US006968057B2

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.:

Rhoads

(54)

US 6,968,057 B2

(45) Date of Patent:

EMULSION PRODUCTS AND IMAGERY

(58)

Nov. 22, 2005

Field of Search .......................... .. 380/54, 59, 232,

EMPLOYING STEGANOGRAPHY

382/232

(56)

(75) Inventor: Geo?'rey B. Rhoads, West Linn, OR

References Cited

(Us)

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

(73) Assignee: DIGIMARC Corporation, Beaverton,

3,493,674 A 3,569,619 A

OR (US) (*)

Notice:

(Continued)

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS

U.S.C. 154(b) by 596 days. DE EP

(21) Appl. No.: 10/102,026 (22) Filed: (65)

3806411 058 482

9/1989 8/1982

(Continued)

Mar. 19, 2002

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Prior Publication Data

“Access Control and COpyright Protection for Images,

US 2002/0164049 A1 Nov. 7, 2002

Conditional Access and Copyright Protection Based on the

Use of Trusted Third Parties,” 1995, 43 pages. “Access Control and COpyright Protection for Images,

Related US. Application Data (63)

2/ 1970 Houghton

3/1971 Simjian

Continuation-in-part of application No. 09/640,806, ?led on Aug. 17, 2000, now Pat. No. 6,438,231, which is a continu ation of application No. 09/169,088, ?led on Oct. 8, 1998, now Pat. No. 6,111,954, which is a continuation of appli cation No. 08/637,531, ?led on Apr. 25, 1996, now Pat. No.

5,822,436, which is a continuation-in-part of application No. 08/534,005, ?led on Sep. 25, 1995, now Pat. No. 5,832,119, which is a continuation-in-part of application No. 08/438, 159, ?led on May 8, 1995, now Pat. No. 5,850,481, which is a continuation-in-part of application No. 08/327,426, ?led on Oct. 21, 1994, now Pat. No. 5,768,426, which is a

continuation-in-part of application No. 08/215,289, ?led on Mar. 17, 1994, now abandoned, application No. 10/102,026, which is a continuation-in-part of application No. 08/186, 962, ?led on Nov. 5, 1998, which is a continuation of

application No. 08/649,419, ?led on Apr. 16, 1996, now Pat.

No. 5,862,260. (51)

Int. Cl? ................................................ .. H04L 9/00

(52)

US. Cl. .......................................... ..380/59; 380/54

WorkPackage 8: Watermarking,” Jun. 30, 1995, 46 pages.

(Continued) Primary Examiner—Salvatore Cangialosi (74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Digimarc Corporation (57) ABSTRACT Images are steganographically marked with codes that can be used, e.g., by reference to a remote registry, to identify the

image proprietors. Some embodiments pre-mark blank emulsion ?lm or paper products with such codes, so that images formed thereon can be traced back to their propri etors. A variety of other embodiments and technologies are also disclosed.

4 Claims, 28 Drawing Sheets

OBTAIN OR CREATE ORIGINAL

DIGITAL SIGNAL OR IMAGE ESTIMATE ROUGH OFFSET

AND RMS NOISE CHOOSE N OR N-BIT

IDENTIFICATION WORD. E6. 32 GENERATE N-BIT IDENTIFICATION WORD GENERATE OR SYNTHESIZE N ‘RANDOM’ INDEPENDENT SIGNALS WITH ROUGHLY GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION ABOUT SOME MEAN VALUE, WHERE SIGNALS HAVE EQUAL EXTENT AND DIGITAL SPACING OF ORIGINAL DIGITAL SIGNAL OR IMAGE

APPLY DIGITAL FILTER WHICH ATTENUATES BOTH LOW AND HIGH FREQUENCIES. LEAVING

MIDDLE-RANGE FREQUENCIES LARGELY INTACT CONDENSE N RANDOM SIGNALS TO A LOWEST ACCEPTABLE BIT VALUE IF MEMORY OR STORAGE SPACE IS ATA PREMIUM

[ADDIN THEIR ALL RANDOM IMAGES TOGETHER WHICH HAVE A CURRESFONDING “U ASSOCIATED BIT
EXPERIMENT VISUALLY WITH GAIN AND GAMMA APPLIED TO BASE COMPOSITE SIGNAL 0R IMAGE, ADDING THIS TO ORIGINAL DIGITAL SIGNAL 0R IMAGE, AND DETERMINING THE ACCEPTABLE PERCEIVED NOISE LEVEL

LAPF'LY FOUND GAIN AND CAMMA TO BASE COMPOSITE‘ ADD TO ORIGINAL, J THEN CALL THIS THE DISTRIBUTABLE SIGNAL OR IMAGE

LSTORE AWAYAND SECURE ORIGINAL SIGNAL OR IMAGE, ALONG WITH N-BIT IDENTIFICATION WORD AND THEN RANDOM SIGNALS

SELL OR DISTRIBUTE THE DISTRIBUTABLE SIGNAL OR IMAGE

US 6,968,057 B2 Page 2

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5,629,980 5,633,952 5,634,012 5,636,292 5,638,443

5/1997 Ste?k et a1_ 5/1997 Outa 61 211. Ste?k et 81' 6/1997 Rhoads 6/1997 $166k 61 81.

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Sugiyama et 211. H6111 Krause e1a1, Pack 61 a1_ Butera TOW

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11/1996 11/1996 11/1996 12/1996 12/1996 12/1996

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COpriViZa

5,587,743 A

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5,396,559 A

3/1995 MCGICW

5,638,446 A

5398283 A

3/1995 VH8a

5,638,496 A

6/1997 Sato

5,404,160 5,404,377 5,408,542 5,418,853

4/1995 4/1995 4/1995 5/1995

5,640,467 5,646,997 5,659,726 5,661,574

6/1997 7/1997 8/1997 8/1997

A A A A

Schober et @1Moses Callahan Kanota 618.1.

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5,420,910 A 5,422,963 A

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5,678,155 A

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5,463,469 A

10/1995 Funada #1 91-

5,850,481 A

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5,465,387 5,469,506 5,473,631 5,479,168 5,481,294

11/1995 11/1995 12/1995 12/1995 1/1996

5,857,038 5,933,520 5,982,891 5,982,956 6,078,682

1/1999 8/1999 11/1999 11/1999 6/2000

A A A A A

Mukheqee Berson Moses Johnson et 211. Thomfis ct a1~

* 10/1998 Rhoads ...................... .. 380/54

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5,488,664 5,499,294 A

3/1996 1/1996 Sham“ Fnédfnan

6,438,231 6,111,954 A B1 *

8/2000 8/2002 Rhoads Rhoads.

5,515,081 A

5/1996 vaslllk

6,751,320 B2

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A A A A A A A A A A A A A

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Image and TeXt Data Using Micropatterns,” Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, vol. 72, No. 4, 1999, pp.

Tanaka et al., “A Visual Retrieval System With Private

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Tanaka et al., “Embedding Secret Information Into a Dith

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(ECMAST’96), Louvain—la—Neuve, Belgium, accepted for

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publication, May 1996 (Published on internet Apr. 9, 1996,

21—25, 1995, 10 pages.

(http://poseidon.csd.auth.gr/papers/ confers.1.sub.—ind.html)), 8 pages.

* cited by examiner

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 1 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

12 DSGITAL

NUMBER

,

8

4'B'TS

(SIGNAL LEVEL)

4 0

01234

56

7891011121314

SAMPLE NUMBER (INDEX)

COMPUTER

102

\106

104

[C5

100

WWW/mm

EXPOSE AND STEP

FIG. 4

,

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

FIG 2

Sheet 2 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

OBTAIN OR CREATE ORIGINAL

-

DIGITAL SIGNAL OR IMAGE ESTIMATE ROUGH OFFSET

AND RIVIS NOISE

E

CHOOSE N OR N-BIT

)

IDENTIFICATION WORD, EC. 32 GENERATE N-BIT IDENTIFICATION WORD

GENERATE OR SYNTHESIZE N "RANDOM" INDEPENDENT SIGNALS WITH ROUGHLY GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION ABOUT SOME MEAN VALUE, WHERE SIGNALS HAVE EQUAL EXTENT AND DIGITAL SPACING OF ORIGINAL DIGITAL SIGNAL OR IMAGE

APPLY DIGITAL FILTER WHICH ATTENUATES BOTH LOW AND HIGH FREQUENCIES, LEAVING

MIDDLE~RANGE FREQUENCIES LARGELY INTACT CONDENSE N RANDOM SIGNALS TO A LOWEST ACCEPTABLE BIT VALUE IF MEMORY OR STORAGE SPACE IS AT A PREMIUM / ADD ALL RANDOM IMAGES TOGETHER WHICH HAVE A CORRESPONDING "1"

IN THEIR ASSOCIATED BIT-PLACE-VALUE OF THE N-BIT IDENTIFICATION WORD, CALL THIS THE BASE COMPOSITE SIGNAL OR IMAGE K

I EXPERIMENT VISUALLY WITH GAIN AND GAMMA APPLIED TO BASE COMPOSITE SIGNAL OR IMAGE, ADDING THIS TO ORIGINAL DIGITAL SIGNAL

\ OR IMAGE, AND DETERMINING THE ACCEPTABLE PERCEIVED NOISE LEVEL K

L

\_ J

APPLY FOUND GAIN AND CAMMA TO BASE COMPOSITE, ADD TO ORIGINAL,

THEN CALL THIS THE DISTRIBUTABLE SIGNAL OR IMAGE

I

L_ /

KSTORE AWAY AND SECURE ORIGINAL SIGNAL OR IMAGE, ALONG WITH N-BIT y

IDENTIFICATION WORD AND THEN RANDOM SIGNALS

1 (SELL OR DISTRIBUTE THE DISTRIBUTABLE SIGNAL OR IMAGE)

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 3 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

OBTAIN DIGITAL OR NON-DIGITAL COPY

OF SUSPECT SIGNAL OR IMAGE

I

FIG. 3

(DIGITIZE IF NOT ALREADY DIGITAL) CUT AND MASK PORTION OF SIGNAL OR

IMAGE BELIEVED TO BE SUSPECT (ONLY IF ENTIRE SIGNAL OR IMAGE IS NOT SUSPECT) PROCURE ORIGINAL DIGITAL SIGNAL OR IMAGE AND CUT AND MASK TO ROUGHLY THE SAME LOCATION OR SEQUENCE

LVISUALLY RESCALE ANDCUT-OUT REGISTERORIGINAL THE CUT-OUT} S USPECT SIGNAL TO THE SIGNA L V

[ SQUARED RUN THROUGH SEARCH PROGRAM WITH MEAN J ERROR AS CRITERIA AND X OFFSET, Y OFFSET, AND SCALE AS THE THREE VARIABLES APPLY X OFFSET, Y OFFSET, AND SCALE TO

CUT-OUT SUSPECT, THEN RESAMPLE ONTO EXACT GRID AND CUT-OUT OF ORIGINAL SIGNAL

I RUN THROUGH SEARCH PROGRAM WITH MEAN SQUARED ERROR AS CRITERIA AND DC OFFSET, GAIN, AND GAMMA

AS THE THREE VARIABLES; APPLY TO SUSPECT SUBTRACT ORIGINAL FROM SUSPECT, GIVING DIFFERENCE SIGNAL OR IMAGE STEP THROUGH ALL N RANDOM INDEPENDENT SIGNALS, MASKED AS ORIGINAL AND CROSS-CORRELATED WITH DIFFERENCE SIGNAL IN IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD OF REGISTRATION POINTS

[FIND 0 AND 1 LEVEL BY AVERAGING FIRST FOUR 0101 CODE VALUES) ASSIGN EITHER A 0 OR A I TO EACH CROSS-CORRELATION RESULT DEPENDING ON PROXIMITY TO THE AVERAGES OF PREVIOUS STEP

Q CHECK RESULT AGAINST SECURED IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ) PROSECUTE IF IT MATCHES’? OR AT LEAST SEND A NASTY LETTER DEMANDING RECOMPENSE

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 4 0f 28

CODE WORD

(e,g. 01101001

R EA L I: M E ENCODER

INPUT SIGNAL

US 6,968,057 B2

IDENTIFICATION-CODED OUTPUT SIGNAL KEY DATA

(OPTIONAL)

FIG .

5

214

ADDER

SUBTRACTER

0 UTl DI U TI

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 5 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

NOISE SOURCE 206

CODE1

CODEZ-N

242

REAL TIME

INPUT

ENCODER

OUTPUT 234 00100000

00100001 00100010 001 0001 1 I

00100101

. Q

7

1ST

NTHCODE WORDS

001001 1 0



001001 1 1

L

0101 1000

-

001 00000 00 1 00001 00 1 00010 00 1 0001 1

SYNC DETECTOR

00100100 INCREMENT

250

FIG. 8

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22, 2005

US 6,968,057 B2

Sheet 6 0f 28

ILME 0 0

1.0

SECONDS

G' 9

SECONDS

NORMALIZED * 402

FREQUENCY

_

20dB

__L__

-40dB w

I OHZ

50KHZ

'

BORDER

OONTINuITY

404

1.0

0.0

——>

~>

A

‘\JUAU

REPEATED

j\\f\\.

W

DETAIL OF MATCH AT BORDER; CONTINUOUS TO mth DERIvITIvE

ROM; 504 STANDARD NOISE SIGNATURES COPYRIGHT AUDIO

DETECTION FLAG ‘

IN

'

—R—’ 500

K 502 FLAG VALID

K 506

508

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 7 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

STANDARD NOISE

SIGNATURE READ OUT AT‘I25%

599 \‘

NORMAL RATE PITCH CHANGED NOISE SIGNAL

INPUT AUDIO SIGNAL

a SIGNAL-PITCH CANCELLED NOISE SIGNAL

608

TIME AVERAGED POWER SIGNAL P.C. NOISE sIGNAL PS PCN

TIME AVERAGED POWER SIGNAL

610

'

P

V S'G_ __ _

612

POWER DIFFERENCE sIGNAL

602

613

PS-PCN ‘ PsIG ' POuT

I WW I- —CAsE 1: |-——1—;—I—

|G14/

08

58

I08

I58

58

10s

158

I L— —CAsE 2;

616

08

~ 4 SECOND BEATS

\~ 618

624

F|G - 1 2

AUDIO VALID

COUNTER

FLAG vALID_/50s S'GNAL

sIGNAL ONE

= \__g HDEEEEQTION}

.05S DIGITAL DELAY

>

jg \

620

.05S DIGITAL DELAY

W \

.05S DIGITAL DELAY

[

T [

l

1

.05s DIGITAL DELAY

DETECTION I

K 502

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 8 0f28

US 6,968,057 B2

MOVIE: BUD'S ADVENTURES

700

Alien Productions

FRAME#: 12183 DISTRIBUTION LOT: REGION 14

ENCRYPTION/SCRAMBLING ROUTINE #28, 702

704

PSEUDO-RANDOM MASTER SNOWY IMAGE (SCALED DOWN AND ADDED TO FRAME 12 183)

FIG. 13

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22, 2005

Sheet 9 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

EMBEDDED

720 \‘

4/

DIFFERENCE \

I

MEAN-REMOVED HISTOGRAMS OF DIFFERENCE SIGNAL AND KNOWN EMBEDDED CODE SIGNAL

EMBEDDED

722 \‘

DIFFERENCE \‘ I

I

‘A THRESHOLDING MEAN-REMOVED HISTOGRAMS OF FIRST DERIVATIVES (OR SCALER GRADIENTS IN CASE OF AN

IMAGE)

FIG. 14

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 10 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

750

I

\

700 RENDER LOGO FRAME

‘I ‘

702 ENCRYPT/SCRAMBLE

l \

704 OUTPUT MASTER SNOWY IMAGE FRAME 752

HIGH BRIGHTNESS MASTER swowv MOVlE 754

760

\

‘CHEAP MASTER SNOWY MOVIE‘

756 COMPRESSED MASTER

SNOWY MOVIE

770

/

762

i 762

U.S. Patent

mow

co\ m\\

.zowr_gvmO0<2.#

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 11 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 12 0f 28

96 B? LEADExR STRING, 820 64 BIT LENGTH

32 BIT DATA WORD SIZE

("SHADOW CHANNEL", 828 DATA...

\ 824 UNIVERSAL EMPIRICAL DATA FORMAT

FIG. 17

FIG. 18

US 6,968,057 B2

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 13 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

QUEST FOR MOSAICED KNOT PATTERNS WH "COVER" AND ARE COEXTENSIVE WITH OR NAL IMAGE; A LEMENTAL KNOT PATTERNS CAN CON THE S M INFORMATION, SUCH AS STE

GNAT NOGA

, OR EACH CAN CON SENSE

FIG. 19

A NEW MESSAGE IN A

U.S. Patent

Nov. 22,2005

Sheet 14 0f 28

US 6,968,057 B2

874 \ CENTER POINT

/

OF RING, 872 I A

w

|

/\I/\

\]

J‘\

Th v

\/

‘I

\ NOMINAL DISTANCE TO CENTER OF OUTER RING WIDTH, s70

n

w

\/

*

\/

r-\

v"

\ NOMINAL DISTANCE To CENTER OF ouTER RING WIDTH, s70

2-D BRIGHTNESS OF PHASE-ONLY FILTERED RING IS SIMILAR TO THE ABOVE BRIGHTNESS PATTERN ROTATED ABOUT CENTRAL POINT OF RING:

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