IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2015, Pg.466 -470

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT) www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

Enhanced Trust based security method for MANET Nityanand Halemani, M.Tech Student Computer Science & Engineering, VTU Belgaum KLE Dr. M. S. Sheshgiri College of Engineering & Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka, India [email protected] Prof. Pundalik Ranjolekar , Associate Professor Computer Science & Engineering, VTU Belgaum KLE Dr. M. S. Sheshgiri College of Engineering & Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka, India [email protected] Abstract- Secure routing is the milestone in mobile ad hoc networks .Ad hoc networks are widely used in military and other scientific areas with nodes which can move arbitrarily and connect to any nodes at will, it is not possible for Ad hoc network to own a fixed infrastructure. It also has a perticular number of characteristics which make the security difficult. Routing is always the most important part for any networks. We create a trust based packet forwarding method for detecting and isolating the attacker nodes using the routing layer information. This paper gives a view about trust in MANETs and current research in routing on the basis of trust. It is make uses of trust values to favor packet forwarding by maintaining a trust counter for each node. A node will be punished or rewarded by decreasing or increasing the trust counter. If the trust counter value falls below a trust threshold, the corresponding intermediate node is marked as attacker.

Keywords Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET). 1. INTRODUCTION Trust management is a multi dimensional control mechanism, in which the most important task is to establish trust between nodes who are neighbors and making a routing path. . We propose a Trust based packet forwarding scheme in MANETs without using any centralized infrastructure. This

scheme presents a solution to node selfishness without having any pre-deployed

infrastructure. It is not dependent on any underlying routing protocol. It uses trust values of each node to favor packet forwarding by maintaining a trust counter for each node. A node is penalized or rewarded by decreasing or increasing the trust counter. Each intermediate node identify the packets by adding its unique hash value and then forwards the packet towards the destination node. The receiver node verifies the hash value and check the trust counter value. If the hash value is verified, the trust counter is incremented, otherwise it is decremented. If the trust counters value falls below a predefined trust threshold, the corresponding the intermediate node is marked as attacker. In this paper, we study about trust method in the ad hoc networks and propose a trust evaluation based security solution.. 2. LITERATURE SURVEY A. Existing System L. Xiaoqi and M. R. Lyu proposed Trusted AODV (TAODV) protocol in which he proposed modification of AODV routing protocol with node trust value. They introduced two new control packets Trust Request (TREQ) and Trust Reply (TREP) and extended routing table with four new fields; positive events, negative events, route status, opinion. Using this approach, secure Nityanand Halemani , IJRIT-466

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2015, Pg.466 -470

route can be established by calculating trust value of each participating node in the route establishment process from source to destination. This protocol relies completely on trust value of nodes.

H. S. Jassim and S. S.Yussof proposed Reliant Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector Routing (RAODV). It uses modified scheme called direct and recommendations trust model which is incorporated inside AODV. This scheme assures that packets are not handed over to malicious nodes. Based on this trust value a node is selected to perform packet transfer. This protocol results in higher percentage of successful data delivery compared to normal AODV.

R. S. Mangrulkar and M. Atique proposed a routing algorithm that adds a field in request packet which stores trust value indicating node trust on Neighbour. Based on level of trust factor, the routing information will be transmitted. This not only save the node's power but also save transmission bandwidth. A trusted path irrespective of its length is used for communication in the network.

D. Umuhoza, J. I. Agbinya proposed a framework for estimating the trust between nodes in an ad hoc network based on quality of service parameters: transit time variation, deleted, multiplied and inserted packets, processing delays. It has been shown that only two end nodes need to be involved and thereby overheads are.

R. Ferdous, V. Muthukkumarasamy introduced a Node-based Trust Management (NTM) scheme in MANETs. NTM is based on the assumption that individual nodes themselves are responsible for their own trust level. Mathematical framework of trust in NTM along with some algorithms for trust formation in MANET is developed, based on experience characteristics offered by nodes.

In 2013, R. Feng, S. Che, X. Wang and N. Yu proposed a novel trust mechanism named TDSAODV. TDS-AODV can establish trusted route with minimum hops and maximum path trust based on trust mechanism denoted by TDS-AODV. In this protocol, a node makes a routing decision according to the trust values of its neighbour nodes. Finally, two routes are built: the main route with highest route trust value in the candidate routes and a backup route. 3. PROPOSED SYSTEM In this section, we describe our proposed Enhanced Trust Based security method for MANETS scheme in detail . In our proposed protocol, by dynamically calculating the nodes trust counter values, the source node can be able to select the more trusted routes rather than selecting the shorter routes. The routing process can be divided into the following steps: 1. Discovery of routes: it is just like the route discovery in DSR. Suppose A starts this process to communicate with D. At the end, A collects all the available routes to D; 2. Validation of routes: Node A check the trust values of the intermediate nodes along the path. Assuming node B’s trust value is missing in A’s trust table or its trust values is below a certain threshold, put B into a set X; 3. During the transmission, node A updates its trust table based on the observations. When some malicious behavior is found, A will discard this path and find another candidate path or restart a new discovery. 4. Compute trust values for every node in X based on the trust graph. 5. Among all paths, A chooses the one with the max ( in=1pi) where n is the number of nodes along with path. Nityanand Halemani , IJRIT-467

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2015, Pg.466 -470

Our protocol marks and isolates the attacker nodes from participating in the network. So the potential damage caused by the attacker nodes are reduced. We make changes to the AODV routing protocol. An additional data structure called Neighbors’ Trust Counter Table (NTT) is maintained by each network node. . 3.1 Sequence Diagram A sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a Message Sequence Chart. A sequence diagram shows object interactions arranged in time sequence. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. Sequence diagrams are typically associated with use case realizations in the Logical View of the system under development. Sequence diagrams are sometimes called event diagrams, event scenarios. A sequence diagram shows, as parallel vertical lines (lifelines), different processes or objects that live simultaneously, and, as horizontal arrows, the messages exchanged between them, in the order in which they occur. This allows the specification of simple runtime scenarios in a graphical manner. If the lifeline is that of an object, it demonstrates a role. Note that leaving the instance name blank can represent anonymous and unnamed instances. Messages, written with horizontal arrows with the message name written above them, display interaction. Solid arrow heads represent synchronous calls, open arrow heads represent asynchronous messages, and dashed lines represent reply messages.[1] If a caller sends a synchronous message, it must wait until the message is done, such as invoking a subroutine. If a caller sends an asynchronous message, it can continue processing and doesn’t have to wait for a response. Asynchronous calls are present in multithreaded applications and in message-oriented middleware. Activation boxes, or method-call boxes, are opaque rectangles drawn on top of lifelines to represent that processes are being performed in response to the message (ExecutionSpecifications in UML). Objects calling methods on themselves use messages and add new activation boxes on top of any others to indicate a further level of processing.When an object is destroyed (removed from memory), an X is drawn on top of the lifeline, and the dashed line ceases to be drawn below it (this is not the case in the first example though). It should be the result of a message, either from the object itself, or another. A message sent from outside the diagram can be represented by a message originating from a filled-in circle (found message in UML) or from a border of the sequence diagram (gate in UML).

Nityanand Halemani , IJRIT-468

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2015, Pg.466 -470

Fig 1.Sequence diagram describing the Enhanced Trust based security method for MANET The above diagram shows the sequence of message flow each node joins the network by requesting the certificate from certificate authority which generates an RSA based certificate and routes it to the nodes in the network. The certificate will be issued to those nodes who have been not blocked by the certificate authority which also distributes the block list to all the modes.

Nityanand Halemani , IJRIT-469

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2015, Pg.466 -470

Some malicious nodes may also enter the system and get the certificate which can be blocked when their trust value is too low and nodes can send block requests to the certificate authority for further issuing the requests. Each node maintains the trust table which contains trust value of the neighbour nodes, when the nodes fail to respond properly to the forwarding of the packets the trust value gets decreased. AODV routing protocol has been modified to implement trust model by introducing Node Trust Table (NTT) and Packet Buffer (PB). NTT is used to store information for neighbours & malicious nodes. Each node stores node ID of its neighbour & calculates trust value for that node based on the packet observation through following equation 1. ntv= max(0,min(1,C*Txyi+(1-C)*(Txyi+A))) Eq. (1) Where, C (Constant) = 0.93, A = RQC or RPC or DC or BC, RQC (RREQ Constant) = 0.3 (Success), -0.3(failure), RPC(RREP Constant) = 0.3(Success), -0.3(failure), DC (Data Constant) = 0.4(Success), -0.4(failure). Initial, Txyi (Trust of node x for y at ith Event/time) = 0.5(default) & gets updated on Successful & failed Transmission, BC (Blackhole Constant ) = -7.2 and minimum value is set as 0 whereas maximum trust value is set as 1. Threshold value set as 0.5 (i.e. 50% of 0-1) and if any node has less than 0.5 trust value then packet coming from that node is simply dropped. Packet Buffer (PB) contains three different types of PB namely PB_RREQ, PB_RREP and PB_DATA to store control packets & data packets sent by node itself or received from other node and forwarded, based on the algorithm used in promiscuous mode & PBtimer. Each node while sending or forwarding RREQ, RREP and DATA to next node store controls packets/data packets in its respective PB buffer. PB has functionality to insert, delete, search, update, print table & also access some entries of NTT to update trust for Neighbours based on observations. Function PB_Purge( ) deletes all expired packet from the buffers when called at predefined interval. Here, network security enhancement is completely performed in the lime light of trust value. 4. CONCLUSION In this paper, we have proposed a trust based security protocol which attains confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers of MANETs. It uses trust values to favor packet forwarding by maintaining a trust counter for each node. A node is punished or rewarded by decreasing or increasing the trust counter. If the trust counter value falls below a trust threshold, the corresponding intermediate node is marked as malicious Although trust is widely researched nowadays, there is not a consensus and systematic theory based on trust. The proposed solution tries to simulate human being's social contact procedure on decision-making and introduces it into the ad hoc networks. The perfect security solution is hard to reach. But the average security level (for a node) can be achieved as expectation based on accumulated knowledge and as well as the trust relationship built and adjusted. With this way, it could greatly reduce security threats. REFERENCES [1] L. Zhou and Z. J. Haas, “Securing ad hoc networks”, IEEE Network Magazine, Vol. 13, pp.24-30, November/December 1999 [2] D. P. Agrawal and Q.A. Zeng, “Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems”, Brooks/Cole Publishing, August 2002 [3] C. M. Cordeiro and D. P. Agrawal, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking,” Tutorial Presented in the 2nd Brazilian Symposium on Computer Networks” pp. 125-186, May 2002 [4] C. M. Cordeiro, D.P.Agrawal, “Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks”, Theory and Applications, World Scientific Publishing Ltd. 2006 [5] C. Perkins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, Pearson Education, First Impression, 2008 [6] S. Priyadarsini, “Trust based Secured Route Discovery with improved Route Lifetime algorithm (TSRD-RL)”, International Journal of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 1 No.1, 2009 [7] A. M. Pushpa, “Trust Based Secure Routing In Aodv Routing Protocol”, IEEE-2009 [8] C. E. Perkins, “The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance-Vector Protocol (AODV)” Ad Hoc Networking, Addison-Wesley, pp. 173–219, 2001 [9] C. Perkins, E Royer and S. Das, “Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”, RFC 3561, July 2003 [10] C. Perkins and E. Royer “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”, Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop of Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 90-100, February 1999

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Enhanced Trust based security method for MANET - IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2015, Pg.466 -470 ... Pundalik Ranjolekar, Associate Professor.

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