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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2009

Distributive Subband Allocation, Power and Rate Control for Relay-Assisted OFDMA Cellular System with Imperfect System State Knowledge Ying Cui, Student Member, IEEE, Vincent K. N. Lau, Senior Member, IEEE, and Rui Wang, Student Member, IEEE

Abstract—In this paper, we consider distributive subband, power and rate allocation for a two-hop downlink transmission in an orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA) cellular system with fixed relays which operate in decode-andforward strategy. We take into account of the penalty of packet errors due to imperfect CSIT and system fairness by considering weighted sum goodput as our optimization objective. Based on the cluster-based architecture, we obtain a fast-converging distributive solution with only local imperfect CSIT by using decomposition of the optimization problem. To further reduce the signaling overhead and computational complexity, we propose a reduced feedback distributive solution, which can achieve asymptotically optimal performance for large number of users with arbitrarily small feedback overhead per user. We also derive asymptotic average system throughput so as to obtain useful design insights.

capacity. To further improve the system throughput, joint subband and power allocation is proposed in [4], [5]. However, as a simplification, they assumed that the source-relay, sourcedestination and relay-destination links use the same subband, which cannot effectively exploit the multiuser diversity. While these works provide important initial investigations on the potential benefit of relay-assisted OFDMA systems, centralized resource allocation solutions and perfect knowledge of GCSI are required. In general, there are still several important remaining technical issues to be resolved in order to bridge the gap between theoretical gains and practical implementation considerations. They are elaborated below. ∙

Index Terms—Relay, OFDMA, resource allocation, fairness, distributive algorithm.

T

I. I NTRODUCTION

HE relay-assisted OFDMA cellular system is a promising architecture for future wireless communication systems because it offers huge potential for enhanced system capacity, coverage as well as reliability. Since practical relays operate in a half-duplex manner, there is a duplexing penalty associated when using the relay to forward packets. As a result, it is very important to adapt the relay resource dynamically according to the global channel state information (GCSI)1 in order to capture the advantage of the relay-assisted OFDMA architecture. However, perfect knowledge of GCSI is very difficult to obtain due to the huge signaling overhead involved in delivering GCSI to the controller. There are a lot of research interests focused on improving the system throughput by the optimal resource allocation of the relay-assisted OFDMA system. For example, in [1], [2], optimal subband allocation is considered for different scheduling schemes based on equal power allocation across all the subbands. In [3], heuristic separate subband and power allocation schemes are considered to improve the system Manuscript received July 10, 2008; revised December 1, 2008 and March 26, 2009; accepted May 24, 2009. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was N. Kato. The authors are with the Department of ECE, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technologies, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (e-mail: {cuiying, eeknlau, wray}@ust.hk). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2009.080920 1 Global CSI refers to the CSI of the base station (BS) and relay (RS), the CSI of the RS and mobile (MS) as well as the CSI of the BS and the MS.





Distributive Implementation: There are two potential issues associated with centralized implementations, namely the complexity issue (huge computational loading to the BS for the centralized joint optimization) and the signaling loading issue (GCSI collection from the RSs and MSs as well as scheduled results broadcast to the RSs and MSs). In [6], the authors proposed two semidistributed sub-optimal subband allocation methods based on equal power allocation, which have offloaded certain computational load from the BS, but substantial signaling overhead is still needed to collect the GCSI from the RSs. Imperfect Knowledge of GCSI: While all the above works assume perfect GCSI knowledge at the transmitter, the CSIT measured at the transmitter side cannot be perfect due to either the CSIT estimation noise or the outdatedness of CSIT resulting from duplexing delay. Hence, there will be systematic packet errors (despite the use of strong channel coding) as long as the scheduled data rate exceeds the instantaneous channel mutual information. As a result, rate adaptation must be considered in systems with imperfect CSIT in order to take into account of potential packet errors due to channel outage[7], [8]. Fairness Consideration: Most of existing works only focus on sum-throughput maximization. However, fairness among users in the relay-assisted OFDMA systems is also an important consideration.

In this paper, we shall attempt to shed some lights on the above issues. We consider the downlink of a two-hop relayassisted OFDMA system in a single cell with one base station (BS), 𝑀 relay stations (RS) and 𝐾 mobile stations (MS). In addition, we account for the penalty of packet errors due to imperfect CSIT by considering system goodput (b/s/Hz

c 2009 IEEE 1536-1276/09$25.00 ⃝

CUI et al.: DISTRIBUTIVE SUBBAND ALLOCATION, POWER AND RATE CONTROL FOR RELAY-ASSISTED OFDMA CELLULAR SYSTEM

TDD Frame Timing Uplink CSI estimation

Spreading code 1 Spreading code 2 Cluster M

Use uplink CSI estimation as downlink CSIT MSk in Cm-RSm (m == (m 1,..,M) 1,..,M) Phase 1

Cluster 0 Ind ir (ph ect lin k as e 2)

k t lin ) irec Ind hase 1 (p

Cluster 1

Fig. 1.

MSk in C0-BS

BS-MSk in C0

RSm-MSk in Cm

RSm -BS

BS-RSm

(m (m== 1,..,M) 1,..,M)

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 2

UPLINK

DOWNLINK

dir e (ph ct li as e n k 1)

Cluste m

System model.

successfully delivered to the MS) as our performance measure instead of traditional sum-ergodic capacity. We take into account of system fairness by considering weighted sum goodput as our optimization objective (which includes proportional fair scheduling (PFS) as a special case). Based on the cluster-based architecture, we obtain a fast-converging distributive solution with only local CSIT using careful decomposition of optimization problem. To further reduce the signaling overhead and computational complexity, we propose a reduced feedback distributive solution and show that only an arbitrarily small feedback overhead per MS is needed to achieve asymptotically optimal performance for large 𝐾. Finally, we also derive asymptotic average system throughput so as to obtain useful design insights. II. S YSTEM M ODEL In this section, we shall describe the cluster-based system architecture, the imperfect GCSI model and the system utility. A. Cluster-based Architecture and Channel Model Fig.1 illustrates the system model of the relay-assisted downlink OFDMA system with one BS, 𝑀 fixed RSs and 𝐾 MSs. The coverage area is divided into 𝑀 ( + 1 clusters) with cluster 0 served by the BS and cluster 𝑚 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } served by the 𝑚th RS. The 𝐾 MSs are assigned to one of the 𝑀 + 1 clusters according to their large scale path loss. The number of MSs in cluster 𝑚 is 𝐾𝑚 . MSs in cluster 0 will receive downlink packets )directly from the BS, and ( MSs in cluster 𝑚 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } will rely on the 𝑚th RS forwarding the downlink packets) in the packet transmission ( process. Let 𝒦𝑚 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } denote the set of MSs in cluster 𝑚, and 𝒦0 denote the set of MSs in cluster 0 and the RSs. For notation convenience, we assume index 𝑘 in cluster 0 denotes the( 𝑘th MS if 𝑘) ∈ {1, 𝐾0} and the 𝑚th RS if 𝑘 = 𝐾0 + 𝑚 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } . We consider frequency selective fading where there are 𝑁 independent multipaths. OFDMA is employed to convert the frequency selective fading channel into 𝑇 orthogonal subcarriers with 𝑁 independent subbands. The RSs operate in a half-duplex manner using decode-and-forward (DF) strategy. In order to facilitate relay-assisted packet transmission, a physical frame is divided into two phases:

∙ ∙

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In phase one, the BS transmits data to the MSs and the RSs belonging to cluster 0. In phase two, the BS stops transmitting while the RSs (which have successfully decoded data from the BS in phase one) will forward the data to the MSs belonging to their own clusters.

Two orthogonal frequency spreading codes are assigned to adjacent RS clusters to mitigate potential mutual interference between them as illustrated in Fig.1. There is practically negligible mutual interference between non-adjacent RS clusters due to heavy path loss. As a result, all the RS clusters can operate simultaneously on the entire frequency band with negligible interference2. In both two phases, the received symbol 𝑌𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 carrying user 𝑘’ information in cluster 𝑚 in the 𝑛th subband is 𝑌𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 =

√ 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑙𝑚,𝑘 𝐻𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑋𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 + 𝑍𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }

where 𝑋𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 is the transmitted symbol, 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 is the transmit SNR, 𝑙𝑚,𝑘 is the path loss, and 𝑍𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∼ 𝒞𝒩 (0, 1) is the noise in the 𝑛th subband. We consider Rayleigh fading and hence, 𝐻𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∼ 𝒞𝒩 (0, 1). B. Global Channel State Information Model In this paper, we consider the block fading channel where the small scale fading coefficient is quasi-static within each frame and may be different among frames. We consider the resource allocation for the low-mobility users. Since the time scale for mobility is much larger than that for small scale fading, the path loss remains constant for a large number of frames and can be estimated with high accuracy. The CSIT of small scale fading can be obtained from either explicit feedback (FDD systems) or implicit feedback (TDD systems) using reciprocity between uplink and downlink3. We consider TDD systems, and assume perfect CSIR and imperfect CSIT due to estimation noise on the uplink pilots or duplexing delay as illustrated in Fig. 1. The estimated CSIT in phase one and phase two can be modeled as ˆ 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 = 𝐻𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 + △𝐻𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝐻

𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }

(1)

where 𝐻𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 is the actual CSI, and △𝐻𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∼ 𝒞𝒩 (0, 𝜎𝑒2 ) is the CSIT error. We denote the set of local imperfect CSIT ˆ ˆ 𝑚 = {𝐻 ∣𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 , ∀𝑛}, and the global of cluster 𝑚 as 𝑯 ∪𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ˆ 𝑚. ˆ 𝑯 imperfect CSIT as 𝑯 = 𝑀 𝑚=0 C. System Policy In this paper, we consider joint subband, power and rate allocation. The system policies are defined below. 2 For tractable analysis, we assumed all RSs are separated either spatially or on the code domain. Yet, the effect of mutual interference is taken into consideration in the performance simulation. 3 In practical systems, like IEEE 802.16e, a mechanism named "channel sounding" is proposed to enable the BS to determine the BS-to-MS channel response under the assumption of TDD reciprocity.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2009

1) Subband Allocation Policy 𝒮: Let 𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 be the subband ( allocation indicator at the BS for MS 𝑘 in cluster) 𝑚 𝑘 ∈ {1, 𝐾0 } when 𝑚 = 0, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 when 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } in phase 𝑅 (one. Let 𝑠𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ) be the subband allocation indicator at the 𝑚th 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } RS for user 𝑘 (𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 ) in cluster 𝑚 in phase two. The subband allocation policy is

is given by ˆ = 𝑈𝑤𝑔𝑝 (S, P, R, H) 𝑁 {∑

1 𝑁

(∑ 𝑀 ∑

𝛼𝑚 𝑘 min

𝑚=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

ˆ 𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟0,𝐾0 +𝑚,𝑛 (1 − Pr[𝐶0,𝐾0 +𝑚,𝑛 < 𝑟0,𝐾0 +𝑚,𝑛 ∣H]),

𝑛=1

{ 𝑅 𝒮 = 𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 , 𝑠𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∈ {0, 1}∣∀𝑛,

𝑀 ∑



𝑁 ∑

𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛

𝑚=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

+

𝐾0 ∑ 𝑘=1

𝑠𝐵 0,𝑘,𝑛 = 1,



𝑠𝑅 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 = 1 ∀𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }

}

} ˆ 𝑠𝑅 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 (1 − Pr[𝐶𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 < 𝑟𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∣H])

𝑛=1 𝐾0 ∑

+

𝑘=1

𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

2) Power Allocation Policy 𝒫: Let 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 be( the scheduled) transmit SNR at BS (𝑚 = 0) and the 𝑚th RS 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } respectively to user 𝑘 (𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 ) in cluster 𝑚 in the 𝑛th subband. Let 𝑃𝑚 be the total transmit SNR. The power allocation policy is 𝑁 } { ∑ ∑ 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≤ 𝑃𝑚 , ∀𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 } 𝒫 = 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≥ 0 ∣ 𝑛=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

3) Rate Allocation Policy ℛ: Let 𝑟𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 be the scheduled data rate at BS (𝑚 = 0) and the 𝑚th RS (𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }) respectively to user 𝑘 (𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 ) in cluster 𝑚 in the 𝑛th subband. The rate allocation policy is { } ℛ = 𝑟𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≥ 0 ∣ ∀𝑛, 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚

𝛼0𝑘

𝑁 ∑

𝑠𝐵 0,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟0,𝑘,𝑛 (1

− Pr[𝐶0,𝑘,𝑛

) ˆ < 𝑟0,𝑘,𝑛 ∣H])

(3)

𝑛=1

where 𝛼𝑚 𝑘 denotes the weight of the MS 𝑘 in Cluster 𝑚, ˆ is the conditional packet error and Pr[𝐶𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 < 𝑟𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∣H] ˆ probability of one-hop link for given global H. III. S UBBAND , P OWER AND R ATE S CHEDULING P ROBLEM F ORMULATION In this section, we shall formulate the relay-assisted scheduling problem as an optimization problem maximizing ¯𝑤𝑔𝑝 (𝒮, 𝒫, ℛ) subject the average total weighted goodput 𝑈 to the target outage probability 𝜖. Note that optimization on ¯𝑤𝑔𝑝 (𝒮, 𝒫, ℛ) w.r.t. policies (set of actions for all CSIT real𝑈 ˆ izations) is equivalent to optimization on 𝑈𝑤𝑔𝑝 (S, P, R, H) ˆ P = 𝒫(H), ˆ w.r.t. the actions S, P, R (S = 𝒮(H), ˆ for each given CSIT realization. Hence, the R = ℛ(H)) optimization problem is given by Problem 1: (Subband, Power and Rate Optimization Problem) ˆ max 𝑈𝑤𝑔𝑝 (S, P, R, H)

S,P,R

ˆ = 𝜖 ∀𝑛, 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 s.t. Pr[𝐶𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 < 𝑟𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∣H] (4) 𝑅 𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 , 𝑠𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∈ {0, 1} ∀𝑛, 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚

D. Maximum Achievable Date Rate and System Goodput Given perfect CSIR, the instantaneous mutual information (bit/s/Hz) between the 𝑚th transmitter and the 𝑘th receiver (𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 ) in the 𝑛th subband is given by

𝑀 ∑



𝑚=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚



𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 +

𝐾0 ∑

𝑠𝐵 0,𝑘,𝑛 = 1 ∀𝑛

(5) (6)

𝑘=1

𝑠𝑅 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 = 1 ∀𝑛, 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }

(7)

𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

𝐶𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 = 𝑐𝑚 log2 (1 + 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑙𝑚,𝑘 ∣𝐻𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∣2 )

(2)

where 𝑐0 = 0.5 and 𝑐𝑚 = 0.25 (𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 })4. Due to imperfect CSIT, the scheduled data rate at the BS and the RS might be larger than the instantaneous mutual information in (2), leading to packet outage. To take the potential outage into consideration and to guarantee the scheduling fairness, we consider the average weighted system goodput (average weighted b/s/Hz successfully delivered to the MSs) as our performance measure. The average ¯𝑤𝑔𝑝 (𝒮, 𝒫, ℛ) = weighted total system goodput is given by 𝑈 ˆ ˆ ˆ EH ˆ [𝑈𝑤𝑔𝑝 (S, P, R, H)∣H], where 𝑈𝑤𝑔𝑝 (S, P, R, H) is the ˆ and conditional average total weighted goodput for given H, 4 1 is due to duplexing penalty. 1 is due to duplexing penalty and the 2 4 spreading code with code rate 12 used in RS clusters.

𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≥ 0 ∀𝑛, 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 𝑁 ∑ ∑

𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≤ 𝑃𝑚 ,

∀𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }

(8) (9)

𝑛=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

IV. D UAL P ROBLEM AND D ISTRIBUTIVE S OLUTION Note that Problem 1 is a mixed integer real optimization and hence, is not convex. Brute-force optimization is NP-hard with exponential complexity in term of the number of subbands. In this section, we shall apply continuous relaxation technique [4], [1], [9], [10], to obtain asymptotically optimal solution as well as discuss the distributive implementation. A. Continuous Relaxation of the Integer Programming Problem To perform continuous relaxation, we allow time sharing between users for each subband by relaxing subband allocation

CUI et al.: DISTRIBUTIVE SUBBAND ALLOCATION, POWER AND RATE CONTROL FOR RELAY-ASSISTED OFDMA CELLULAR SYSTEM

indicator to rational value between 0 and 1. The constraint (5) is replaced by 𝑅 𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 , 𝑠𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≥ 0

∀𝑛, 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚

(10)

After equivalent transformation and continuous relaxation, Problem 1 is approximated by the following convex optimization problem. Problem 2 (Relaxed Optimization Problem): max

𝑀 ∑ ∑

𝑺,𝑷,𝒕

s.t.

𝑚 𝛼𝑚 𝑘 𝑡𝑘 +

𝑚=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

𝑡𝑚 𝑘



𝑡𝑚 𝑘 ≤

𝑁 ∑ 𝑛=1 𝑁 ∑

𝐾0 ∑

𝛼0𝑘

𝑁 ∑

𝐵 𝑠𝐵 ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟

𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚

(11)

𝑅 𝑠𝑅 ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟

𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚

(12)

𝑛=1

as well as constraints in (10), (6), (7), (8), (9) where

5

( 𝑝𝑚,𝑘′ ,𝑛 𝑔ˆ𝑚,𝑘′ ,𝑛 ) 1 𝐵 , 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 } 𝑟˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 = log2 1 + 2 𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛

(𝑚 = 0, 𝑘 ′ = 𝑘 ∈ {1, 𝐾0 }; 𝑚 > 0, 𝑘 ′ = 𝐾0 + 𝑚, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 ) ( 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑔ˆ𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ) 1 𝑅 , 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 𝑟˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 = log2 1 + 4 𝑠𝑅 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 1 𝑔ˆ𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 =𝑙𝑚,𝑘 𝜎𝑒2 𝐹∣−1 ˆ 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∣2 / 1 𝜎2 (𝜖), 𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }, 𝑘 ∈ 𝒦𝑚 𝐻 2 2 𝑒 The continuous relaxation in Problem 2 does not necessarily yield a solution where all the subband allocation indicators are 0 or 1. However, they are 0 or 1 with high probability due to the property of marginal benefit of extra bandwidth[10]. In 𝑇 → ∞) 6 , the solution of fact, under some mild condition ( 𝑁 Problem 2 will be identical to that of Problem 1 when we do further subcarrier allocation in both problems.

In this section, to reduce computational loading at the BS and save signaling overhead, we shall derive a low-complexity distributive solution based on local CSI from Problem 2. Using convex optimization techniques, the dual function of Problem 2 can be simplified as follows7 𝑺,𝑷

𝐾0 ∑

𝛼0𝑘

𝐵 𝑠𝐵 ˜0,𝑘,𝑛 + 0,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟

𝑛=1

𝑘=1

+

𝑁 ∑

𝑀 ∑

𝑀 ∑ ∑ 𝑚=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚



𝑚 (𝛼𝑚 𝑘 − 𝜆𝑘 )

𝑚=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚

𝑁 ∑

𝜆𝑚 𝑘

𝑁 ∑

𝐵 𝑠𝐵 ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟

𝑛=1

𝑅 𝑠𝑅 ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟

(13)

𝑛=1

s.t. (10), (6), (7), (8), (9) Applying dual decomposition approach [12], the dual function can be decomposed into two subproblems: 5 𝐹 −1 ˆ ∣𝐻

𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∣

2 / 1 𝜎2 2 𝑒

(⋅) denotes the inverse cdf of non-central chi-square

random variable with 2 degrees of freedom and non-centrality parameter ˆ 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ∣2 / 1 𝜎𝑒2 . ∣𝐻 6 The

2

𝑔𝐵𝑆 (𝝀1 , ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ , 𝝀𝑴 ) ⎧ ∑𝑀 ∑ ∑𝑁 𝑚 𝐵 𝐵  ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ⎨ max𝑺,𝑷 𝑚=1 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚 𝜆𝑘 𝑛=1 𝑠𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟 ∑𝐾0 0 ∑𝑁 𝐵 = + 𝑘=1 𝛼𝑘 𝑛=1 𝑠𝐵 ˜0,𝑘,𝑛 0,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟  ⎩ s.t. 𝑠𝐵 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≥ 0, (6), (8), (9) (𝑚 = 0)

𝑚 𝑔𝑅𝑆 (𝝀𝒎 ) { ∑𝑁 ∑ 𝑚 𝑅 𝑅 max𝑺,𝑷 𝑘∈𝒦𝑚 (𝛼𝑚 ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑘 − 𝜆𝑘 ) 𝑛=1 𝑠𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟 = 𝐵 s.t. 𝑠𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≥ 0, (7), 𝑝𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ≥ 0, (9) (𝑚 > 0)

There are 𝑀 subproblems of this kind, each one corresponding to the resource allocations at one RS. Subproblem 1 and Subproblem 2 are similar and have the optimal solution with the form of multi-level water-filling (We omit the optimal solution due to page limit). The dual problem is summarized below: Problem 3 (Dual Problem): Find the optimal dual variables which maximize the dual function min𝑔𝐵𝑆 (𝝀1 , ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ , 𝝀𝑴 ) + 𝝀

condition is quite mild and can be satisfied in most practical systems. For example, we have 𝑁 = 2048 and 𝑇 ≈ 6 in WiMAX (802.16e) systems. 7 All the proofs are omitted due to the lack of space and interested readers can refer to our full version in [11] for details.

𝑀 ∑

𝑚 𝑔𝑅𝑆 (𝝀𝒎 )

𝑚=1

s.t. 0 ≼ 𝝀𝒎 ≼ 𝜶𝒎 , 𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 } ( ) where 𝜶𝒎 = 𝛼𝑚 𝑘 𝐾𝑚 ×1 (𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }). We use the subgradient method [13] to update each dual variable as follows 𝜆𝑚 (14) 𝑘 (𝑖 + 1) 𝑁 𝑁 [ ] ∑ ∑ 𝑚 𝐵 𝑅 = 𝜆𝑚 𝑠𝐵 ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 − 𝑠𝑅 ˜𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 ) 𝑚 𝑘 (𝑖) − 𝛿𝑘 (𝑖)( 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟 𝑚,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟 𝑛=1

B. Partial Dual Decomposition and Distributed Solution

max

Subproblem 1: (Resource Allocations at BS in Phase One under given 𝝀𝒎 )

Subproblem 2: (Resource Allocations at the 𝑚th RS in Phase Two under given 𝝀𝒎 )

𝐵 𝑠𝐵 ˜0,𝑘,𝑛 0,𝑘,𝑛 𝑟

𝑛=1

𝑘=1

5099

𝑛=1

𝒳𝑘

where 𝛿𝑘𝑚 (𝑖) is a positive step size and [⋅]𝒳𝑘𝑚 denotes the 𝑚 projection onto the feasible set 𝒳𝑘𝑚 = {𝜆𝑚 𝑘 ∣0 ≤ 𝜆𝑘 ≤ 𝑚 𝛼𝑘 }. Since the Problem 2 is convex and strictly feasible, Slater’s condition holds. Therefore, duality gap is zero and hence, the primal variables 𝑺(𝝀1 (𝑖), ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ , 𝝀𝑴 (𝑖)) and 𝑷 (𝝀1 (𝑖), ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ , 𝝀𝑴 (𝑖)) will converge to the primal optimal variables 𝑺 ∗ , 𝑷 ∗ [13]. Intuitively, for user 𝑘 in cluster 𝑚 (𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }), the dual variable 𝜆𝑚 𝑘 (𝑖) can be interpreted as the equivalent weight in 𝑚 phase one, while 𝛼𝑚 𝑘 − 𝜆𝑘 as the equivalent weight in phase two. Based on the weights assigned by the master problem, Subproblem 1 can be solved at BS with its local imperfect ˆ 0 ), and Subproblem 2 for the 𝑚th RS can be solved CSIT (H ˆ 𝑚 ). Then the at the 𝑚th RS with its local imperfect CSIT (H dual problem updates the dual variables at BS to reduce the difference between the scheduled data rate for a particular user in phase one and phase two at each iteration. The distributive implementation offloads great computations from the BS to 𝑀 RSs and saves large signaling overhead for collecting CSI of RS-MS links and broadcasting the scheduled results of RS-MS links to RSs. These advantages are highly desirable for practical implementation.

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V. R EDUCED F EEDBACK D ISTRIBUTIVE S OLUTION FOR D OWNLINK S YSTEMS In downlink systems, the overhead due to the feedback of CSI from MSs to their cluster controllers grows linearly with the number of users 𝐾. In this section, we shall extend the threshold-based mechanism for selective multiuser diversity (SMUD) in [14] to reduce the overall system feedback overhead of the distributive solution for relay-assisted cellular network with fairness consideration, which is outlined below. Algorithm 1: Distributive Algorithm with Reduced Feedback 1) The controller of cluster m (𝑚 ∈ {0, 𝑀 }) finds out MS 𝑖 with the maximum weight 𝛼𝑚 𝑖 among MSs in Cluster 𝑚, 𝑚 𝑚 𝑚 and broadcasts the feedback threshold 𝛾𝑡ℎ = 𝛼𝑚 ˜ . 𝑖 𝑙𝑖 𝛾 𝑚 2) Each MS in Cluster 𝑚 feedbacks its ℎ𝑘,𝑛 ∀𝑛 iff 𝑚 𝑚 2 𝑚 𝛼𝑚 𝑘 𝑙𝑘 ∣ℎ𝑘,𝑛 ∣ ≥ 𝛾𝑡ℎ . Then the local reduced user set and corresponding imperfect CSIT8 is available at each cluster manager. 3) BS broadcasts the initial multipliers {𝝀𝒎 (0)∣𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }} in phase one. Then {𝜶𝒎 − 𝝀𝒎 (0)∣𝑚 ∈ {1, 𝑀 }} in phase two are available at RSs. 4) In the 𝑖th iteration, BS solves Subproblem 1 and each RS solves its own Subproblem 2. Each RS reports the scheduled data rate of users in its cluster to BS. 5) BS updates the multipliers in phase one according to (14), and broadcasts {𝝀𝒎 (𝑖 + 1)}. 6) If the difference of the scheduled data rate in two phases for each user in RS clusters is less than a threshold, then terminate the algorithm. Otherwise, jump to step 4). The feedback load of the above algorithm is much smaller than the directly distributive implementation with full feedback. It can be proved in the following lemma that under some conditions, its performance will converge to that of the directly distributive implementation with all MSs transmitting feedbacks. Due to the symmetric situation in each subband, we only consider one subband and ignore the index 𝑛 for simplicity. Lemma 1: (Feedback Outage, Feedback Load and Asymptotic Performance) Assume that the weight of each user is not smaller than 1. Without loss of generality, assume user 𝑖𝑚 has 𝛼𝑖 𝑙𝑚 𝑚 𝑖 the maximum weight 𝛼𝑚 𝑚. 𝑖 in Cluster 𝑚. Define 𝑇𝑘 = 𝛼𝑚 𝑘 𝑙𝑘 𝑚 𝑚 𝑚 𝑚 1) Given the threshold 𝛾𝑡ℎ = 𝛼𝑖 𝑙𝑖 𝛾˜ , the outage probability 𝑃0𝑚 (the probability that no one feedbacks) and per the feedback load 𝐹 𝑚 (average ∏𝐾𝑚number of feedbacks user) are given by 𝑃0𝑚 = 𝑘=1 (1 − exp(−𝑇𝑘𝑚 𝛾˜ 𝑚 ))and ∑ 𝑚 𝑚 𝑚 ˜ )) respectively. 𝐹 𝑚 = 𝐾1𝑚 𝐾 𝑘=1 (1 − exp(−𝑇𝑘 𝛾 𝑚 2) Let the upper bound of 𝑃0 be 𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 ). If 𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 ) 1 satisfies 𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 ) → 0 and 𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 ) 𝐾𝑚 → 1 as 𝐾𝑚 → ∞, choose 𝛾˜ 𝑚 (𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 )) = 1 1 𝑚 → 0 and 𝐹 𝑚 → 1 , so that 𝑃0 max 𝑇 𝑚 log 𝑘

1−𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 ) 𝐾𝑚

0 as 𝐾𝑚 → ∞. There is a tradeoff between feedback outage probability and feedback load by adjusting ¡ãm. However, for sufficiently large Km, Algorithm 1 can achieve asymptoti8 The reduced user set is made up of users who feedback at least in one subband. The channel coefficient of any user in this set will be treated as 0 in the subbands without feedback from this user.

cally optimal weighted average goodput at asymptotically zero feedback cost per user by choosing 𝛾˜ 𝑚 (𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 )) = 1 1 1 . max 𝑇 𝑚 log 𝑘

1−𝑃0𝑚 (𝐾𝑚 ) 𝐾𝑚

VI. A SYMPTOTIC P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS UNDER PFS FOR D OWNLINK S YSTEMS In this section, we shall focus on studying how the system performance grow with various important system parameters. Specifically, we consider proportional fair scheduling (PFS)[15] performance in the limit situation 𝑡𝑐 → ∞[16] for sufficiently large 𝐾 in the analysis. To obtain insights on the performance gains, we impose a set of simplifying assumptions. We assume 𝐾0 = 0 and each RS contains 𝐾 MSs. Furthermore, we assume line-of-sight link (with high gain antenna) between the RSs and the BS and hence, the throughput is limited by the second hop. Let 𝐷 be the radius of a cell. Path loss takes on the form 𝑃 𝐿(𝑑) = 𝑑−𝛼 , where 𝛼 is the path loss exponent. Assume there are 𝑀 RSs and 𝐾 users uniformly distributed in each RS cluster. Accordingly, in the system without RS, we assume 𝑀 𝐾 users in the same cell edge region as the relay clusters, which is equivalent to the total number of users in the relay-assisted system. Assume equal power allocation to each subband in both cases9 . The asymptotic performance under PFS of the two systems is summarized in the following lemma. Lemma 2: (Asymptotic Performance for the Systems with RSs and without RSs)For the system with 𝑀 RSs and 𝐾 MSs in each RS-cluster, ( the average asymptotic throughput for large ) 𝑃𝑚 1 log ( ln 𝐾)−𝛼(log 𝐷+log 𝑡− ) . 𝐾 is 𝐸[𝑇 ] = 𝑀 2 𝑁 2 2 4 2 ln 2 For the system with 𝑀 𝐾 MSs and no RSs, the average asymptotic throughput for large 𝐾 is 𝐸[𝑇 (𝑏) ] = log2 ( 𝑃𝑁0 ln 𝑀 𝐾) − 𝜋 sin 𝑀 (1−2𝑡)2 1 1 𝛼(log2 𝐷 + 1−(1−2𝑡) 2 log2 1−2𝑡 − 2 ln 2 ), where 𝑡 = 1+sin 𝜋 . 𝑀 Define the gain of relay-assisted design over the nonrelay design as 𝑔 = 𝐸[𝑇 ] − 𝐸[𝑇 (𝑏) ] = 𝑔𝑓 𝑠𝑟 + 𝑔𝑝𝑙 , where 𝑃𝑚 𝑃0 𝑔𝑓 𝑠𝑟 = 𝑀 4 (log2 ( 𝑁 ln 𝐾)−𝛼 log2 𝐷)−(log2 ( 𝑁 ln(𝑀 𝐾))− gain for frequency and spacial 𝛼 log2 𝐷) is the throughput ( (1−2𝑡)2 1 𝑀 − 𝑀 reuse and 𝑔𝑝𝑙 = 𝛼 4𝑡−4𝑡2 log2 1−2𝑡 4 log2 𝑡 + ( 4 − ) 1 1) 2 ln 2 is the throughput gain for reducing energy reduction due to path loss. Remark 1: Since 𝑔𝑓 𝑠𝑟 = 𝒪(𝑀 ln ln 𝐾) − 𝒪(ln ln(𝑀 𝐾)), the throughput of relay-assisted system grows much faster than the system without RS, which is due to the spatial reuse of relay-assisted architecture. It can be shown that 𝑔𝑝𝑙 > 0 and increases with 𝑀 . This demonstrates the benefits of relayassisted architecture on reducing energy reduction. VII. S IMULATION R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION In this part, we shall compare our distributive subband, power and rate allocation for relay-assisted OFDMA system with several baseline references. Baseline 1 refers to the weighted total goodput maximization version of Separate and Sequential Allocation (SSA), which is a semi-distributed scheme proposed in [6]. Baseline 2 refers to the maximum 9 Since the number of MSs are large, equal power allocation is asymptotically optimal due to multi-user diversity.

CUI et al.: DISTRIBUTIVE SUBBAND ALLOCATION, POWER AND RATE CONTROL FOR RELAY-ASSISTED OFDMA CELLULAR SYSTEM

80

9 Proposed Algorithm(sum 61.247) SSA(sum 30.800) MaxPF without RS(sum 12.209) Round Robin without RS(sum 6.266)

8

Proposed Algorithm SSA MaxPF without RS Round Robin without RS

70 60 Sum Goodput(Mb/s)

7 6 Goodput(Mb/s)

5101

5 4 3

50 40 30 20

2 10

1 0

0 16

1

2

3

4

5

6 Users

7

8

9

21

10

Fig. 2. Average goodput allocation for 10 users in a single cell scenario at BS transmit power 36 dBm, RS transmit power 36 dBm at 𝑁 = 16.

26 31 36 Transmit Power (dBm)

41

46

Fig. 4. Average sum goodput of 10 users versus BS/RS transmit power in a multi-cell scenario with frequency reuse factor 3 at 𝑁 = 16.

70 275

60

250

50 Primal Value: K=10,N=8,M=8

200

Sum Goodput(Mb/s)

225 Weighted Goodput(Mb/s)

Proposed Algorithm (RS 36dBm) Proposed Algorithm (RS 31dBm) Proposed Algorithm (RS 26dBm) SSA (RS 36dBm) SSA (RS 31dBm) SSA (RS 26dBm) maxPF without RS Round robin without RS

Dual Value: K=10,N=24,M=6

Primal Value/3: K=30,N=8,M=6

Primal Value/2: K=20,N=8,M=6 175 Primal Value: K=10,N=8,M=6 150

40 30 20

125

10 100 Primal Value: K=10,N=24,M=6 75

0

10

20 30 Number of Iterations

40

0 50

Fig. 3. Average total weighted goodput in a single cell scenario for primal problem and dual problem of 10 users and primal problem of 4 other cases versus the number of iterations at BS transmit power 36 dBm, RS transmit power 36 dBm.

total weighted goodput scheduling without RSs. In Baseline 3, we consider Round Robin Scheduling with water-filling power allocation across the subbands. We apply PFS algorithm to keep track of the average goodput of each user, and consider its inverse as the weight for the three maximum total weighted goodput scheduling design. The cell radius is 5000m. 6 RSs are evenly located on the circle with radius 3000m. We set up our simulation scenarios according to the practical settings in IEEE802.16m systems[17]. The operating bandwidth is 10MHz with 2048 subcarriers and 8, 16 or 24 independent subbands. The path loss model of BS-MS and RS-MS is 128.1 + 37.6 log10 (𝑅) dB, and the path loss model BS-RS is 128.1 + 28.8 log10 (𝑅) dB (𝑅 in km). The receive antenna gains of MS is 0 dB, and the directional receive antenna is used at RS with antenna gain 20 dB. The lognormal shadowing standard deviation is 8 dB, and the CSIT error variance 𝜎𝑒2 is 0.01. Fig.2 illustrates the average scheduled goodput allocation of the 10 users in a single cell scenario. It can be observed that

2

4

6 8 10 12 Number of Users per RS Cluster

14

16

Fig. 5. Average sum goodput versus the number of users per RS cluster (6 RSs) in a single cell scenario at BS transmit power 36dBm, RS transmit power 36dBm, 31dBm, 26dBm, and 𝑁 = 8.

our distributive scheduling algorithm can achieve much higher average goodput and fairness compared with three baselines. Fig.3 illustrates the convergence performance of our distributive algorithm in a single cell scenario. It can be seen that our distributive algorithm converges quite fast. The performance at the 5th iteration is about 95% of the performance at the 50th iteration. Thus, good performance can be achieved with low overhead. Fig.4 illustrates the average sum goodput performance of the 10 users in a multi-cell scenario with frequency reuse factor 3 versus the transmit power at BS and RS. It can be observed that our proposed scheduling design has significant gain, especially in the lower SNR region. Fig.5 illustrates the average sum goodput performance versus the number of users per RS cluster in a single cell scenario. The transmission in phase two of our design directly benefits from the increase in the number of cell-edge users. When BS and RSs have the same transmit power 36 dBm, the bottleneck of the performance is in phase one. Hence, the first curve dose not increase much with the number of users in RS clusters.

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[5] G. Li and H. Liu, “Resource allocation for OFDMA relay networks," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 11, Nov. 2006.

62 61

Sum Goodput(Mb/s)

60 59 58 57 56 55 54

RS Transmit Power 36dBm RS Transmit Power 31dBm 5

10

15 20 25 30 Normalized Average Feedback Overhead (%)

35

Fig. 6. Average sum goodput of 60 users per cell in a single cell scenario versus the average feedback load at BS transmit power 36dBm, RS transmit power 36dBm, 31dBm, and 𝑁 = 8.

When the transmit power at RSs is smaller than that at BS, i.e. 31 dBm, 26 dBm, the bottleneck shifts to phase two. Thus, the overall performance increases greatly with the number of users. Fig.6 illustrates the average sum goodput performance for 60 users per cell in a single cell scenario versus the average feedback load by implementing distributive reduced feedback algorithm. It can be seen that our distributive reduced feedback algorithm can achieve good performance (e.g. 95 % of the distributive full feedback algorithm in Fig.5) with low feedback load (e.g. 20 %) in real systems. VIII. S UMMARY In this paper, we consider weighted sum goodput maximization for a two-hop downlink transmission in a relay-assisted OFDMA cellular system. We propose a fast-converging distributive optimal subband, power and rate allocation with only local imperfect CSIT. To further reduce the signaling overhead and computational complexity, we propose a reduced feedback distributive algorithm, which can achieve asymptotically optimal performance for large number of users with arbitrarily small feedback outage and feedback load. We also derive asymptotic average system goodput so as to obtain useful design insights. R EFERENCES [1] W. Nam, W. Chang, S. Y. Chung, and Y. H. Lee, “Transmit optimization for relay-based cellular OFDMA systems," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007, pp. 5714-5719. [2] O. Oyman, “Opportunistic scheduling and spectrum reuse in relay-based cellular OFDMA networks," in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM), Washington, DC, USA, Nov. 2007, pp. 3699-3703. [3] L. Huang, L. Wang, and E. Schulz, “Resource allocation for OFDMA based relay enhanced cellular networks," in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf. (VTC), Baltimore, USA, Apr. 2007, pp. 3160-3164. [4] T. C. Y. Ng and W. Yu, “Joint optimization of relay strategies and resource allocations in cooperative cellular networks," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 328-339, Feb. 2007.

[6] M. K. Kim and H. S. Lee, “Radio resource management for a two-hop OFDMA relay system in downlink," IEEE Symp. Computers Commun., pp. 25-31. [7] V. K. Lau, W. K. Ng, and D.S. W. Hui, “Asymptotic tradeoff between cross-layer goodput gain and outage diversity in OFDMA systems with slow fading and delayed CSIT," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., pp. 2732-2739, July 2008. [8] F. Brah, L. Vandendorpe, and J. Louveaux, “OFDMA constrained resource allocation with imperfect channel knowledge," in Proc. IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf. (VTC), Benelux, Nov. 2007, pp. 1-5. [9] L. M. C. Hoo, B. Halder, J. Tellado, and J. M. Cioffi, “Multiuser transmit optimization for multicarrier broadcast channels," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 6, June 2004. [10] W. Yu and J. M. Cioffi, “FDMA capacity of Gaussian multiple-access channels with ISI," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 1, Jan. 2002. [11] Y. Cui, V. K. N. Lau, and R. Wang, Distributive Subband Allocation, Power and Rate Control for Relay-Assisted OFDMA Cellular System with Imperfect System State Knowledge, full version. [Online]. Available: http://www.ee.ust.hk/ eeknlau [12] D. P. Palomar and M. Chiang, “A tutorial on decomposition methods for network utillity maximization," IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1439-1451, Aug. 2006. [13] S. Boyd, L. Xiao, and A. Mutapcic, Lecture Notes of EE392o: Subgradient Methods. Standford Univ., 2003. [14] D. Gesbert and M. S. Alouini, “How much feedback is multi-user diversity really worth," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC), vol. 1, Paris, France, 2004, pp. 234-238. [15] P. Viswanath and D. Tse, “Opportunistic beamforming using dumb antennas," IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1277-1294, June 2002. [16] G. Caire, R. Muller, and R. Knopp, “Hard fairness versus proportional fairness in wireless communications: the single-cell case," IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1366-1385, Apr. 2007. [17] IEEE 802.16m evaluation methodology document, IEEE 802.16m08/004r5. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/16/tgm/ Ying Cui received B.Eng degree (first class honor) in Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China in 2007. She is currently a Ph.D candidate in the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering(ECE), the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST). Her current research interests include cooperative and cognitive communications, delaysensitive cross-layer scheduling as well as stochastic approximation and Markov Decision Process. Vincent K. N. Lau obtained B.Eng (Distinction 1st Hons) from the University of Hong Kong in 1992 and Ph.D. from Cambridge University in 1997. He was with PCCW as system engineer from 1992-1995 and Bell Labs - Lucent Technologies as member of technical staff from 1997-2003. He then joined the Department of ECE, HKUST as Associate Professor. His current research interests include the robust and delay-sensitive cross-layer scheduling, cooperative and cognitive communications as well as stochastic approximation and Markov Decision Process. Rui Wang received B.Eng degree (first class honor) in Computer Science from the University of Science and Technology of China in 2004 and Ph.D degree in the Department of ECE from HKUST in 2008. He is currently a post-doctoral researcher in HKUST. His current research interests include cross-layer optimization, wireless ad-hoc network, and cognitive radio.

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Abstract—The JPEG2000 system provides scalability with respect to quality, resolution and color component in the transfer of images. However, scalability with ...

Maximizing Frequency and Yield of Power-Constrained ... - IEEE Xplore
This in turn may reduce frequency and/or yield of power-constrained de- signs. Facing such challenges, we propose two methods using power-gating.

Ad Hoc Networking With Rate-Limited Infrastructure ... - IEEE Xplore
Computer Science and Engineering. Dankook University. Yongin, Republic of Korea. Email: [email protected]. Abstract—Capacity scaling of a large hybrid ...

The Geometry of the MIMO Broadcast Channel Rate ... - IEEE Xplore
Telephone: +49 89 289-28508, Fax: +49 89 289-28504, Email: {hunger,joham}@tum.de ... dirty paper coding is applied, we show that the analogon to different ...

Proto-Object Based Rate Control for JPEG2000: An ... - IEEE Xplore
Constraints inherent in a modern visual data transmission system, such as heterogeneous network, varying connection quality, or the need to operate on a variety of devices with a wide range of capabilities, motivate an intense worldwide research effo

seam carving with rate-dependent seam path information - IEEE Xplore
7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, 321-8585 Japan email: {tanaka, madoka, kato}@is.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp. ABSTRACT. In this paper, we present a seam carving, ...

Maximum Rate of Unitary-Weight, Single-Symbol ... - IEEE Xplore
Dec 7, 2011 - is a power of 2. The rate of the square CODs for has been shown to be complex symbols per channel use. However, SSD codes having.

wright layout - IEEE Xplore
tive specifications for voice over asynchronous transfer mode (VoATM) [2], voice over IP. (VoIP), and voice over frame relay (VoFR) [3]. Much has been written ...

Device Ensembles - IEEE Xplore
Dec 2, 2004 - time, the computer and consumer electronics indus- tries are defining ... tered on data synchronization between desktops and personal digital ...

wright layout - IEEE Xplore
ACCEPTED FROM OPEN CALL. INTRODUCTION. Two trends motivate this article: first, the growth of telecommunications industry interest in the implementation ...