Name ___________________________ Chapter 20

Class ___________________

Date _____________

Electricity

Section 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity (pages 600–603) This section explains how electric charge is created and how positive and negative charges affect each other. It also discusses the different ways that electric charge can be transferred.

(page 600)

Identifying Main Ideas Copy the table on a separate sheet of paper. As you read, write the main ideas. For more information on this Reading Strategy, see the Reading and Study Skills in the Skills and Reference Handbook at the end of your textbook.

Characteristics of Electric Charge Topic

Main Idea

Electric Charge

An excess or shortage of electrons produces a net electric charge.

Electric Forces

Like charges repel and opposite charges attract.

Electric Fields

The strength of a field depends on the net charge and distance from the charge.

Static Electricity

Charge can be transferred by friction, contact, and induction.

Electric Charge

(pages 600–601)

1. What are the two types of electric charge? Negative Positive a. b. 2. Is the following sentence true or false? In an atom, negatively charged electrons surround a positively charged nucleus. true

3. Is the following sentence true or false? If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons, it becomes a positively charged ion. false

4. What is the SI unit of electric charge?

Electric Forces

The coulomb

(page 601)

5. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about electric force. a. Like charges attract and opposite charges repel. b. Electric force is the attraction or repulsion between electrically charged objects. c. Electric force is inversely proportional to the amount of charge. d. Electric force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between two charges. Physical Science Reading and Study Workbook

Chapter 20 239

Name ___________________________ Chapter 20

Class ___________________

Date _____________

Electricity

6. Which are stronger inside an atom, electric forces or gravitational Electric forces are stronger. forces? 7. Is the following sentence true or false? Electric forces cause friction true and other contact forces.

Electric Fields

(page 602)

8. A charge’s electric field is the effect the charge has on other charges in the space around it. 9. Circle the letters of the factors that the strength of an electric field depends on. a. the direction of the field b. whether the charge is positive or negative c. the amount of charge that produces the field d. the distance from the charge 10. Is the following sentence true or false? The field of a negative false charge points away from the charge.

Static Electricity and Charging (pages 602–603) behavior of electric charges 11. Static electricity is the study of the . 12. Is the following sentence true or false? Charge can be transferred true by friction, by contact, and by induction. 13. What is the law of conservation of charge? The total charge in an isolated system is constant.

Static Discharge

(page 603)

17. Is the following sentence true or false? Static discharge occurs when a pathway through which charges can move forms true suddenly. 18. How does lightning occur? Negative charge in the lower part of a storm cloud induces a positive charge in the ground below the cloud. Eventually the air becomes charged, forming a pathway for the electrons to travel from the cloud to the ground.

240

Physical Science Reading and Study Workbook

Chapter 20

14. Rubbing a balloon on your hair is an example of charging by friction . 15. A charge transfer between objects that touch each other is called charging by contact . 16. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about charging. a. When you rub a balloon on your hair, your hair loses electrons and becomes positively charged. b. The sphere of a Van de Graaff generator transfers all of its charge to you when you touch it. c. Induction occurs when charge is transferred without contact between materials. d. Static charges cannot move.

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