Efficient terahertz generation by carbon nanotubes within the limited space-charge accumulation regime G. Penningtona兲 and A. E. Wickenden Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783, USA

共Received 6 October 2008; accepted 26 March 2009; published online 6 May 2009兲 This paper investigates the generation of power at terahertz frequencies by a single-walled semiconducting carbon nanotube 共s-SWCNT兲. The prediction of negative differential resistance 共NDR兲 in s-SWCNTs allows for their consideration as a Gunn-type oscillator. Here we consider the regime of limited-space-charge accumulation within nanotubes biased with a potential along the tube axis. This regime minimizes the growth of high-field domain regions, which may be destructive to the nanotube, and allows for efficient high-power operation. Results show that a high-power, efficient, miniaturized, room temperature source of terahertz radiation is possible by appropriate biasing of the s-SWCNT element in the NDR region of operation. Nanotubes of diameter 共d兲 0.8–4.5 nm are considered. The generated ac power 共Pac兲 is found to range in the ␮W / ␮m range, reaching values as high as 13 ␮W / ␮m at high bias and small diameter. Very large generation efficiencies 共␩兲 were found with a maximum value of 20% at high bias and small d. For a fixed dc bias field to NDR threshold field ratio, performance parameters are found to decrease with increasing s-SWCNT tube diameter as Pac ⬃ d−2 and ␩ ⬃ d−1/3. Frequencies of operation where found to span the terahertz regime, indicating that a s-SWCNT may serve as the active element in terahertz oscillator diodes. © 2009 American Institute of Physics. 关DOI: 10.1063/1.3123806兴 I. INTRODUCTION

The terahertz spectrum occurs within the frequency range of 0.1–1 THz and is bound by the microwave and optical spectral bands. Although technology within each of these distinct bands is well developed, application of microwave and optical techniques to the generation and detection of terahertz radiation has proceeded slowly, creating a “terahertz gap.”1,2 The state of affairs is exemplified by the fact that at the present time a continuous wave, compact, efficient, high-power, and inexpensive terahertz source that operates at room temperature does not exist. Such a source, and comparable detector, would improve the state of the art in the many applications of terahertz technology including the areas of remote sensing, short-range and high-bandwidth communications, high-resolution imaging, and noninvasive monitoring of concealed packages and containers.1–9 Extension of optical techniques into the terahertz gap is limited since terahertz energies are much smaller than typical semiconductor energy gaps and lie close to the room temperature thermal energy. Furthermore, many optical sources and detectors are bulky and expensive. The cascade laser is promising but must be cryogenically cooled.10 Extension of rf electronics technology into the terahertz regime has been limited as the cutoff frequency for transistors lies in the hundreds of gigahertz range. Scaling, reduction of parasitics, advanced processing, and the use of specialized devices such as high electron mobility transistors has raised the maximum cutoff frequency to ⬃0.6 THz.11 However, more improvements are needed to further penetrate the terahertz gap. Ana兲

Electronic mail: [email protected].


other difficulty is the fact that both electronic and optical sources suffer from a sharp reduction in output power within the terahertz regime.4 One option for a terahertz source is the use of twoterminal electronic devices such as Gunn, impact ionization avalanche injection 共IMPATT兲, barrier injection 共BARITT兲, and tunneling 共TUNNETT兲 transit-time diodes or resonant tunneling diodes 共RTDs兲.8,12 Such devices are portable and work at room temperature. Transit-time diodes are not as easily integrated into circuits as transistors but generally offer a higher output power. Unfortunately these devices are limited by material properties, as transit and relaxation times are typically too large for use at terahertz frequencies.6,8 GaN has shown promise but material defects and poor heat removal have limited this technology. As for RTDs, their output power and noise level are generally unacceptable in the terahertz regime.8 For the effective use of diode oscillators in the terahertz regime, exploration of new materials may be profitable. Materials that are useful for oscillator diodes generally exhibit negative differential mobility 共NDM兲 and negative differential resistance. In Gunn diodes, the focus of this work, NDM occurs as a result of the “transferred electron effect” 共TE兲 exhibited by many III-V materials such as GaAs, InP, and GaN.13 These materials are characterized by a low energy, low effective mass band structure valley, and a high energy, high effective mass valley. When the electric field surpasses a threshold 共E ⬎ Em兲 and is strong enough to populate the high energy valley through intervalley scattering, NDM occurs 共i.e., drift velocity decreases as the field increases兲. Biasing the material in the NDM region allows for the generation of ac power. Gunn diodes may operate in a regime where charge domains form and propagate along

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© 2009 American Institute of Physics

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J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094316 共2009兲

G. Pennington and A. E. Wickenden

the active channel or in a regime where the formation of such domains is suppressed. The later is the limited space-charge accumulation 共LSA兲 regime.14,15 In the LSA mode, the dc diode bias is above the NDM threshold, while the ac signal is large enough to allow the total field to drop below threshold during each cycle. This quenches the charge domains. This regime is often of interest since it typically has the highest ac generation efficiency. Unfortunately use in the terahertz regime is precluded in bulk III-V materials since the characteristic times for domain transit, intervalley scattering, and energy relaxation are too large. Many properties of carbon nanotubes 共CNTs兲 are well suited for use in high frequency oscillator applications. Experiments have shown that suspended metallic CNTs exhibit NDM, which is believed to result from nonequilibrium phonons.16 Boltzmann transport theory has predicted NDM in both metallic and semiconducting single-walled CNTs 共s-SWCNTs兲.17–21 Here NDM results at high fields as carriers in the first subband reach the energy threshold for optical, zone boundary, and intersubband phonon scattering.19 Such scattering results in an increase in the effective mass and thus NDM via a TE-like effect. CNTs also exhibit high carrier mobility,19,22 allowing for shorter transit times. Furthermore, the carrier relaxation rate in CNTs is also large, ⬃10 fs,19 when optical or acoustic zone boundary TE phonon scattering occurs. This allows for fast relaxation, also a useful property for high frequency applications. Simulations of high field transport in s-SWCNTs have shown that nantoubes can generate terahertz frequency current oscillations via the TE/ Gunn effect with domain formation or by streaming motion.23,24 Since current oscillations where only seen over short distances,23,24 approximately tens of nanometers, the realization of CNT oscillator applications may require use of an accompanying resonant circuit or waveguide that will help control and sustain current oscillations. Such a circuit would also increase the output power by operating in the LSA mode while allowing a parallel array of dissimilar nanotubes to oscillate in phase. The presence of a large density of space-charge is likely to create large local fields, which damage the CNT. It is also possible that such space charge, through generation of nonuniform fields in the CNT, will mask the NDM.25 Therefore, it may be useful to operate in the LSA mode, quenching domain formation. In this effort, we analyze the characteristics of zig-zag26 s-SWCNTs LSA diode oscillators.

FIG. 1. 共Color online兲 Resonant circuit connected to a s-SWCNT oscillator.

obtained from previous work where the Boltzmann equation was solved using Monte Carlo methods.19 Plots for various n indices, where the diameter is d ⬃ 0.245n / ␲ nm, are shown in Fig. 2共a兲. As the field is increased, the drift velocity rises to a maximum when E = Em and then decreases giving a region of NDM 共differential mobility ␮d = dvd / dE ⬍ 0兲. As seen in Fig. 2共a兲, Em decreases and the maximum drift velocity 共vdm兲 increases as n increases. This was found to result from band structure variations and a decrease in phonon scattering as n increases.19 Also note there are two distinct families of zig-zag s-SWCNTs, gcd共n , 3兲 ⫽ 3, distinguished in Fig. 2共a兲 by gcd共n + 1 , 3兲 = 1 or gcd共n + 1 , 3兲 = 3 共gcd = greatest common divisor兲.26 This distinction increases as n decreases. The Monte Carlo results for the drift velocity may be approximated as19

vd共E,n兲 = vdm exp −


66Em , n1/3


1.3 + ␪共E − Em兲冑n/2

冎 共1兲

where ⌰ is a heavy side step function. The critical field serving as the threshold for the onset of NDM is


For LSA mode oscillations, the s-SWCNT active element is connected to a resonant circuit with an applied voltage. Such a circuit is shown in Fig. 1. The resonant circuit may be a waveguide or LC element. It sets the oscillation frequency 共f兲 of the circuit and helps initiate and maintain stable oscillations through the s-SWCNT. The electric field across the nanotube is assumed to be uniform under LSA conditions, consisting of dc and ac components E共t兲 = E0 + E1 sin共2␲ ft兲. Zig-zag s-SWCNTs with fundamental indices n , m = 共n , 0兲 共Ref. 26兲 and 10ⱕ n ⱕ 59 are considered. The carrier drift velocity 共vd兲 as a function of the applied field is

FIG. 2. 共Color online兲 Drift velocity 共a兲 and differential mobility ␮d 共b兲 for zig-zag s-SWCNTs with indices ranging from n = 10– 59.

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J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094316 共2009兲

G. Pennington and A. E. Wickenden

再 冉冊

Em共n兲 = 1 +

8 n


关gcd共n + 1,3兲 − 1兴

6.56 n1.5

⫻ 103 kV/cm,


and the maximum velocity is

vdm共n兲 = 1.4n1/3 1 +

1 − gcd共n + 1,3兲 ⫻ 107 cm/s. 共3兲 2n

Accounting for limits placed on the average carrier energy in the Monte Carlo simulations of Ref. 19, the model drift velocity in Eq. 共1兲 is valid for fields E ⱕ 66Em / n1/3. Using quasistatic approximations, the time and frequency dependence of the carrier drift velocity vd关E共f , t兲兴 and mobility ␮d关E共f , t兲兴 are determined solely by the instantaneous field through Eqs. 共1兲–共3兲. As seen in Fig. 2共b兲 the differential mobility is separated at Em into positive ␮+d and negative ␮−d regions. As the latter is much smaller, E␮d is plotted. Consider a small fluctuation in the space-charge ␴, ⳵␴ / ⳵t = −eN1D␮d␴ / ␧共f兲w␲d, where N1D is the onedimensional 共1D兲 space-charge density, w = 0.34 is the nanotube wall width, and ␧共f兲 is the frequency 共f兲 dependent dielectric constant. Space-charge fluctuations will grow in the NDM region when ␮d = ␮−d and dissipate in the passive region when ␮d = ␮+d . The conditions for the LSA mode of operation require that the dc component of the field is set in the NDM region but the total field, ac+ dc, must drop below Em long enough to dissipate all of the space-charge growth that occurred during the E ⬎ Em region of the ac cycle. This is represented by the conditions E 0 ⬎ E m,

E 0 − E m ⬍ E 1 ⬍ E 0,



E0 − E1 ⬍ 1. Em

FIG. 3. 共Color online兲 Field variations and corresponding drift velocity for an n = 22 s-SWCNT.

The frequency dependent dielectric function 共␧兲 is obtained from the results of optical characterization of a SWCNT film in Ref. 27. Experiments27 in this reference where used to determine the complex refractive index n共f兲 = nr共f兲 + ini共f兲. We find that results for the region of 0.2–0.8 THz can be well approximated by the relations nr ⬃ 2.5/ f and ni ⬃ 共3.9− 3f兲, with f in units of terahertz. With the reasonable assumption that the relative permeability is 1, the relative dielectric function is found from 共nr + ini兲2. Results are shown in Fig. 4 where it is seen that the real part of the dielectric function in Eq. 共5兲 can be approximated as ␧r = 4, independent of f, in the terahertz region.

共4兲 Note ␹ = 0 when E1 is maximum and ␹ = 1 when E1 is minimum, giving the range of the ac field within the LSA mode. Space-charge growth is limited when the oscillation period f −1 is shorter than the average dielectric relaxation time in the NDM region 共␶−兲 and longer than the corresponding relaxation time in the passive region 共␶+兲. This gives the effective range of frequencies for the LSA regime 2eN1D 1 − = ␶ ␧0␧r共f兲␲wd =

2eN1D ␧0␧r共f兲␲wd

冕 冕


兩␮−d 兩dx ⬍ f ⬍

x1 x3

兩␮+d 兩dx.


The nanotube will generate ac power as carriers absorb energy from the dc field and release energy to the ac field. The average dc power absorbed and ac power generated are

1 ␶+ 共5兲


Integration limits15 are given in Fig. 3 and Ref. 15. Notice that the upper limit for the frequency is given by the inverse relaxation time in the passive region. As seen in Fig. 2共b兲, the mobility is larger in this region allowing faster relaxation and a higher upper limit for f. Relaxation times 共␶−兲 tend to be larger in the NDM region indicating slow dielectric relaxation. Although 兩x2 − x1兩 may be much larger than 兩x3 − x2兩, a large range of f values may satisfy Eq. 共4兲 since ␮+d tends to be significantly larger than ␮−d . Together, Eqs. 共4兲 and 共5兲 give the conditions for LSA mode operation.

FIG. 4. 共Color online兲 Dielectric function generated by fitting refractive index measurements in Ref. 27.

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J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094316 共2009兲

G. Pennington and A. E. Wickenden

FIG. 5. 共Color online兲 Band structure and 1D charge density along the nanotube axis showing the limits of nondegenerate density.

Pdc = eN1DLE0 f

f −1

FIG. 6. 共Color online兲 Power density generated for a n = 10 共diameter ⬃0.8 nm兲 and 58 共diameter ⬃4.5 nm兲 s-SWCNT as a function of dc 共E0兲 and ac 共E1兲 fields. The NDM threshold is given by Em.



Pac = − eN1DLE1 f

f −1

vd关E共f,t兲兴sin共2␲ ft兲dt



for a nanotube of length L. The efficiency for this process is

␩ = Pac / Pdc. As mentioned, models for the drift velocity are

taken from Monte Carlo transport results.19 The models are valid under nondegenerate conditions when the Fermi level 共EF兲 lies in the s-SWCNT energy gap. This gives a maximum and minimum value for N1D, as shown in Fig. 5, when EF is kBT below the band minima and at the midgap, respectively. Three subbands are included in the calculations. As n increases, the density of carriers in the zig-zag s-SWCNTs decreases as a result of a reduction in the density of states near the band minima. This is why N1Dmax drops with increasing n. The minimum value of N1D increases with n since the band gap is proportional to 1 / n. When the Fermi level is at midgap, more conducting states tend to be occupied as the band gap is reduced. Since there are few electrons per micron under nondegenerate conditions, it is best to consider the case of maximum N1D for calculations of power Pac and resistance R in this work. It should be kept in mind that these calculations represent maximum 共minimum兲 values of Pac 共R兲, and that there is really a range of values that depend on N1D. Furthermore, the charge density in the nanotube depends on the contacts and doping. It may be adjusted by including a third gating terminal within the device. The maximum ac power generated by an n = 10 and n = 58 zig-zag nanotube are shown in Fig. 6. The power ranges in the tens of microwatts when n = 10 and is roughly a tenth of a microwatt when n = 58. Since the range of the ac field depends on the dc field through Eq. 共4兲, ␹ is plotted for each E0. For a fixed dc field E0, the generated power varies little with ␹ since according to Eq. 共4兲 corresponding variations in E1 are small. There is a slight reduction in Pac when ␹ is small, and E1 approaches E0 since under these conditions the average carrier velocity during the negative ac cycle drops significantly as the field enters the low-field linear region in Fig. 2共a兲. Though the LSA range of E1 is small for fixed E0,

values of E1 increase significantly as E0 increases. This leads to increases in Pac as E0 increases in Fig. 7, where E1 has been set to the midway value E0 − Em / 2. Since this midway value increases linearly with E0, we see in Fig. 7 that Pac increases approximately linearly with both E0 and E1. Furthermore, results for n = 10– 58 show that the generated power is proportional to the inverse square of both the s-SWCNT n index and diameter for a fixed E0 / Em operating point. This occurs since Em and the corresponding NDM biasing fields E0 and E1 at mid value increase as n decreases. Larger operation point fields lead to larger generated power in small diameter tubes. A second distinct effect occurs as n increases due to an increase in both the drift velocity and differential mobility in the NDM region. This tends to slightly enhance Pac in larger diameter tubes. However, this second effect is weak. The general trend is for Pac to increase as n decreases due to variations in Em. The negative resistance, R = 共E1L兲2 / 2Pac, for a n = 10 and n = 58 tube is plotted in Fig. 8. Values are found to be in the megaohm range. When the nanotube is placed in a resonant circuit, as in Fig. 1, the circuit resistance Rr should be set close to 兩R兩 for enhanced performance. The negative resistance will tend to adjust to match Rr. Inspection of Fig. 8 reveals that, as was the case for Pac, R does not vary significantly as a function of ␹ at fixed dc field E0 since the corresponding LSA range of E1 in Eq. 共4兲 is small. The dependence of R on the ac field amplitude can be seen in Fig. 9 where the midway value of E1 has been used. The magnitude of the resistance increases linearly with increasing E0 and E1 except at biases close to Em, where the ac field is very small. For a fixed bias ratio E0 / Em, the negative resistance is found to vary as the inverse of the nanotube index n 共R ⬃ 1 / n, 1 / d兲. The efficiency of ac power generation 共␩ = Pac / Pdc兲 is plotted in Fig. 10. Values as high as 20% are reached at large biases in the n = 10 tube. The efficiency drops as n and the tube diameter increase reaching a maximum of only 8% in the n = 58 nanotube. As shown in Fig. 11, ␩ increases with

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G. Pennington and A. E. Wickenden

J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094316 共2009兲

FIG. 9. Dependence of the negative resistance on dc bias and nanotube diameter and n index. The NDM threshold is given by Em. FIG. 7. Dependence of generated ac power on dc bias and nanotube tube diameter and n index.

bias 共E0 and E1兲. For fixed E0 / Em, ␩ varies with tube index and diameter as n−1/3 and d−1/3. So Pac, R, and ␩ all increase as the s-SWCNT diameter 共n index兲 decreases due to the larger biasing fields needed to surpass the larger NDM threshold field Em. Other effects that would favor the larger diameter tubes, including increases in the drift velocity and NDM differential mobility ␮−d , are not as significant. It is also of interest to investigate the frequency range for LSA mode operation as given in Eq. 共5兲. Results for ⌫, the frequency charge density ratio, are given in Figs. 12 and 13 for an n = 10 and n = 58 s-SWCNT. The maximum and minimum values of ⌫ are given by Eq. 共5兲. Operation in the LSA mode requires biasing such that ⌫max ⬎ ⌫min. Considering a charge density of N1D = 1 / ␮m, results in Figs. 12 and 13 give frequency ranges ⌫max = f max = 1 / ␶+ and ⌫min = f min = 1 / ␶− in terahertz. Frequencies become larger and have a larger range

FIG. 8. 共Color online兲 Negative resistance for a n = 10 共diameter ⬃0.8 nm兲 and 58 共diameter ⬃4.5 nm兲 s-SWCNT as a function of dc 共E0兲 and ac 共E1兲 fields. The NDM threshold is given by Em.

as a result of increasing n and diameter. This occurs since the differential mobility increases with n, as shown in Fig. 2. As seen in Fig. 5, variation of the Fermi level, via doping or adjustment of the s-SWCNT FET gate voltage, can adjust N1D between ⬃5 and 0 ␮m−1 and between ⬃2 and 0.5 ␮m−1 for the n = 10 and n = 58 tubes respectively. This allows adjustment of the frequency range, f min ⬍ f ⬍ f max, within the terahertz frequency band. The LSA mode is possible when the ac bias is well above the minimum in Eq. 共4兲 so that the field drops well into the passive region 共E ⬍ Em兲. Biasing must satisfy E1 ⬎ E0 − Em / 3 共␹ ⬍ 1 / 3兲 and E1 ⬎ E0 − Em / 2 共␹ ⬍ 1 / 2兲 for the n = 10 and n = 58 tubes, respectively. This also limits the range of generated ac power and negative resistance in Figs. 6 and 8. Results in Figs. 7 and 9 are still valid since ␹ was taken to be 1/2 and Pac and R do not vary significantly with ␹.

FIG. 10. 共Color online兲 Efficiency of rf power generation as a function of bias fields for a n = 10 共diameter ⬃0.8 nm兲 and n = 58 共diameter ⬃4.5 nm兲 s-SWCNT. The NDM threshold is given by Em.

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G. Pennington and A. E. Wickenden

FIG. 11. ac generation efficiency as a function of the bias field and nanotube n index 共diameter兲.

J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094316 共2009兲

FIG. 13. 共Color online兲 Maximum and minimum values of ⌫ = f / N1D as a function of bias field for a n = 58 nanotube 共diameter ⬃4.5 nm兲. The region where ⌫max ⬎ ⌫min, and LSA mode operation is possible, is marked.


In this work we have assessed the performance of singlewalled semiconducting CNT Gunn oscillator diodes. Such a device application may be realized based on predictions that s-SWCNTs possess a region of NDM.19–21 The nanotube Gunn oscillator is envisioned to operate within the spacecharge limited regime. Such a mode of operation is advantageous as suppression of space-charge growth would protect the nanotube from the high local fields associated with Gunn domains. Furthermore, within the LSA mode an external circuit could be used to tune the operating frequency of an array of parallel nanotubes, allowing in-phase oscillation and higher output power. A lower output power would be expected within the traditional Gunn regime as the domain transit times would likely vary among array elements due to variations in diameter and chirality.

FIG. 12. 共Color online兲 Maximum and minimum values of ⌫ = f / N1D as a function of bias field for a n = 10 nanotube 共diameter ⬃0.8 nm兲. The region where ⌫max ⬎ ⌫min, and LSA mode operation is possible, is marked.

Using Monte Carlo transport simulation results for the group velocity of zig-zag s-SWCNTs,19 the ac generation power 共Pac兲, efficiency 共␩兲, and negative resistance 共R兲 have been calculated as a function of bias. Nanotubes of fundamental index n = 10 through n = 58 were considered, corresponding to diameters d of ⬃0.8 through 4.5 nm. The generated ac power is found to range in the ␮W / ␮m range, reaching values as high as 13 ␮W / ␮m at high bias in the n = 10 nanotubes. Very large generation efficiencies were found with a maximum value of 20% at high bias in the n = 10 s-SWCNTs. These results indicate that the performance of smaller diameter nanotubes is the best and the biasing voltages of the auxiliary resonant circuit should be much larger than the NDM threshold voltage of the nanotube. The resistance of the resonant circuit should compare with the negative resistance of the nanotube, which is found to be in the tens of M⍀ / ␮m range, and as high as −60 M⍀ / ␮m in the n = 10 nanotube at high bias. For a fixed dc bias field to NDM threshold field ratio 共E0 / Em兲, performance parameters are found to decrease with increasing s-SWCNT tube index and diameter as Pac ⬃ n−2共d−2兲, R ⬃ n−1共d−1兲, and ␩ ⬃ n−1/3共d−1/3兲 Considering variations in nanotube charge density, frequencies for LSA mode operation are found to span the terahertz regime. Frequencies range from approximately 15–0 THz for the regime of best performance which occurs when n = 10 and the bias is high. When N1D, Pac, and ␩ reach a maximum, the frequency for LSA operation ranges from ⬃15– 5 THz as the bias voltage is adjusted. This can be tuned to lower frequencies with changes in N1D due to alterations in doping or s-SWCNT FET gate voltage. Results show that with variations in nanotube diameter, charge density, and circuit bias voltage, a NDM Gunn diode based on a s-SWCNT can be tuned to oscillate in the terahertz regime. Such a nanotube device is shown to have high ac generation efficiency and high ac power generation 共approximately tens of ␮W / ␮m per tube兲. Results indicate that by aligning 100

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or more micron length nanotubes in a parallel array, power densities as large as 1 mW/ ␮m of terahertz radiation could be produced. This would be acceptable for many applications. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

G. Pennington thanks the Army Research Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities for support and thanks N. Goldsman and A. Akturk for discussions related to this work. B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 共2002兲. M. Lee and M. C. Wanke, Science 316, 64 共2007兲. D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 1 共2004兲. 4 T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 共2005兲. 5 M. Shur, Proceedings of ESSCIRC, Grenoble, France, 2005 共unpublished兲, p. 13–21. 6 P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50共3兲, 910 共2002兲. 7 J. M. Chamberlain, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 362, 199 共2004兲. 8 G. I. Haddad, J. R. East, and H. Eisele, Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 13, 395 共2003兲. 9 D. Woolard et al., IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig. 3, 925 共1999兲. 10 R. Kohler, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Richie, Nature 共London兲 417, 156 共2002兲. 11 W. Hafez and M. Feng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 152101 共2005兲. 1 2 3

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