550

K. Sada Siva Rao, P. Venkatachalam and A. Sampathrajan

Combination of raw materials

Approximate cost Rs.

Saw dust 40% + Groundnut shell 60% Coffe husk 20% + Groundnut shell 30% + Saw dust 50% Saw dust 80% + marigold 20% Groundnut shell 40% + turmeric dust 10% + coffee husk 30% + marigold 10% + cotton dust 10%

fuels like coal and also wood. Continuity in supply and confidence in the produce are the two major considerations for marketing briquettes in India. Small-scale industries are the major marketing base for biomass briquettes. Rubber industries, textile dyeing units, leather processing units, small boiler units, tobacco processing units, brick kilns and the domestic sector which use huge amount of wood and loose biomass have to switch over to briquettes. Traders who were already engaged in supplying coal/charcoal/wood possessing godown facilities and familar with market base have established some units of their own. In this context more than 16 firms are reported to be in business in Tamil Nadu and

860 850 760 780

the survey was conducted with them to collect details. The combination of raw materials used and the approximate cost is furnished in the table. Conclusions With the environmental impacts of fossil fuel use emerging as major threat to the socity, renewable energy in general and biomass energy in particular, are expected to assume increasing importance in the future. The study shows that briquetting is a promising enterprise provided that appropriate decision is taken on selection of raw material depending on seasonal availability. There is great scope for briquettes and can compete well with wood in specific applications. (Received: May 2002; Revised: April 2003)

Madras Agric. J. 90 (7-9) : 550-553 July-September 2003 Research Notes

Effect of storage containers and seed treatments on seed viability and vigour of greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) cv. CO 6 K. RAJA, A. BHARATHI AND T.V. KARIVARADARAAJU Dept. of Seed Science and Tech., Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu One of the most important basic needs for higher agricultural production is quality seed, characterized by high viability and vigour. Maintenance of seed viability and vigour from harvest till the next growing season is of the utmost importance in a seed production programme. Pulses are being cultivated in an area about 226 lakh hectares in India, with the production of 121 lakh M.T. (Karivaradaraaju, 2000). During seed storage, qualitative and quantitative losses upto 8.5% have been reported in India (Anon,

1978). The poor seed quality may also be due to the poor storability which is very often being decided by the internal and external factors. In pulses, the major cause for seed deterioration during storage is bruchid damage. Among different species of bruchids, Callosobruchus maculatus (L.) is considered to be the most destructive in India and causing severe damage to the storage seed to the extend of 93.33% in different pulse crop (Parsai et al. 1989). The seed deterioration is also hastened by adverse storage

Cloth bag Period of storage

P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7

Control

Thiram

Polythene bag (700 gauge)

Neem oil

Malathion dust

Control

Thiram

Neem oil

Malathion oil

G (%)

VI

G (%)

VI

G (%)

VI

G (%)

VI

G (%)

VI

G (%)

VI

G (%)

VI

G (%)

VI

87 (68.88) 84 (66.42) 80 (63.43) 76 (60.67) 72 (60.67) 66 (54.34) 52 (46.15) 50 (45.00)

7480

87 (68.88) 92 (73.57) 88 (69.73) 88 (69.73) 84 (69.73) 82 (64.93) 80 (63.43) 74 (59.36)

7395

89 (70.65) 92 (73.57) 90 (71.65) 88 (69.73) 83 (69.73) 84 (66.42) 82 (64.93) 80 (63.54)

4565

92 (73.57) 88 (69.73) 86 (68.08) 84 (66.42) 82 (66.42) 78 (62.05) 76 (60.69) 74 (57.36)

7820

88 (69.73) 86 (68.08) 84 (66.42) 80 (63.43) 72 (63.43) 64 (53.16) 56 (48.43) 54 (47.30)

7430

96 (78.46) 93 (74.70) 88 (70.00) 92 (73.57) 88 (73.57) 86 (68.50) 84 (66.58) 80 (63.43)

8160

94 (76.02) 97 (80.14) 92 (74.10) 96 (78.46) 92 (78.46) 88 (69.73) 84 (66.42) 82 (64.93)

7990

88 (69.73) 92 (73.57) 88 (69.73) 84 (66.42) 86 (66.42) 84 (66.58) 80 (63.43) 74 (59.36)

7480

CD (P=0.05)

5670 5680 5320 4659 4620 3250 3048

P 81.041

6900 6468 6380 6006 5700 5400 5006

7176 6976 6512 6406 6216 5902 5638

6512 6234 6006 5782 5462 5244 4846

Vigour index C T PxC TxC TxP PxCxT 49.628 81.041 140.368 140.363 229.33 397.021

6786 6174 5810 5004 4320 3612 3376

7063 6600 6854 6336 6066 5800 5360

7663 7176 7392 6946 6600 6216 5944

Germination P C T PxC TxC TxP 0.7133 0.4368 0.7133 1.2355 1.2355 2.0176

6900 6556 6174 6236 5928 5560 4846

PxCxT 3.4946

(Figures in parentheses are arc sign value)

551

environment, seed moisture content and the containers used for seed storage besides its susceptibility to insect infestation. In this context, evolving an improved storage strategy to prolong the self life of seeds under ambient storage conditions with easily available cost effective resources was carried out.

The experiment was conducted at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 1999-2000. Freshly harvested seeds of greengram cv.CO 6 were cleaned and graded using BSS, 8x8 wire mesh sieve. Then seeds were dried under sunlight to bring the moisture content to required level (8.5%). The seeds were treated with Thiram @ 2g kg-1, Neem oil @ 10ml kg-1 and Malathion dust @ 200 mg kg-1. Two hundred and fifty gram of seeds from all treatments along with control were packed in two containers viz. cloth bag and polythene bag (700 gauge) with three replication and stored in at ambient temperature (30 oC 35 o C) and relative humidity (52-80%). Seed samples were drawn from each

Effect of storage containers and seed treatments on seed viability and vigour of greengram ....

Table 1. Effect of containers and seed treatments on germination and vigour index of greengram cv. CO 6

552

K. Raja, A. Bharathi and T.V. Karivaradaraaju

Table 2. Effect of containers and seed treatments on bruchid damage (%) in greengram cv. CO 6 Period of storage P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7

Cloth bag

Polythene bag (700 gauge)

Control

Thiram

Neem oil

Malathion

Control

Thiram

0.00 (0.71) 2.00 (1.42) 1.00 (3.39) 19.00 (4.41) 29.00 (5.43) 31.00 (5.61) 37.00 (6.12) 41.00 (6.44)

0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.73) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) P 0.0660

0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) C 0.1078

0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 2.00 (1.410 3.00 (1.85) 5.00 (2.34) 7.00 (2.73) T 0.1867

0.00 (0.71) 1.00 (1.22) 6.00 (2.82) 14.00 (3.80) 22.00 (4.74) 23.00 (4.85) 29.00 (5.43) 35.00 (5.96) PxC 0.1867

0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) TxC 0.3049

CD (P=0.05)0.1078

Neem oil Malathion 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) TxP 0.5282

0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 0.00 (0.71) 2.00 (1.41) 3.00 (1.85) 3.00 (1.85) PxCxT

(Figures in parentheses are arc sign value)

replication at monthly interval for assessing the viability and vigour. Germination test was conducted in between paper method and seedlings were evaluated on seventh day (ISTA, 1999) for Vigour index (Abdul-Baki and Anderson, 1973) bruchid infestation (Mohan, 1993). The results were statistically analysed as per Panse and Sukhatme (1978). The effect of different containers, seed treatments and period of storage on viability of greengram seeds were shown in Table 1. The containers have considerable effect on germination and vigour index of seeds. The reduction in germination and vigour index was higher for seeds stored in clothbags as compared to polythene bag (700 gauge). Seeds treated with neem oil @ 10ml kg-1 performed better as compared to other treatments viz. thiram and malathion. But the untreated seeds recorded lower germination per cent and vigour index after seven months of storage. Neem oil/neem product has an antioxidant property like acetyl salicylic acid in reducing the lipid peroxidation, protein degradation and chromosomal aberrations and simultaneously controlling the deterioration process (Umarani and Vanangamudi, 1999). There

was no bruchid damage on seeds treated with neem oil @ 10ml kg -1 and thiram @ 2g kg -1 of seeds after 7 months of storage in clothbag than the seeds treated with malathion @ 200 mg kg-1 (Table 2). Untreated seeds recorded higher bruchid damage. The bruchid damage increased with increase in storage period. The bitter compound azadirachtin present in neem seeds showed insecticidal property against a variety of storage and field crop pests. Crushed neem seed at one or two per cent protected the pulse seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus (Jotwani and Sircar, 1967). Seeds treated with neem seed powder reduced oviposition, egg hatching and adult emergence (Makanjuola, 1989). Though thiram is a fungicide it effectively controlled the bruchid infestation. Thiram is metabolized to the isothiocyanate radical which inactivates the sulfhydral groups (-SH) of amino acids and enzymes within the insect cells and thereby inhibits the production and function of these compound in the insect cells. It was concluded that the self life of greengram seeds could be increased by treating the seeds with neem oil and stored either by polythene bag (700 gauge) or clothbag.

Effect of storage containers and seed treatments on seed viability and vigour of greengram ....

References Abdul-Baki, A.A. and Anderson, J.D. (1973). Vigour determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci. 13: 630-633. Anon. (1978). Post harvest food losses in developing countries. Nation. Acad. Sci., Washington, D.C. p.220. ISTA. (1999). International rules for seed testing. Seed Sci. and Technol., Supplement Rules, 27: 25-30. Jotwani, M.G. and Sircar, P. (1967). Neem seed as a protestants against bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infesting some leguminous seeds. Ind. J. Ent. 29: 21-24. Karivaradaraaju, T.V. (2000). Paper on increasing the productivity of rice-fallow pulses. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003. Makanjuola, W.A. (1989). Evaluation of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) for the control of some stored product pests. J. Stored Product Res. 25: 231-237.

553

Mohan, S. (1993). A new device to trap pulse beetle. TNAU Newsletter, 23: 1. Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. (1978). Statistical methods for agricultural workers. ICAR, Pub., New Delhi. Parsai, S.K., Rawat, R.R. and Choudhary, P.K. (1989). Ovipositional behaviour and preference of the bean beetle, Callosobruchus phaseoli, its extent of damage in stored seeds of different varieties of field bean. Bull. Grain Technol. 27: 103-106. Umarani, R. and Vanangamudi, K. (1999). Improvement in storability of Casuarina equisetifolia seeds through pre-storage treatments by triggering their physiological and biochemical properties. National symposium on forestry towards 21st Century, Sep.27-28, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003.

(Received: August 2002; Revised: April 2003)

Madras Agric. J. 90 (7-9) : 553-557 July-September 2003 Research Notes

Management of seed borne grain mould disease of sorghum with botanicals C. MENAKA, K. VANANGAMUDI, K. PRABAKAR, A. BHARATHI AND P. NATESAN Dept. of Seed Science and Tech., Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu In semitropical areas like Africa and Asia, the poor man's crop viz. sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has been grown for grain as well as for forage. India has the largest share in (32.3%) world area in sorghum and ranked second in production after USA. An outstanding characteristics of sorghum is its ability to produce grain under conditions too severe particularly in dry conditions. Good seeds are a symbol and a foundation of good agriculture. Grain mould is one of the most widespread and devastating diseases of sorghum and ranks number one, primarily because, it concerned with the quality of seed/grain (Frederiksen, 1982). The more pathogenic field fungi that

seriously damage seed/grain in sorghum are primarily Fusarium monilifome and Curvularia lunata (Castor and Frederiksen, 1982). The physical, physiological and biochemical changes that occur in seed due to grain mould infection are discolouration of earhead and individual grains, viability of seeds was reduced (Narasimhan and Rangaswamy, 1969), vigour of seedlings was reduced, reduction in the content of total sugars, reducing sugars and non reducing sugars (Williams and McDonald, 1983), rapid decrease of starch, the increase in phenolics due to infection (Farkas and Kiraly, 1962) and changes in protein content of seeds.

Effect of storage containers and seed treatments on ...

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