J Med Food. 2006 Summer;9(2):237-45.

Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Nalini N, Manju V, Menon VP. Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India. [email protected] Colon cancer is the second most common cancer among men and women worldwide. We investigated the effect of red chilli (Capsicum annum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on colon cancer induced in rats by a colon-specific carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Colon cancer was induced by subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight (15 doses, at 1-week intervals). The rats were continued with the standard pellet diet and supplemented red chilli [C. annum L., 0.015% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], cumin seeds [C. cyminum L., 1.25% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], and black pepper (P. nigrum L., 0.5% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet] throughout the experimental period. After the total experimental period of 32 weeks (including 2 weeks of acclimatization) the incidence and number of tumors in the colon were observed to be significantly higher in the rats administered DMH and/or red chillis, as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. No tumors were observed in the control, cumin + DMH, or black pepper + DMH groups. The levels of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols in 24-hour fecal samples were significantly decreased in DMH + chilli-administered rats, while the excretion of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols was significantly increased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMHadministered rats. In DMH-, chilli-, and chilli + DMH-administered rats the levels of cholesterol, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity were decreased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMH-treated rats. The phospholipid levels were reduced in the DMH, chilli, and chilli + DMH groups as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. Our results show that chilli supplementation promotes colon carcinogenesis, whereas cumin or black pepper suppresses colon carcinogensis in the presence of the procarcinogen DMH. PMID: 16822210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nutr Cancer. 2003;47(2):171-80.

Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model systems. Gagandeep, Dhanalakshmi S, Mendiz E, Rao AR, Kale RK. Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India. Lately, a strong correlation has been established between diet and cancer. For ages, cumin has been a part of the diet. It is a popular spice regularly used as a flavoring agent in a number of ethnic cousins. In the present study, cancer chemopreventive potentials of different doses of a cumin seed-mixed diet were evaluated against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)induced uterine cervix tumorigenesis. Results showed a significant inhibition of stomach tumor burden (tumors per mouse) by cumin. Tumor burden was 7.33 +/- 2.10 in the B(a)P-treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.10 +/- 0.57 (P < 0.001) by a 2.5% dose and 3.11 +/- 0.60 (P <0.001) by a 5% dose of cumin seeds. Cervical carcinoma incidence, compared with the MCA-treated control group (66.67%), reduced to 27.27% (P < 0.05) by a diet of 5% cumin seeds and to 12.50% (P < 0.05) by a diet of 7.5% cumin seeds. The effect of 2.5 and 5% cumin seed-mixed diets was also examined on carcinogen/xenobiotic metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lipid peroxidation in the liver of Swiss albino mice. Levels of cytochrome P-450 (cyt P-450) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b(5)) were significantly augmented (P < 0.05) by the 2.5% dose of cumin seed diet. The levels of cyt

P-450 reductase and cyt b(5) reductase were increased (significance level being from P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) by both doses of cumin. Among the phase II enzymes, glutathione S-transferase specific activity increased (P < 0.005) by the 5% dose, whereas that of DT-diaphorase increased significantly (P < 0.05) by both doses used (2.5 and 5%). In the antioxidant system, significant elevation of the specific activities of superoxide dismutase (P < 0.01) and catalase (P < 0.05) was observed with the 5% dose of cumin. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase remained unaltered by both doses of cumin. The level of reduced glutathione measured as nonprotein sulfhydryl content was elevated (significance level being from P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) by both doses of cumin. Lipid peroxidation measured as formation of MDA production showed significant inhibition (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) by both doses of cumin. LDH activity remained unaltered by both doses of cumin. The results strongly suggest the cancer chemopreventive potentials of cumin seed and could be attributed to its ability to modulate carcinogen metabolism. Publication Types: •

Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't PMID: 15087270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Aug;62(1):15-24.

Influence of spices on the bacterial (enzyme) activity in experimental colon cancer. Nalini N, Sabitha K, Viswanathan P, Menon VP. Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India. In the presence of a known colon carcinogen, 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH), the activity of betaglucuronidase was found to be significantly increased in the distal colon, distal intestine, liver and colon contents and the activity of mucinase was increased in both the colon and fecal contents when compared to control rats. Chilli (Capsicum annum L., Solanaceae) administration also showed an increase when compared to control rats, whereas supplementation with cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., Apiaceae) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L., Piperaceae) in the presence of DMH, showed more or less similar values as that of the control rats. The increase in beta-glucuronidase activity may increase the hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates, liberating the toxins, while the increase in mucinase activity may enhance the hydrolysis of the protective mucins in the colon. Thus cumin and black pepper may protect the colon by decreasing the activity of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase. Histopathological studies also showed lesser infiltration into the submucosa, fewer papillae and lesser changes in the cytoplasm of the cells in the colon in cumin and black pepper groups when compared to the DMH and chilli treated animals. PMID: 9720607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2 ...

Nalini N, Manju V, Menon VP. Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India. [email protected]. Colon cancer is ...

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