of 60 kilos ­ Year

  Volume

1996

3270741

1997

3490161

1998

3483274

1999

3633701

2000

3511108

2001

3772666

2002

3681934

2003

3785850

Our   analysis   focuses   on   the   interval   in   coffee  chain   between   importation   to   consumption.  Corporations  in  this market are called  roasters.  They usually buy green coffee and transform it in  order to sell finally to customer. They can make  one or more processes in this chain. There are  two   big   final  ways  to   coffee:   home   and   food  service consumption.

Spain   is   the   4th  green   coffee   importer   country  2004 3770856 within   EU.   4.023.116   bags   of   green   were  2005 4020600 imported.   The   main   suppliers   are   Vietnam   and  2006 4023116 Brazil, which shared 57,57 percent of total coffee  Source: ECF 2007 imported   in   Spain   during   2006   (ECF,   2007).   In  the last few years, coffee market has remained stable in Spain whilst it has increases in  the world market. Spanish people consumed 163.840 tons of coffee in 2006, thus 3,8 kg per person and  year.   Nevertheless   coffee   consumption   decreased   during   the   year   2006,   coffee  consumption per capita has increased during last decade (MAPA, 2007). 1 Every bag is 60 kg of coffee Strategic Management – Coffee Industry in Spain

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Roasted coffee represented 83,28% of the total market, whilst soluble coffee was 16,72%,  following a similar trend as previous years. Distribution between home consumption and  food service gave a result of 56,12% of total consumption to the former sector and 43,88%  to   the   latter.   Ground   coffee   represented   over   92,14%   whilst   whole   beans   was   7,86%,  remaining considerably stable over the last few years, with an increasing trend for ground  coffee. Decaffeinated ground roasted coffee, what represented 18% of total home roasted  coffee consumption, increased as well in the year 2006 (ECF, 2007).

Coffee consumption in Spain  175 170

4

165

3,9

160 155

3,8

150

3,7

145

3,6

140

3,5

135 130

3,4

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Per capita 

Total (Millions 

(kg/person/year)

Kg.)

2005

2006

Source: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (MAPA)

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Spanish Coffee Industry analysis We are going to use Five Forces Model in order to analyse the coffee market in Spain. This  model was developed by Michael E. Porter in his book “Competitive Strategy: Techniques  for   Analysing   Industries   and   Competitors”   in   1980.   On   this   he   has   identified   five  competitive forces which determine intensity of competition and thus the profitability and  attractiveness of an industry. These forces are: bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threat of  potential new entrants, threat of substitutes, and rivalry among the existing firms. In this  report we will analyse each force, one to one.

The bargaining power of suppliers The bargaining power of suppliers is almost null. Main cause is grower characteristics.  Coffee is produced in over 50 countries by up to 25 million farmers, mostly in developing  areas (Wilson, 2006). Most coffee growers (80%) are small holders with just two or three  hectares of land where it is difficult take advantage of technology, without resources as  transportation, cash reserves or market information. Roaster companies have different ways to buy coffee as directly from the farmers, using  intermediaries, through government agencies, exporters or from brokers. Latest is main  used way. Brokers  connect coffee exporters and importers, and buy and sell coffee on  commission. Coffee prices are determined every day on the world commodity markets in  London and New York. It is determined by the relationship between the amount of coffee  available   to   be   sold   and   the   amount   which   companies   want   to   buy.   Thus,   the   market  determines the price that farmer receives.  However coffee prices are suddenly rising, in the last decades there were a major crisis  due overproduction. Roasters was beneficed low prices while growers became yet poorer.  Glesser and  Tickey (2002) stressed  that retailer price of one kg of soluble  coffee  was  26,40$ in UK while price delivered to factory was 1,64$ and grower had received 0,14$.  Supplier cost influence in final price is very weak. Farmers can only receive higher price if they can offer higher quality. But it is not always  possible. Furthermore, roasters have flexibility to choose type of coffee in order to make  Strategic Management – Coffee Industry in Spain

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the blend and reduce costs. There are different types of coffee but two main are Robusta  and Arabica. Latest is generally regarded as being of higher quality. Robusta, cheapest  variety, is more used to blend nowadays (Scholer, 2004). Another way to add value could be that farmers make some processes, but technology is  concentrated   in   consume   countries.   Coffee   beans   keep   long   time   fresh   whilst   roasted  coffee lost quickly its flavour (Scholer, 2004). Nevertheless, producer countries become to  boost their own consumption.

The bargaining power of buyers Retailers are customers of roaster companies. We are talking about supermarkets, food  services, independent retailers, coffee houses and vending machines. We can distinct two  differentiated   main   ways   of   consumption:   home   and   food   service.   In   Spain,   as  Mediterranean  countries, food  service  consumption  (58%)  is more elevated than  home  consumption   (41,8%)   (MAPA,   2006).   Home   consumption   is   mainly   provided   by  supermarkets (58%) and hypermarkets (30%). Distributors (75%) are common providers in  food service (Morales, 2003). In the last few years there has been an increment of coffee  shops and vending machines. For example in the U.S.A., coffee houses has increased  from 585 in 1989 to 17400 in 2003 (Wilson, 2006) Retailers are concentrated, large companies lead as home as food service distribution.  Thus they have a great bargain power. However, brands and product differentiation are  very important in customer final election. This equilibrates forces, but it forces companies  to develop expensive marketing policies. Backward integration is possible. Indeed, this is a new phenomenon related with coffee  stores   chains   as   Starbucks.   Success   of   Starbucks   has   encouraged   the   emergence   of  smaller boutique coffee houses and has also boost greater demand for quality coffees and  blends.  Selling price importance depends on kind of retailers. In food service selling price is far  from cost, so bargaining power are high for retailers. In home consumption prices are more  adjusted, but final customers contact, delivery conditions show roasters dependence from  biggest retailers.

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The threat of potential new entrants New   entrants   come   into   market   place   when   the   profit   margins   are   attractive   and   the  barriers to entry are low (Lynch, 2006). Coffee industry is a profitable industry, specially for  roasters. Nestle soluble profit margins are estimated near 30%. Roasted and grounded  coffee is less profitable than soluble but its earns are still enviable. For example, margin for  Sara Lee beverage are nearly 17% (Glesser and Tickey, 2002).  Few companies control international market and use their force to build big walls to entry to  news probable competitors. Porter (1998) defines seven major sources of barriers to entry:  economies of scale, product differentiation, capital requirements, switch costs, access to  distribution channels, cost disadvantages independent of scale, and government policy.  Indeed, product differentiation is the most important of these. Multinationals spend millions  of pounds in branding and marketing. Spanish coffee market, as world market, has strong  presence of multinationals companies. 65% of home consumption sales are occupied by  three   companies:   Sara   Lee   (Marcilla),   Nestle   (Bonka,   Nescafe)   and   Kraft   (Saimaza)  (Morales, 2003). This elevated spend on advertisement is a barrier what can unboost new  entrants, particularly importer companies or big growers.  Advertisement influences demand. And demand opens the access to distribution channels.  Accessing and keeping distribution channels are determinant. Afterwards, any change will  imply costs to stores, supermarkets or restaurants, and extra cost to new entrants. Nevertheless, switch costs are not enough. Costumer perception is important too. Ethics  or better perceived flavour can induce a change. Research and development will play a  determinant   role.   This   implies   an   extraordinary   effort   to   know   the   market   and   its   new  trends.   Only   big   companies   will   be   able   to   develop   new   better   products   (Nescafe  Original...), performances (Nespresso, Tacimo...), ... and support these costs independent  of scale. New technology can help to reduce cost and become also both a cost independent of  scale and also a barrier to new entrants. Roasting green coffee, grounding and packaging,  converting in instant coffee or extracting caffeine are the process carried out by the coffee  industry. All are economies of scale. This means a barrier of entry because new entrants  has to come in on a large scale in order to achieve the low cost levels of those already  present   (Lynch,   2006).   However,   there   are   also   other   300   small   and   national   roaster  companies (Morales, 2003). They only produce roasted and grounded coffee, because  Strategic Management – Coffee Industry in Spain

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there   are   simple   processes.   Instead   in   other   more   complex   process,   decaffeinating   or  making instant coffee, we find few companies. Liberalisation of Spanish coffee market arrived in 1980. Beforehand one public organism,  Comisaría de Abastecimientos y Transportes (CAT), intervened in the market fixing quotas  to roasters. Nowadays, there are no duties to import processed or green coffee in Spain  and the VAT rate is 7% for all coffee products (European Coffee Federation, 2007).

The threat of substitutes Competition from other beverages, as mainly soft drinks but also herbal teas, fruit juices or  mineral water, has been an important factor that threatening coffee demand. Over the last  thirty years or so, soft drinks have become more popular than coffee, especially among  young people. Below graphic shows this trend in the U.S.A. (Glesser and Tickey, 2002).  Price may be a major factor in the change to alternative beverages, but health worries and  advertising   also   provide   strong  motives   to   switch   to   other  beverages (ITC, 2002).    However,   the   situation   is   far  from   static.   Growth   of   coffee  houses as Starbucks, points of  view focusing soft drinks related  child obesity, growth of vending  coffee   machines,   ...   are  showing this change. In   2005,   retail   sales   at   coffee  houses grew up 13.9% to $14.4  billion in U.S.A. (MacArthur, 2006). The rise of Starbucks coffee stores has developed a  new business area in coffee sector. In addition, Nestle is expanding the sale of  coffee  capsules   and   machines   for   make   espresso   at   home,   under   Nespresso   brand.   This   is  probably   a   new   formula   to   provide   extra   aspects   of   the   service   and   avoid   switching.  Quickly other companies have put similar products in the market. Moreover, Nespresso is  developing   boutiques  following   the  lead   of  other   consumer  goods  companies,   such   as  Apple   computers   and   Louis   Vuitton   luggage,   which   use   their   own   retail   outlets   to   sell  products and project a sophisticated image for the brand (Wiggins and Simonian, 2007).  Strategic Management – Coffee Industry in Spain

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Indeed, coffee market has not danger of obsolescence. Few years ago, Spanish Food and Drink Industries Federation (FIAB) signed Strategy for  nutrition, physical activity and avoid of obesity (NAOS) with Spanish Government. In this  document Industry engaged to give available information nutritional to customer, boost the  production of low salt, grease and sugar food, reduce in long term caloric share in food  products, ... This is a little first step in the fight against obesity that will likely intensify next  years.  Many opinions are focusing on soft drinks as one of the child obesity responsible. These  points of view are influencing customers which most want more healthy drinks. In this way,  Coke has strengthened its offerings in tea and coffee after restructuring a joint venture with  Nestle   SA   and   acquiring   Fuze   Beverage   LLC,   a   maker   of   teas,   juices,   and   other  beverages. This is being a strategy to face persistent soda­sales slump in North America  (McKay and Cordeiro, 2007).

The extent of competitive rivalry There   are   about   15   green   coffee   importers   and   distributors,   over   than   300   roaster  companies and 5 soluble coffee makers in Spain, according to Spanish Coffee Federation.  Small  companies are commonly producing for local  or regional markets. Most of small  roasters companies make roasted and grounded coffee to food service sector and white  brands for supermarkets. Multinationals   make   all   processes,   from   importation   to   specialised   processes   as  decaffeinate.   These   companies   lead   home   consumption   sector.   Three   multinationals,  ­Nestle,  Sara   Lee   and  Kraft­  have  over  60  percent  of  coffee   sales  for consumption   at  home. Nestle is leader of sales in coffee beans 23,5 % and soluble 64,2% (Nescafe). Sara  Lee is the first in ground coffee sales accounting a 23,3% (Marcilla) and Kraft share is 18%  (Saimaza). Only white brands compete which these giants, representing 22,9 % in ground  coffee, 14,3 % in  coffee beans and 28,2 % in soluble (Morales, 2003).   So,   we   find   two   different   rivalries   depend   on   product   destination.   In   food   service  consumption,   a   lot   of   small   companies   compete   local   or   regionally   with   a   no   much  differentiated   products.  While  in  home   consumption,  big   companies compete  nationally  with their famous brands. 

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In home consumption sector, rivalry is high. Competitors are roughly of equal size and all  try to gain share. When one of them makes a new product, quickly the rest follow it. For  example,   fair   trade   coffee   has   been   an   answer   to   unfair   market   leads   by   few  multinationals. But in the last years, these multinationals have began to operate with fair  trade coffee. Kraft was the first to launch fair trade coffee brand, Kenco (Sweney, 2004).  Nestle quickly launched Partners' Blend (Carter, 2005), Procter & Gamble went later. Other  companies   take   their   own   approaches   and   even   influenced   chocolate   market   (Bettie,  2005). The   same   occured   in   coffee   stores,   Starbucks   began   successfully   and   quickly   other  companies   launched   similar   systems.   Thus,   Coca­Cola   introduced   Far   Coast   in   some  countries and Nestle was developing Nescafe Specialty Solutions (MacArthur, 2006). Or in  espresso home machines, Nestle launched Nespresso, then Kraft, Procter & Gamble and  other companies follow them (Ellison, 2005; Grocott, 2007). Any company can not permit  let advantage to competitors.

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Criticism of Porter's Five Forces Model in Coffee Industry Complexity is one characteristic of social matters. Any model will never be whole, it always  will be an approach. Porter’s Five Forces Model is not an exception. It may be useful to  analyse   competitive   environment   in   order   to   discover   industry   profitability   and  attractiveness but other aspects remain forget.  It focuses in five main forces as we have explained before. But it forgets one big force,  sometimes the most decisive. This is the role of Governments. These may be crucial in  coffee   industry,   specially   if   they   are   agree   together.   It   exists   an   International   Coffee  Organisation   (ICO)   founded   in   1963   by   United   Nations   and   formed   by   exporter   and  importer   countries.   International   Coffee   Agreement   (ICA)   is   an   agreement   between  producer   countries   and   importer   countries   managed   by   ICO   in   order   to   reinforce  consumption and to achieve a sustainable coffee industry. At the beginning its role was to  stabilize   the   market   by   managing   trade   and   controlling   prices.   The   fall   of   prices  consequence of overproduction concords with ICA falls since 1989. New ICA was in 2001  that came into effect in May 2005 and supposed a new rise in coffee prices.  Porter's model forgets absolutely the role of Governments. In coffee market, this role is  essential in exporter countries. In many cases, national economy depends on coffee or  other commodities exportation. Governments intervene in different ways to protect their  industries and their economy. Some concepts of Porter's model are not close. It is difficult to define clear roles in roaster  industry. Firstly, called roaster multinationals are also exporters, importers and sometimes  retailers. Then, who is customer or buyer? Vertical integration of processes makes unclear  Porter's analysis in roaster industry. And secondly, big retailers create white brands what  compete with other brands. Then they are at the same time customer and also competitor.  Concepts in Porter's model are getting older. Environment is not always a threat. Trade is not only a competitiveness place, but also a  cooperative place. Companies compete but also cooperate to ensure market runs well for  them. Lobbies are example of this point. In Spain, Spanish Coffee Federation is integrated  by most coffee industry companies. European Coffee Federation is the same in European  zone. These organisations have a lot of politic influence and sometimes have no doubt to  act   politically   incorrect.   Instead,   Porter's   model   remain   in   the   politically   correct   way,  explaining an unhistorical dream of perfect markets.  Strategic Management – Coffee Industry in Spain

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Individualistic   and   utilitarian   Porter's   analysis   can   not   understand   Fair   Trade   social  movement.   Can   ethics   of   people   change   markets?   Customers   power   perhaps   may   be  higher   than   Porter   imagines.   May   be   not.  Which   are   the   limits   of   profitability   of  corporations?   Porter   puts   first   the   interest   of   corporations.   But   what   happened   with  people? Corporations have to serve people or people have to serve corporations? Can we  ­in north countries­ have a coffee  quietly while  growers live in poor conditions? Which  should the aim of economics be? To find egoist profitability without mind in consequences?  Some NGOs, as Oxfam International, have influenced public opinion about consequences  of coffee market liberalisation.

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Bibliography Beattie, A. (2005) Coffees with a conscience Ethical Branding: Consumers have a choice   between   the   distinct   approaches   of   marks   such   as   Fairtrade   and   Rainforest   Alliance.  Financial Times. London (UK): Oct 18, 2005. pg. 13 Carter,   M.   (2005)  Big   business   pitches   itself   on   fair   trade   territory   Ethical   Branding.  Financial Times. London (UK): Oct 25, 2005. pg. 13 Ellison, S. New Machines Perk Up Coffee Sales? Wall Street Journal. New York, N.Y.: Mar  16, 2005. pg. B.1 European Coffee Federation (2007). European Coffee Report 2006.   Giovannucci, D. (2001) Sustainable Coffee Survey of the North American Specialty Coffee  Industry. http://www.scaa.org/pdfs/2001_Sustainable_Report_NA.pdf Glesser,   Ch.   and   Tickey,   S.   (2002)    Mugged:   Poverty   in   your   coffee   cup.   Oxfam  International  Grocott,   J.  The   Home   Front:   Re­Engineering   Espresso;   The   Complex   World   of   Coffee   Research  and the  Quest for a Better Shot. Wall Street Journal. (Eastern  edition). New  York, N.Y.: Aug 31, 2007. pg. W.8 International Coffee Organization (2006). Annual Review 2005/2006. International Coffee Organization (2007). Report on coffee trade. September 2007. International Trade Centre (2002). Coffee ­ An exporter's guide. www.thecoffeeguide.org Lynch, R. (2006) Corporate strategy. Harlow : Financial Times Prentice Hall. MacArthur, K. (2006) Coke, Nestlé take aim at Starbucks. Advertising Age. Chicago: Sep  11, 2006. Vol. 77, Iss. 37; pg. 1, 2 pgs McKay, B. (2006) Coke, Nestle Narrow Drink Venture; Move Frees Firms to Pursue Thier   Own Coffees and Teas For Rapidly Growing Sector. Wall Street Journal.  New York: Nov 3,  Strategic Management – Coffee Industry in Spain

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2006. pg. B.3 McKay, B. and Cordeiro, A. (2007)  Coke Looks to Plug Sales Hole. Wall Street Journal.  New York, Apr 18, 2007. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (2006). Hechos y cifras de la agricultura, la   pesca y la alimentación en España 2004­2005. Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (2005) Estrategia para la nutrición, actividad física y  prevención de la obesidad.  Morales Miguelez, C. (2003). El mercado del café en España. Pangea Consultores S.L. Porter,   M.   (1998)  Competitive   Strategy:   Techniques   for   Analysing   Industries   and   Competitors. New York London : Free Press , 2004 Scholer, M. (2004) Bitter or Better Future for Coffee Producers? International Trade Forum;  2004; 2; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 9S Sweney, M. (2004) Kraft beats Nestlé to launch of fair trade coffee. Marketing. London: Jul  7, 2004. pg. 1 Wiggins, J. and Simonian, H. (2007)  How to serve a bespokecup  of coffee marketing:   Nespresso is following other brands with the launch of boutiques to display its product.  Financial Times. London (UK): Apr 3, 2007. pg. 10 Wilson, T. (2006)  Macchiato Myths: The dubious benefits of fair trade coffee.  Review ­  Institute of Public Affairs; Jul 2006; 58, 2; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 24

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Criticism of Porter's Five Forces Model in Coffee Industry

transportation, cash reserves or market information. Roaster companies have ... distribution channels, cost disadvantages independent of scale, and government policy. Indeed, product differentiation is the .... Lee is the first in ground coffee sales accounting a 23,3% (Marcilla) and Kraft share is 18%. (Saimaza). Only white ...

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