BY W. FORD ROBERTSON, M.D. EDIN. MANY experiments have been made with the object oi ascertaining whether carcinoma can be transferred from the ,human subject to the lower animals. The general opinion is

tumours-namely, three of the mammary gland, two of the lung, one of the testicle, and one of the uterus. In addition to these tumours there were, in two other cases, fatal lesions of the stomach and liver, which were probably, but not certainly, malignant growths. Another mouse, one of 13 young born in the cages in the course of this experiment, also developed a large carcinoma of the breast which caused its death. Mouse No. 1.—A small tumour was observed in the flank five months after the feeding. It grew rapidly and the animal died one month later. The tumour measured 23 millimetres in diameter. It has the structure of an adeno-

carcinoma (Fig. 1). Mouse No. 2.—A tumour was observed in the left breast have failed to furnish any positive experiments evidence, although there are some records of positive results ten months after the feeding. It rapidly increased in size that the observers themselves certainly believed to be genuine. and the animal died two months later. The tumour was It has also the structure of In 1900 Gaylord1 asserted that in six animals (rabbits and 25 millimetres in diameter. .guinea-pigs) he had succeeded in producing carcinomatous an adeno-carcinoma but is denser than the preceding lesions by the injection of carcinomatous material from the (Fig. 2). Mouse No. 3.-The animal died a little more than a year human subject, and two years later2 he recorded the pro’duction of multiple carcinomatous nodules in the liver of a after the commencement of the experiment. Some weeks dog as the result of the injection of peritoneal fluid from a previously a small tumour of the breast was observed. On - case of malignant peritonitis. In 1902 Mayetstated that the death of the animal this tumour measured 12 millimetres in 53 white rats injected with glycerine extract of a cancer in diameter. It also has the structure of an adeno-carciof the human breast he had obtained four lesions that were noma (Fig. 3). Mouse No. 4.—The animal died about nine months after certainly cancerous and eight that were probably of the same the commencement of the experiment. On examination nature. It is possible that past failures to obtain satisfactory there was found a firm whitish nodule projecting slightly ’evidence of the transmissibility of carcinoma, apart from from the anterior surface of the right lung. This nodule It is composed of measured 4-5 millimetres in diameter. mere grafting of tumours upon an animal of the same species, have been due simply to the fact that the methods large epithelial cells (Fig. 4), which at the margin can be employed were not suitable. It may, for example, be seen to be invading the neighbouring lung tissue. Mouse No. 5.-This mouse died nearly 14 months after the .essential to introduce the supposed protozoan organisms at a A dense whitish nodule, measuring 6’5 millimetres particular phase in their life cycle and in large numbers. feeding. This, in fact, is the hypothesis that I endeavoured to test in in diameter, was found in the right lung. This growth cells arranged for the most part carrying out the experiments, some of the results of which I consists of large epithelial in columns (Fig. 5). It presents evidence of rapidly infilwish to record briefly in this paper. The material used for the purposes of the experiments was trating the neighbouring lung tissue. M016se No. 6.-The animal died 11 months after the comkindly supplied to me by Dr. William Russell in August, 1907. It consisted of about 300 cubic centimetres of fluid mencement of the experiment. It was found to have a from the pleural cavity of a woman suffering from malignant large solid tumour of the right testicle, measuring 14 milliin diameter. This had evidently pressed upon the pleurisy, secondary to mammary carcinoma, and of about metresintestine and caused obstruction. The tumour consists 500 cubic centimetres of fluid from the peritoneal cavity of a large of large epithelial cells (Fig. 6). throughout flasks with The were incubated malignant peritonitis. patient Mouse No. 7.-This animal was killed ten weeks after at 370 C. and the fluid remained sterile as regards bacteria. The experiments were carried out upon mice and have the commencement of the experiment when it seemed been fully controlled by the observation of a much larger moribund. For some days previously it had been observed number of animals of the same stock kept under similar to be ill and the abdomen was much swollen. On postconditions. During the past three years this stock has con- mortem examination there was found to be very great sisted of from 60 to 80 mice, among which there has always general increase of the subperitoneal fat. Both horns of the been a considerable proportion of aged animals. None of uterus were much thickened, being at least 12 times the I have diameter of the normal organ. On microscopical examinathese mice have developed external tumours. examined over 60 mice that have either died in the course tion the muscular and submucous coats are seen to be of being subjected to ordinary virulence tests, or have been greatly thickened. The latter is extended in the form of found dead in their cages, and I have not been able to observe numerous polypoid projections covered by proliferating any internal carcinomatous lesions. Among these animals a surface epithelium. Throughout the submucosa there are sufficient number to form a satisfactory control series were larger or smaller masses of epithelial cells, for the most part of ages not less than those of the mice upon which the presenting a glandular arrangement. Some may be inclined regard the lesion in this case as simply an endometritis. - experiments were made. Three separate experiments were to For my own part, on account of the irregularity and evident carried out. Experiment 1.—Six mice were each injected in the rapidity of the epithelial proliferation, the occurrence of abdominal wall with about one cubic centimetre of the local invasion of the muscular coat, and the absence of fluid (incubated for about two months) from the case of inflammatory exudation, I am satisfied that the condition is malignant peritonitis. The results of the experiment were carcinomatous. The mammary tumour which developed in the young mouse negative as regards the development of tumours. born in one of the cages some months after the commence2.-Five mice mother and four Expeiriment (a suckling and young) were fed on one occasion with about five cubic centi- ment of this experiment is 15 millimetres in diameter, This metres of similar fluid from the case of malignant peritonitis. has the histological characters of an adeno-carcinoma. tumour is not included in the positive cases. ’The results of this experiment were also negative. In this experiment seven out of 30 mice developed Experinaent 3.-30 mice of ages ranging from three to As the control animals have not 12 months were fed with about 20 cubic centimetres of the carcinomatous tumours. fluid from the pleural cavity of the case of malignant shown any similar tumours, and as the only difference in the of the two series was that the 30 mice were fed pleurisy. This fluid had been incubated at 3’l’ C. for seven treatment weeks. On the following day they were similarly given with incubated carcinomatous material from the human subfluid (incubated for about nine weeks) from the case of ject, I infer that the epithelial tumours were determined by malignant peritonitis. In the course of the succeeding five some agent contained in this carcinomatous material. As to 14 months seven of these mice developed carcinomatous none of the 11 animals injected or fed with the fluid from the case of malignant peritonitis developed carcinomatous 1 Third Annual Report of the New York State Pathological Laboratory growths, it seems probable that this agent was contained in of the University of Buffalo, 1901. the fluid from the case of malignant pleurisy. It was 2 Fourth Annual Report of the Work of the Cancer Laboratory of the certainly unfortunate that in the third experiment the New York State Board of Health, 1903. 3 Gazette Hebdomadaire de Médecine et de animals were fed with material from both cases of human Chirurgie, No. 6, 1902. that these


FIG. 1.-Section of tumour of

FiG. 3.-Section of tumour of



FIG. 5.-Section of tumour ot

No. 1.

No. 3.


No. 5.







FIG, 2.-Section of tumour of


No. 2.



FiG. 4.-Section of tumour of mouse No. 4.



No. 6.



Put. 6.—Section of tumour of


1593 carcinoma. But this circumstance cannot to any great extent. removed by lithotomy, there must on the first recurrence These three! have certainly been a descent of a fresh calculus from the detract from the significance of the results. experiments were meant to be merely of a preliminary kidney; and, as an interval of ten years elapsed between It was my intention to make other observations the second and third crushings, it is not probable that a nature. But fragment left after the second crushing operation formed the with similar material incubated for various periods. until quite recently I have been unable to obtain any further nucleus of the stone removed so many years subsequently. supply of carcinomatous fluid. Many more experiments of a It would appear, therefore, that provided the bladder is similar kind are needed, and it is largely with the purpose of’ thoroughly cleared of the fragments, as is now possible commending such work to others who have the necessary time! owing to the improvements during recent years in the and facilities, which I have not, that these initial observa- technique of the crushing operation, a recurrence after There is probably for the produc- lithotrity is generally due to the descent of a fresh calculus tions are now recorded. tion of tumours an optimum period of incubation of the! from the kidney. The tendency to a recurring formation of calculi in the carcinomatous fluid, and this will, I think, be found to be: shorter than the time in my experiments. kidney was well illustrated in the case of a patient, aged 20 On the ground of the experimental results that I have years, upon whom I performed lithotrity some years ago, for recorded it could, I think with good reason, be contended he brought with him a collection of 41 uric acid calculi, that the pathogenic agent transferred from the human sub- some measuring a quarter of an inch in diameter, which he ject to the mouse was not merely a chemical substance but had from time to time previously passed per urethram. In must have been a living virus. This contention has, how- six patients I have twice performed lithotomy, and in one of It is borne out by abundantthese the calculus again recurred, necessitating a further ever, a still stronger support. evidence of a direct character. From one of the mammary operation. In two other patients, after removing calculi tumours occurring in these mice I made several culturesfrom the bladder I subsequently performed nephro-lithotomy, upon non-nutrient agar-gelatin, similar to those described on each occasion removing a calculus from the kidney. some years ago in a paper by Dr. Henry Wade and myself.4 Having up to the present time operated on 160 occasions for These cultures have been studied in section by means of the the removal of vesical calculi, the following analysis of the ammonio-silver process by Dr. M. C. W. Young, who has cases shows that recurrence is as common in male patients been able to demonstrate in them certain morphologically after a cutting as after a crushing operation ; in fact, in my characteristic forms identical with those already observed by experience it has been practically the same-viz., 7 per us in malignant tumours from the human subject and more cent. recently in one of the original Jensen mouse tumours. Some Summary of 160 Opepations for Calculus Vesicæ. of these forms have also been demonstrated in these experimental tumours, as well as in a mammary tumour produced in a previously healthy mouse by inoculation of one of these growths. Our more recent observations, some of the results of which were demonstrated on Feb. 26th at a meeting of the Edinburgh branch of the British Medical Association, lead to the conclusion that a group of protozoan organisms, to be classed among the mycetozoa and including very numerous pathogenic species, is associated with tumour growth, just as very numerous pathogenic species of schizomycetes are associated with inflammation. The main phases in a complicated life cycle have now been demonstrated in sections of tumours, in sections of agar cultures from tumours, and in films of the centrifuge deposit from fluid from cases of malignant pleurisy secondary to carcinoma of the breast. In ten male patients the calculi recurred after operationThe phases recognised include forms with flagella, sporoin four after lithotrity and in six after lithotomy (17 viz., blasts and their residua, nucleated forms, some of which lateral and 72 suprapubic operations). One patient (already have been observed in mitosis, and certain other remarkable was operated upon six times, another patient mentioned) bodies of characteristic appearance which almost certainly four times, and the remaining patients each twice. The represent gametes. longest interval between any two successive operations was Edinburgh. 19 years, this period intervening between the operations of lateral and suprapubic lithotomy performed upon a patient A NOTE ON aged 53 years at the first operation, and 72 years at the Of the patients in whom a recurrence took place, THE RECURRENCE OF VESICAL CALCULI second. one was in his fiftieth year and the others were all over 56 AFTER REMOVAL IN A SERIES OF years of age when the first operation was performed ; four patients were aged respectively 72, 72, 76, and 79 years. 160 OPERATIONS. No instance of recurrence was met with in younger subjects, of whom 27 were under ten years of age, and of these 14 BY F. A. SOUTHAM, M.B. OXON., F.R.C.S. ENG., were treated by lithotrity. SURGEON TO THE MANCHESTER ROYAL INFIRMARY; PROFESSOR OF CLINICAL SURGERY, UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER. From a consideration of the results in my series of cases, it would therefore appear that a recurrence of HAVING recently performed lithotrity (or litholapaxy, as calculi after operation is relatively not more common the operation is now termed) for the sixth time within a after lithotrity than after lithotomy, and when it does period of 16 years upon the same patient, a male, now aged 76 take place it is in both instances probably due to the deyears, the frequent recurrence of the calculi in the bladder scent of a fresh calculus from the kidney and its retention The percentage of recurrences after naturally suggests the question whether their presence there in the bladder. has been due to the descent of more calculi from the kidney lithotrity given in the above summary-viz., 7’1 per cent.or to small fragments left in the bladder after operation, is somewhat less than that of other surgeons. Sir H. either of which may form the nuclei of fresh vesical calculi. Thompsonmet with a recurrence in 75 patients out of a In this case the patient had undergone the operation of total of 600 cases = 12’ 5 per cent. ; Cadge2 in 18 patients perineal (lateral) lithotomy for the removal of a stone 15 ’, out of a total of 133 cases = 13.6 per cent. ; and R. Harrison3 years before he came under my care for the first crushing in 23 patients out of a total of 101 cases =22-7 per cent. operation, and during this interval he had remained free from It is interesting to note that Freyer4 in his Indian experience The six crushing operations which I per- of lithotrity met with a recurrence in ten patients only in a any symptoms. formed upon him were separated by successive intervals of series of 610 operations, which gives a much lower perone year, ten years, two years, three years, and one year, the centage of recurrences-viz., 1’ 6 per cent. calculi consisting of uric acid, and in each instance being 1 Brit. Med. Jour., July 3rd, 1886. considerably under an inch in diameter. As the first crush2 Ibid. 3 THE LANCET, Nov. 12th, 1898, p. 1250. ing operation occurred 15 years after a calculus had been 4 The Modern Treatment of Stone in the Bladder by Litholapaxy 4 THE LANCET, Jan. 28th, 1905, second edition, p. 56. p. 215. .





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