221

Madras Agric. J. 90 (4-6) : 221-223 April-June 2003

Effect of foliar spraying of nutrients on seed yield, split husk occurrence and seed quality in hybrid rice ADTRH-1 A. KAMARAJ AND V. KRISHNASAMY Dept. of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agrl. Univ., Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu. Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to know the effect of foliar spraying of nutrients on seed yield, split husk occurrence and seed quality in ADTRH-1 rice hybrid. Foliar spraying of CuSO4 (0.5%), Borax (0.5%), ZnSO4 (0.5%), FeSO4 (0.5%), MgSO4 (0.5%) or urea 2% + KH2PO4 0.1% + Boric acid 0.1% + ZnSO4 0.1% was given to the female plants at 50 per cent flowering and 10 days after. Results revealed that 0.5% ZnSO4 recorded maximum seed set per cent, seed yield and seed quality. Split husk per cent was minimum when 0.5% FeSO4 was sprayed but seed quality was also reduced significantly. Key words : Rice hybrid, Foliar spraying, Split husk.

Introduction Hybrid rice is given increased thrust nowa-days so as to enhance rice productivity. Hybrid as well as male sterile line seed of rice face a peculiar problem of split husk. The lemma and palea forming the husk do not close the caryopsis properly in a large proportion of seeds. This problem is encountered only in the seeds set on male sterile line (A line seed and F1 hybrid seed) and not in B and R line seeds. Male sterility may have an association with this phenomenon. Micronutrients have significant influence on reproductive physiology of plants (Agarwal, 1979). The anthers and pollen grains are found to accumulate relatively large amounts of zinc and in turn translocated to the resultant seeds (Pollar, 1975). Foliar spray of 0.1 boric acid and soil application of 10 kg ZnSO4 ha-1 were the most effective for increasing seed yield, seed weight and germination in radish (Sharma et al. 1999). Foliar application of ZnSO4 (0.5 per cent) could increase the grain yield significantly over control (Manoharan et al. 2001). The present investigation was made with the objective of knowing the effect of foliar application of nutrients on seed set, split husk occurrence and seed quality of rice hybrid ADTRH-1. Materials and Methods A field experiment was laid out at wet land farm, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during December 2000 with the

parental lines (IR 58025 A x IR 66R) of rice hybrid ADTRH-1. Male line seeds were sown in the nursery 14 and 18 days after female line to achieve synchronization of flowering between the parental lines. A planting ratio of 8:2 (female to male) was followed. The treatments details were as follows: Treatments : T1 - Control T2 - Water spray T3 - CuSO 4 0.5% T4 - Borax 0.5% T5 - ZnSO 4 0.5% T6 - FeSO 4 0.5% T7 - MgSO 4 0.5% T8 - Urea 2% + KH 2PO4 0.1% + Boric acid 0.1% + ZnSO 4 0.1% Plot size utilized for this study was 1.92 m2 gross and 1.32 m2 net. Design adopted was RBD with four replications. The nutrient spray was given to the crop at the time of 50 per cent flowering and 10 days after. The nutrient spray was directed on the female rows. All other recommended package of practices including GA3 spray were followed. Five hills in each treatment in female parent were randomly selected in all the replication and the following observations were recorded:

222

A. Kamaraj and V. Krishnasamy

1. Seed set per cent The matured seeds were separated manually and the mean seed set per cent was calculated by using the following formula: Total number of filled seeds in an ear head Seed set = --------------------------------- x 100 (per cent) Total number of seeds in an ear head 2. Split husk seed occurrence Hundred grams of hybrid seeds were randomly taken and split husk seeds were manually separated by using a hand lens. Percentage of split husk seeds from total weight of seeds taken was calculated. Weight of split husk seed (g) Split husk = --------------------------------- x 100 seed (%) Total weight of seeds taken (g) 3. Seed yield plant -1 (g) The ear heads from five selected hills in each treatment in the female parent were harvested at maturity stage, dried and threshed. The seeds were then cleaned and the mean seed yield plant-1 was recorded and expressed in g. 4. Seed yield plot -1 and ha -1 (kg) Ear heads of the female parent from the net plot in each treatment replication wise were harvested and seeds threshed, dried and weighed to arrive at the plot yield. Seed yield obtained from the respective five selected hills were also included to arrive at the plot yield. From the plot yield, seed yield ha-1 was computed. Seeds were assessed for hundred seed weight, germination (ISTA, 1999). Root and shoot length of 14 day old seedlings, dry matter production of seedlings and vigour index (germination (%) x total seedling length). Results and Discussion Nutrients play a major role in the reproductive physiology of plants. In the present study, seed

set per cent recorded was maximum (31.53 per cent) when ZnSO4 (0.5 per cent) was applied as foliar spray. The reason might be due to better utilization of available zinc by the plants because of exogenous supplementation. Zinc application have favourable effect in pollen germination, tube elongation and in decreasing the number of ruptured pollen which results in better fertilization, higher seed set and increased seed yield. Similar beneficial effects were observed by Kumar and Singh (1997) in rice. Next to ZnSO4, spraying of Borax (0.5 per cent) resulted in 5.78 per cent increase in seed set over control. Boron is also involved in pollen germination, pollen tube growth and fertilization. Similar results were also reported by Rerkasem et al. (1997) in wheat. Data on split husk per cent revealed that only FeSO4 spraying had significantly reduced the split huk occurrence, whereas spraying of CuSO4, Borax and ZnSO4 had significantly increased the split husk occurrence. FeSO4 had not only decreased the split husk occurrence but also reduced the seed set per cent and seed yield though non-significantly. Further studies are required to known whether reduction of split husk occurrence was a direct effect of FeSO4 or influenced indirectly through reduction in seed set and seed yield. Seed yield was maximum when ZnSO4 (0.5 per cent) was given as a foliar spray. Zinc plays a vital role as activation of carbohydrate and protein synthesis as well as their transport to the site of seed formation. The present results were in conformity with Manoharan et al. (2001) in rice. Spraying with ZnSO4 registered maximum hundred seed weight of 2.048 g as compared to 2.010 g in control. Similar effect of Zn on seed weight was reported by Balakrishnan and Natarajarathinam (1986) in rice. Improvement in seed weight might be due to better translocation and accumulation of food reserves in the seeds. Seed quality as evaluated through root length, shoot length and dry matter production of seedlings revealed the positive effects of ZnSO4. This could be attributed to the role of zinc in the production of more energy as metal component of NAD and NADP linked dehydrogenases for

223

2793 136.26 283.38

130 130 131 132 136 129 127 135

131 1.937 4.028

References

12.2 12.9 13.0 12.9 14.8 12.3 11.5 13.9

12.9 0.661 1.375 20.4 1.170 2.433 84 (66.51) 2.132 4.435 2.006 0.011 0.023 759 53.107 10.442

Agarwal, S.C. (1979). Zinc as a micronutrient in the soil-plantanimal-human systems. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 58: 297-311. Balakrishnan, K. and Natarajarathinam (1986). Effect of zinc supplements on yield and yield components in certain rice varieties. Madras Agric. J. 73: 596-600. ISTA (1999). International rules for seed testing. Supplement Rules, 27. Kumar, B. and Singh, V.P. (1997). Zinc status of rice plants as influenced by different levels and methods of zinc application. J. Soils and Crops, 7: 105-108. Manoharan, M.L., Kathiresan, G. and Arokiaraj, A. (2001). Zinc enriched pressmud increase rice yield. The Hindu-Business/ Science, Dt. April 5th, pp. Bs-8. Mengel, K. and Kirkby, E.A. (1996). Principles of plant nutrition. Panima Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, pp.525-568. (Figures in parentheses indicate arcsine values)

25.76 0.722 1.502

32.88 0.873 1.816

5.53 0.758 1.577

0.100 0.007 0.014

18.7 19.1 20.2 21.6 22.1 19.1 19.4 22.6 86 (67.79) 78 (61.70) 82 (65.41) 89 (70.32) 90 (71.29) 81 (63.86) 80 (63.14) 87 (68.54) 2.010 2.018 1.973 1.940 2.048 2.033 2.045 1.983 566 573 763 802 1215 492 665 997

T1 - Control T2 - Water spray T3 - CuSO4 0.5% T4 - Borax 0.5% T5 - ZnSO4 0.5% T6 - FeSO4 0.5% T7 - MgSO4 0.5% T8 - Urea 2% + KH2PO4 0.1% + Boric acid 0.1% + ZnSO4 0.1% Mean SEd CD (P=0.05)

22.48 23.65 26.85 28.23 31.53 21.78 24.26 27.26

31.38 32.50 38.38 36.25 34.63 27.38 30.88 31.70

4.25 5.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 4.00 5.00 6.00

0.074 0.076 0.101 0.146 0.180 0.063 0.097 0.113

Root length (cm) Germination (%) Seed yield ha-1 (g)

100 seed weight

2642 2485 2737 3052 3286 2528 2456 3162

catalyzing the oxidation processes, besides in stimulating the synthesis of IAA, nucleic acid and proteins (Mengel and Kirkby, 1996).

Seed yield plot-1 (g) Seed yield plant-1 (g) Split husk seed (%) Seed set (%) Treatments

Table 1. Effect of foliar spraying of nutrients on seed yield and quality of rice hybrid ADTRH-1

Shoot length (cm)

Dry matter production (mg 10 seedlings-1)

Vigour index

Effect of foliar spraying of nutrients on seed yield, split husk occurrence and seed quality in hybrid rice ADTRH-1

Pollar, E. (1975). Zinc in pollen and its incorporation into seeds. Planta, 123: 97-103. Rerkasem, B., Lordkaew, S. and Dell, B. (1997). Boron requirement for reproductive development in wheat. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 43: 953-957. Sharma, S.K., Singh, H. and Kohli, U.K. (1999). Influence on boron and zinc on seed yield and quality in radish. Seed Res. 27: 146148.

(Received:Dec.2002;Revised:April 2003)

Effect of foliar spraying of nutrients on seed yield, split ...

Apr 5, 1990 - Dept. of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agrl. Univ., Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu. .... Kumar, B. and Singh, V.P. (1997). Zinc.

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