IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 1, Issue 5, May 2013, Pg. 202-211

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT)

www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-

5569

Detection of Masquerade Attacks in Wireless Network 1

K S Nalini Kumari, 2 Mohammed Fayaz

1

Final Year M.Tech Student, Department of ECE, BTL Institute of Technology & Management, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. 2 Lecturer, BTL Institute of Technology & Management, ECE Dept., Bangalore, Karnataka, India 1

[email protected] , 2 [email protected]

Abstract Wireless networks are vulnerable to spoofing attacks, which allows for many other forms of attacks on the networks. A spoofing attack is the most common online attack in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage, it become more sophisticated defense mechanisms. Spoofing based attacks have severe consequences and are wide-spread, but much of the present day Internet is illprepared to defend against them. This paper briefly discussed types of attacks in wireless network and mainly how to mitigate many of the well-known (e.g., IP spoofing and MAC spoofing) types of spoofing.

Keywords: Spoofing, MAC spoofing, IP spoofing, Pre-configure file, IDPF.

1. Introduction wireless networks are vulnerable to spoofing attacks. Spoofing is one entity masquerading as another. Spoofing based attacks are well-known in the Internet at least for the last two decades [1]. Although they are well-known and well understood, they continue to plague the Internet. The spoofing based attacks are not only continuing, they are widespread [2], [3]. It is of types•

IP Spoofing



MAC Spoofing



URL Spoofing



WEB Spoofing



DNS Spoofing

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Email Spoofing

1.1 IP Spoofing Spoofing was once popular in TCP SYN flood type of attacks [4]. Over time, spoofing is getting employed in various other types of attacks. Spoofing is often an integral part of various DoS (Denial of Service) attacks [2]. Although IP based spoofing [6] (where source IP address in IP packet is spoofed) is the most popular type of spoofing, other types of spoofing also appear on the Internet: 1.2 MAC spoofing MAC spoofing is done by setting the source MAC address of an Ethernet frame to the MAC address belonging to a different machine [7]. 1.3 URL Spoofing URL spoofing occurs when one website appears as if it is another. The URL that is displayed is not the real URL of the site, therefore the information is sent to a hidden web address. Using this technique the hacker could create a series of fake websites and steal a user's private information unknowingly. URL spoofing is sometimes used to direct a user to a fraudulent site and by giving the site the same look and feel as the original site the user attempts to login with a username and password. The hacker collects the username and password then displays a password error and directs the user to the legitimate site. 1.4 WEB Spoofing When malicious action causes the reality of the browsing session to differ significantly from the mental model a sophisticated user has of that session. It allows the attacker creates misleading context in order trick the victim for online fraud [8]. 1.5 DNS Spoofing DNS Spoofing is the art of making a DNS entry to point to another IP than it would be supposed to point to. DNS Spoofing is the trick of making a DNS entry to point to some IP other than it would be supposed to point to hijacking the identity of the server. The DNS Spoofing feature is designed to allow a router to act as a proxy DNS server and spoof replies to any DNS queries using either the configured IP address in the IP-DNS spoofing IP-address command or the IP address of the incoming interface for the query. 1.6 Email Spoofing This forgery of the email’s from address is a favorite technique of spammers and phishers to try to get you to respond to their emails. E-mail spoofing is e-mail activity in which the sender address and other parts of the e-mail header are altered to appear as though the e-mail originated from a different source. Because core SMTP doesn't provide any authentication, it is easy to impersonate and forge emails. It is usually fraudulent but can be legitimate. By changing certain properties of the e-mail, such as the From, ReturnPath and Reply-To fields (which can be found in the message header), ill-intentioned users can make the email appear to be from someone other than the actual sender. The result is that, although the e-mail appears to come from the address indicated in the Form field (found in the e-mail headers), it actually comes from another source. K S Nalini Kumari, IJRIT

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2. Related Work Research in time-sharing is provided by a collection of programs whose elaborate and strange design outgrowth of many years of experience with earlier versions. To help develop a secure system, we have continuing competition to devise new way to attack the security of the system (the bad guy) and, at the same time, to device new techniques to resist the new attack (the good guy) . This competition has been in the same vein as the completion of long standing. For this reasons, the description that follows will trace the history of MAC Spoofing, IP Spoofing and packet routing rather than just sending a data normally without any encryption in the network. 2.1

MAC Spoofing Overview

MAC spoofing is a technique for changing a factory-assigned Media Access Control (MAC) address of a network interface on a networked device. The MAC address is hard-coded on a network interface controller (NIC) and cannot be changed. The process of masking a MAC address is known as MAC spoofing. Essentially, Mac spoofing entails changing a computer's identity, for good or for bad reasons, and it is relatively easy [1]. Most of the time, an internet service provider (ISP) registers the client's MAC address for service and billing services [2]. Since MAC addresses are unique and hard-coded on network interface controller (NIC) cards [1], when the client wants to connect a new gadget or change his/her existing gadget, the ISP will detect different MAC addresses and the ISP might not grant Internet access to those new devices. This can be circumvented easily by MAC spoofing. The client only needs to spoof the new gadget's MAC address to the MAC address that was registered by the ISP [2]. In this case, the client spoofs his or her MAC address to gain Internet access from multiple devices. While this seems like a legitimate case, MAC spoofing new gadgets can be considered illegal if the ISP's user-agreement prevents the user from connecting more than one device to their service. Moreover, the client is not the only person who can spoof his or her MAC address to gain access to the ISP. Hackers can gain unauthorized access to the ISP via the same technique. This allows hackers to gain access to unauthorized services, and the hacker will be hard to identify because the hacker uses the client's identity. This action is considered an illegitimate use of MAC spoofing and illegal as well. However, it is very hard to track hackers utilizing MAC spoofing [3]. 2.2

IP Spoofing Overview

In computer networking, the term IP address spoofing or IP spoofing refers to the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a forged source IP address, called spoofing, with the purpose of concealing the identity of the sender or impersonating another computing system.[4] In the recent past, spoofing is heavily used in DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) [3]. Although attackers can insert arbitrary source addresses into IP packets, they cannot, however, control the actual paths that the packets take to the destination. Based on this observation, Park and Lee [10] proposed the route-based packet filters as a way to mitigate IP spoofing. The idea is that, assuming single path routing, there is exactly one single path p(s; d) between source node s and destination node d. Hence, any packets with source address s and destination address d that appear in a router not in p(s; d) should be discarded. The challenge is that constructing such a route-based packet filter requires the knowledge of global routing information, which is hard to reconcile on the current Internet routing infrastructure [11].

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2.3 BGP We assume that there is at most one edge between a pair of neighboring ASs. Each node owns one or multiple network prefixes. Nodes exchange BGP route updates, which may be announcements or withdrawals, to learn of changes in reach ability to destination network prefixes. A route announcement contains a list of route attributes associated with the destination network prefix. Of particular interest to us are the path vectors attribute as_path, which is the sequence of ASs that this route has been propagated over, and the local_pref attribute that describes the degree of local preference associated with the route. We will use r.as_path, r.local_pref, and r.prefix to denote the as_path, the local_pref, and the destination network prefix of r, respectively.

3. Proposed System Route-based packet filters-mitigating IP spoofing single-path routing, there is exactly one single path p(s, d) between the source node s and the destination node d. Hence, any packet with the source address s and the destination address d that appear in a router that is not in p(s, d) should be discarded. Problem: filter requires the knowledge of global routing information, which is hard to reconcile in the current Internet routing infrastructure. Constructing route-based packet filters- acquire the complete knowledge of routing decisions made by all other AS. BGP is a policy-based routing protocol in that both the selection and the propagation of the best route to a destination at an AS are guided by some locally defined routing policies. Existing system uses Network Ingress Filtering. Ingress filtering primarily prevents a specific network from being used for attacking others. Proposed System in our project: we propose and study IDPF architecture as an effective countermeasure to the IP spoofing-based DDoS attacks. IDPFs rely on BGP update messages exchanged on the Internet to infer the validity of source address of a packet forwarded by a neighbor. It correctly works without discarding any valid packets two distinct sets of routing policies are typically employed by a node: import policies – Neighbor-specific import policies are applied upon routes learned from neighbors export policies. -- Whereas neighbor-specific export policies are imposed on locally selected best routes before they are propagated to the neighbors. BGP is an incremental protocol a downhill path is a sequence of edges that are either provider-to-customer or sibling-to sibling edges an uphill path is a sequence of edges that are either customer-to-provider or sibling-to sibling edges in our project we propose and study IDPF architecture as an effective countermeasure to the IP spoofing-based DDoS attacks. IDPFs rely on BGP update messages exchanged on the Internet to infer the validity of source address of a packet forwarded by a neighbor. Minimize the denial of service attacks. For finding possible path we don’t need globule routing information. Reducing the IP spoofing through BGB updates, this will overcome the drawback of finding BEST route. We are constructing the IDPF to control IP Forging. Before controlling IP Forging We have to know what the attacks are present in the internet and why we are controlling IP Forging, is the Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack is a serious threat to the legitimate use of the Internet. Prevention mechanisms are thwarted by the ability of attackers to forge or steal the source addresses in IP packets. By employing IP stealing or forging, attackers can evade detection and put a substantial burden on the destination network for policing attack packets. In this, we propose an inter-domain packet filter (IDPF) architecture that can mitigate the level of IP forging on the Internet.

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A key feature of our scheme is that it does not require global routing information. IDPFs are constructed from the information implicit in Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) route updates and are deployed in network border routers. We establish the conditions under which the IDPF framework correctly works in that it does not discard packets with valid source addresses. Based on extensive simulation studies, we show that, even with partial deployment on the Internet, IDPFs can proactively limit the forging capability of attackers. In addition, they can help localize the origin of an attack packet to a small number of candidate networks. In this chapter, the intuition behind the IDPF architecture is discussed, it is shown how IDPFs are constructed using BGP route updates, and establishes the correctness of IDPFs. After that, the case where ASs have routing policies that are less restrictive are been discussed. It is assumed that the routing system is in the stable routing state in this chapter. IDPFs fare with network routing dynamics is also discussed. Let M(s, d) denote a packet whose source address is s (or more generally, the address belongs to AS s) and whose destination address is d. A packet filtering scheme decides whether a packet should be forwarded or dropped based on certain criteria. Definition 1 (route-based packet filtering): Node v accepts packet M(s, d) that is forwarded from node u if and only if e (u, v) ε best R(s, d). Otherwise, the source address of the packet is spoofed, and the packet is discarded by v. In the context of preventing IP spoofing, an ideal packet filter should discard spoofed packets while allowing legitimate packets to reach the destinations. Since, even with the perfect routing information, the route-based packet filters cannot identify all spoofed packets [12], a valid packet filter should focus on not dropping any legitimate packets while providing the ability to limit spoofed packets. Accordingly, the correctness of a packet filter is defined as follows: Definition 2 (correctness of packet filtering): A packet filter is correct if it does not discard packets with valid source addresses when the routing system is stable. Clearly, the route-based packet filtering is correct, because valid packets from source s to destination d will only traverse the edges on bestR(s, d). Computing route-based packet filters requires the knowledge of bestR(s, d) on every node, which is impossible in BGP. IDPF overcomes this problem.

3.1 IDPF overview A topological route between nodes s and d is a loop-free path between the two nodes. Topological routes are implied by the network connectivity. A topological route is a feasible route under BGP if and only if the construction of the route does not violate the routing policies imposed by the commercial relationship between ASs. Formally, let feasibleR(s, d) denote the set of feasible routes from s to d. Then, feasibleR(s, d) can recursively be defined as follows: feasible R(s; d) ={〈 s ⊕ ∪ feasibleR(u; d) 〉}; u: import(s ← u)[{r}] ≠ {}, r:prefix = d, u ∈ N(s) K S Nalini Kumari, IJRIT

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Where ⊕ is the concatenation operation, e.g., { s ⊕ {〈ab〉〈uv〉}} = {〈sab〉〈suv〉}. It is noticed that feasibleR(s,d) contains all the routes between the pair that does not violate the import and export routing policies. Obviously, bestR(s,d) ε candidateR(s,d)  feasibleR(s,d). Each of the feasible routes can potentially be a candidate route in a BGP routing table. Theorem 1 also applies to feasible routes. Definition 3 (feasible upstream neighbor): Consider a feasible route r ε feasibleR(s,d). If an edge e(u,v) is on the feasible route, that is, e(u,v) ε r.as_path, we say that node u is a feasible upstream neighbor of node v for packet M(s,d). The set of all such feasible upstream neighbors of v (for M(s,d)) is denoted as feasibleU(s,d,v). The intuition behind the IDPF framework is the following: First, it is possible for a node v to infer its feasible upstream neighbors by using BGP route updates. The technique for inferring feasible upstream neighbors is described in the next section. Since bestR(s,d) ε candidateR(s, d) feasibleR(s,d), a node can only allow M(s,d) from its feasible upstream neighbors to pass and discard all other packets. Such a filtering will not discard packets with valid source addresses. Second, although network connectivity (topology) may imply a large number of topological routes between a source and a destination, the commercial relationship between ASs and routing policies employed by ASs act to restrict the size of feasibleR(s,d). Figure 1, Figures 2(a) and (b) present the topological routes implied by network connectivity and feasible routes constrained by routing policies between source s and destination d, respectively.

Figure 1 An example network topology. In Figure 2(b) we assume that nodes a, b, c, and d have mutual peering relationship, and that a and b are providers to s. We see that although there are 10 topological routes between source s and destination d, we only have 2 feasible routes that are supported by routing policies.

Figure 2 Routes between source s and destination d (a) Topological routes implied by connectivity. (b) Feasible routes constraints by routing policies K S Nalini Kumari, IJRIT

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Of more importance to IDPF is that, although network topology may imply all neighbors can forward a packet allegedly from a source to a node, feasible routes constrained by routing policies help limit the set of such neighbors. As an example, let us consider the situation at node d. Given that only nodes a and b (but not c) are on the feasible routes from s to d, node d can infer that all packets forwarded by node c and allegedly from source s are spoofed and should be discarded. 3.2

Algorithm • • • • • •

Pre-configured file Constructing possible routing table Finding feasible path DES algorithm for security Constructing Inter-Domain Packet Filters Receiving the valid packets

First To prevent MAC spoofing the user may use a pre-configured file to constantly change their MAC address while performing large file transfers in order to avoid being caught by the NIDS. Usually this security implementation will track the origin of large transfers to the MAC address, but if the MAC address is constantly changing, then it appears to the NIDS as many different people transferring many small files. The next step is to construct a routing table. Each node maintaining routing table which contain the information about the neighbor node. A Routing Table is the way in which this data is stored, like a map. It is a database which keeps track of possible paths like a map and provides this information to the node requesting the data. Next we are finding out the feasible path for the corresponding destination. Later we used encryption for security purpose for which DES algorithm made helpful and hashing technique is used for verification of sender. In the next step we design the inter domain packet filter. Each and every node has packet filter. It takes the possible path as input. The destination node act as inter-domain packet filter. The filter knows what is the feasible path, it segregate what is valid packet and what is spoofed packet. By using this information that is present the routing table. The destination node receives the packet only if it contains the valid source address. Rests of packets are all discarded.

4. Implementation and Result In order to experimentally verify the proposed scheme, a algorithms is implemented using Java in JCreator and Oracle software tools. 4.1 Developed Results The algorithm is developed using java programming language. The code is tested for network topology which has taken as an example which can be seen in figure 1. The Routes between source s and destination d Topological routes implied by connectivity, Feasible routes constraints by routing policies and output is as shown in Figures 3,4,5,6 and Figure 7 detection spoofing .

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Figure 3. Inputting a file and selected a destination from source left figure is for IP spoofing and right side the MAC spoofing is enabled

Figure 4. Resulting a possible paths from source s to destination d which can be seen at destination node.

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Figure 5. Resulting a feasible path from source s to destination d seen at source node.

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Figure 6. Providing external MAC address of different node encrypt this address and send the message.

Figure 7. Result at destination node based on feasible path.

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5. Conclusion We proposed and studied an pre- configured file and inter-domain packet filter (IDPF) architecture as an effective countermeasure to the MAC spoofing and IP spoofing-based DDoS attacks. We showed that IDPFs can easily be deployed on the current BGP-based Internet routing architecture. We studied the conditions under which the IDPF framework can correctly work without discarding any valid packets. Our results showed that, even with partial deployment on the Internet, IDPFs can significantly limit the spoofing capability of attackers. Moreover, they also help pinpoint the true origin of an attack packet to be within a small number of candidate networks, thus simplifying the reactive IP trace back process. Being developed in Java platform, the system suffers from the drawbacks of this environment, i.e. mainly the localization is not possible. It can be further extended to work localizing the spoofing attacks.

7. Acknowledgments The authors thank the reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions that helped us to make the paper in its present form. Authors extend thanks to, Principal, B.T.L Institute of Technology & Management, Bangalore and the Management, for their support and co-operation in carrying out the work successfully in the institute.

8. References [1].

S. M. Bellovin, “Security problems in the TCP/IP protocol suite,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 1989.

[2]. W. R. Cheswick, S. M. Bellovin, and A. D. Rubin. Firewalls and Internet Security: repelling the wily hacker. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003. [3]. R. Beverly and S. Bauer, “The spoofer project: inferring the extent of source address filtering on the internet,” in SRUTI’05: Proc. of the Steps to Reducing Unwanted Traffic on the Internet, Berkeley, CA,USA, 2005. [4]. TCP SYN flooding and IP spoofing attacks. Advisory CA-96.21, CERT, September 1996. [5]. C. Jin, H. Wang, and K. G. Shin, “Hop-count filtering: an effective defense against spoofed DDoS traffic,” in CCS ’03: Proc. of the 10th ACM conference on Computer and communications security, New York, 2003. [6]. F. Ali, “IP spoofing,” The Internet Protocol Journal, 2007. [7]. D. Atkins et al. Internet Security. New Riders, 1997. [8]. Drew Dean, Edward W. Felten, Dirk Balfanz and Dan S. Wallach. Web spoofing: An Internet Con Game. Department of Computer Science, Princeton University, 1997. In 20th National Information Systems Security Conference (Baltimore, Maryland), October, 1997. [9]. S. J. Templeton and K. E. Levitt, “Detecting spoofed packets,” in Proc. of DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition, April 2003. [10]. K. Park and H. Lee, “On the effectiveness of route-based packet filtering for distributed DoS attack prevention in power-law internets,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, San Diego, CA, Aug. 2001. [11]. Y. Rekhter and T. Li, “A border gateway protocol 4 (BGP-4),” RFC 1771, Mar. 1995.

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