IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 1, Issue 8, August, 2013, Pg. 209-217

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT)

www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

Identification of Enablers of Poka-Yoke: A Review Ajay Rathee1, Dr. Sanjay Kumar2, Deepak Bhardwaj3, Dr. Abid Haleem4 1

Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bhiwani Institute of Technology and Sciences, Bhiwani, Haryana (India) 2 Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, International Institute of Technology and Management,Murthal, Sonepat, Haryana (India) 3 Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bhiwani Institute of Technology and Sciences, Bhiwani, Haryana (India) 4 Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, JamiaMilliaIslamia, Delhi (India) 1

[email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , 4 [email protected]

Abstract Poka-Yoke has been identified with significant role in the Indian manufacturing industries. The requirement of Poka-Yoke has been found important due to accidents, defects and customer complaints. Thirty enablers have been identified from literature review and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Clear understanding of enablers may help organizations to understand and manage these enablers more effectively and efficiently to implement Poka-Yoke in industries. Through this paper we contribute to identify the enablers to implement Poka-Yoke in manufacturing industries and prioritize them on the basis of experts’ opinion.

Keywords: Indian Manufacturing Industries, Poka-Yoke, Quality, Improvements, Literature Review, Experts’ Opinion

1. Introduction In manufacturing industries, Poka-Yoke become an important approach in order to produce quality products. Poka-Yoke is a very important tool by which rejection in operation of a system may be eliminated. Various PokaYoke techniques may be applied to reduce or eliminate rejection and error in manufacturing process. By the application of this tool, errors are removed in production system before they produce rejection using sensors and other quality improving instruments.Poka-Yoke allows process to run smoothly as they are fail-safe solution (Kumar et al, 2008).It is the concentration on removing the causes of defects that is important. The inspection process is a backstop (Fisher M.,1999).The possibility of implementing the Poka-Yoke as a factor of improving operation in the

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process in the motorizations companies has been shown (Szewieczek D, Dudek-Burlikowska M, 2009).The objective of implementingPoka-Yoke in Indian industries is to remove errors before they present rejection. Managers of sheltered work centers can also of ordinary companies, can realize about the great potential of Poka-Yoke as an easy means of flexibility and accessibility (Miralles C, HoltR, Marin-Garcia A, Canor-Daros L., 2011).The aim of Poka-Yoke method is to eliminate human errors in manufacturing process and management as a result of mental and physical human imperfection. The main idea of this method is preventer cause, which may result in errors and use relativity cheap control system for determiners compliance of the product with the model (Dudek-Burlikowksa M., Szewieczek D., 2009).

2. Literature review Poka-Yoke method was introduced by shigeoshingo in 1961, when this was one of engineers Toyota Motor Corporation. This method in other word is to prevent defect and error originating in the mistake (Dudek M. andSzewieczek D., 2009). In the year 50 shingeo Shingo being an advocate of statistical process control system in Japanese companies realize that such a solution would never improve the manufacturing process. It is therefore started in Japanese organization to improve a zero quality control (ZQC). One of its improving the principal ZQC is just Poka-Yoke method (Ketola J. and Roberts K.2001). The method poke-yoke is based on convenience that it is not acceptable to produce even very small quality of defective products (Ishikawa K., 1982). For the companies, production of products in 100% without any defect is not only challenge, but necessity (Shinto S., 1982). The name Poka-Yoke shiegeoshingo established in 1963, it is translated as “resistance to errors” (avoid yoker errors resulting from in attention (Poka)) (Lachajczyk H and Dudek- Burlikowsha M, 2006; Shinto S. 1986).The main objective of Poka-Yoke techniques is that of obtainerzero faults products, by using simple device of fixing,assembling, warning and other related devices, which prevent people to make mistake. These devices known as Poka-Yoke, normally used for stopping the machine and warning the operator if something is wrong (Paun A, Sergiu D, VLADUT V, Gageanu P,2011).In the era of quality and use of such methodology as implementation, zero defects, continuous improvement, six sigma and method of quality, FMEA, QFD, SPC. It is worth set of general measure to prevent defect (Pande P.S., Neuman R.R., 2003). Poka-Yoke are designed to make life easier and improve the performance of the work without implement; they are closer to the philosophy of universal design than to accessible design and offer an easy way of making work more accessible for all kind of workers (Miralles C., Holt R., Marin-Garcia A., Canor-Daros L., 2011). The Poka-Yoke is a technique for avoiding human error at work. A defect exists in either of two states; the defect either has already occurred calling for defect detection, or is about to occur, calling for defect prediction (Lachajczyk H., Dudek-Burlikowska M., 2006). Poke yoke has three basic functions to prevent or reduce defects (Shimbum N.K., 1998) a) Shut Down b) Control c) Warning All the rules of poke-yoke used in the companies shall be connected with continuous improvements cycle PDCA. Below is a graphical proposal of such approach (Figure 1)

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ACT: Back to prob., though created what you can improve cause-find solution with poke-yoke

CHECK: Gather all the data of

PLAN: Select defect its

DO: Select the

Figure 1: PDCAPoka-Yoke Cycle (Dudek-Burlikowska M, 2009) Shingo did make a clear distinction between a mistake and a defect. Mistakes are inevitable; people are humanand cannot be expected to concentrate on all the time, or always to understand completely the instructions theyare given. Defects result from allowing a mistake to reach the customer, and are entirely avoidable. The goal of Poka-Yoke is re-designing/engineering the process so that mistakes can be prevented or immediately detected andcorrected. Self-checks, and successive checks are used together to gain maximum feedback in the shortest timeso that the servicing process is both understood and managed. Although the immediate result is that defects areidentified and prevented from progressing, the real aim is to modify the process so that future defects aredesigned out (Shingo, 1986; 1987).Chase and Stewart state that Poka-Yoke involves a three steps process of (Chase R., Stewart D., 1994) a) Initially identifying an error b) Tracing the error to its source c) Then developing and implementing the related safe. In the era of quality and use of such methodology as implementation, zero defects, continuous improvement, six sigma and method of quality: FMEA, QFD, and SPC. It is the worth set of general measure to prevent (Pande P.S. andNeuman R.R., 2003). One cannotprevent all mistakes, but can make it easier to do the job eight, although mistake will still happen. Instead of allowing processes to continue after a mistake has been made, Poka-Yoke could be used to stop them (Shahin A. andGhasemaghaei M., 2010). Poka-Yoke for prevention of errors (Chase R.B., Jacobs R.F.,Aquilano N.J., 2008) (Kumar S., Steinetach M., 2008) who classified the subjects into three ways (three T’s): a) Task to be done b) Treatment according to customer c) Tangible and environmental features of service facility. Poka-Yoke allows processes to run smoothly as they are fail-safe solutions(Kumar et al., 2008).Although the immediate result is that defects are identified and prevented from programming, the real aim is to modify the process so that the future defects are designed out (Shiryo s., 1986, 1987)

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3. Identification of enablers in implementation of Poka-Yoke in automobile industries The factors which support implementation of Poka- Yoke in automobile industries are identified from the literature review and expert opinions. Literature was reviewed to identify factors to implement Poka- Yoke in Indian industries. 3.1 Quality of Raw Materials In a production system, quality of raw materials and matters, which should respond to manufacturing specifications, affects the Poka-Yoke system and method of the system (Paun A, Sergiu D., Vladut V., Gagenu P., 2011). 3.2 Quality of Technological Design Quality of technological design which determines the quality of component parts and subassemblies according to the elaborated execution documents is the supporting pillar of Poka-Yoke system (Paun A, Sergiu D., Vladut V., Gagenu P., 2011). 3.3 Inspection and Examination A good inspection system and methods of examination ensures ability of Poka-Yoke system in order to implement error-proofing methodology in an organization (Deming E.W., 1982) (Dudek M., 2004) 3.4 Brain Storming Brainstorming can be an effective way to generate lots of ideas on a specific product quality and then determine which idea is the best solution to avoid mistake in Poka-Yoke system. Brainstorming is most effective with groups of 12-15 people and should be performed in a relaxed environment (Bieniok H., 2003). 3.5 Methods of Production System An economic agent should use all the practice methods to prevent, detect and correct the errors appearing with in the different stages of products manufacturing process. The main methods are contact method, method of fix value, pitch method (Paun A, Sergiu D., Vladut V., Gagenu P., 2011). 3.6 Personnel Involved in Technical Process Related to principal or casual reasons, the errors of manufacturing process do not depend only of materials and methods but personnel involved in the system also affect up to great extent in a Poka-Yoke system (Paun A, Sergiu D., Vladut V., Gagenu P., 2011). 3.7 Handling Complexity of Work In construction industry, because of complexity of work and environment, we tend to accept the mistakes as natural and inmate part of the work. This complexity of work affects the Poka-Yoke system up to maximum content (Sadri R., Taheri P., Azarsa P., Ghavam H., 2011). 3.8 Training Operators need to be trained on how to use and apply mistake proofing devices in a Poka-Yoke system to eliminate the rejection (Patel S., Dale B.G. & Shaw P., 2001). 3.9 Management Support Management support is needed to encourage the design and implementation of Poka-Yoke system (Patel S., Dale B.G. & Shaw P., 2001).

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3.10 Cost Evaluation It is important to undertake a cost–benefit analysis/feasibility study and/or risk assessment to evaluate whether investment mistake proofing is viable and beneficial (Patel S., Dale B.G. & Shaw P., 2001). 3.11 Feedback Mechanism The feedback mechanism theory corrects any flaw in real time by equating the current process with the correct process and improving the quality of system. Feedback mechanism is the important element of the PokaYoke system (Saha R. & Grover S., 2011). 3.12 Customer Relationship Management CRM gives a complimentary set of process optimization methodologies for designing, operating, maintaining, or synchronizing the manufacturing operation using real time information processing through stake holders participation (Lee J., Ali A., Koc M., 2001). 3.13 Automation Automated manufacturing insures enabling in Poka-Yoke as given: higher consistency and quality, reducing the lead times, simplification of production, reducing handling, improving work flow. It helps in eliminating human based errors which is supposed to be desired in Poka-Yoke system (Morel G., Valckenaers P., 2005). 3.14 Technology Most of the airports use some flexible tunnels instead of stairs for transferring passengers to the airplane. This case example could also be considered in the layout category, since it reduces the needed space for movement of facilities make the Poka-Yoke system efficient (Shahin A. &Ghasemaghaei M., 2010). 3.15 Self-Service Self-service machines, for instance, machines used for measuring blood pressure and weight; food and juice/copy machines/automatic washing machines processing by coins/credit cards play vital role in order to reduce rejection by detecting the errors(Shahin A. andGhasemaghaei M., 2010). 3.16 Layout In many services such as a company the managerial person is usually asked to wear uniforms with different colors or to use representation cards in different colors, other example include personnel in banks, hotels, etc. Also the variety of color could be useful in distinguishing the departments. For instance in a hospital using different color bands in building, direct patients to their destinations which finally improve the quality and a supporting factor of the Poka-Yoke (Shahin A. &Ghasemaghaei M., 2010). 3.17 Audit and Review Audit and review is necessary factor of Poka-Yoke system to verify the existence of mistake proofing methods; check that methods are being followed and ease the effectiveness of the methods (Patel S., Dale B.G. & Shaw P., 2001). 3.18 Color Coding According to diameter, length, and king of application the component of the system should be coded in colors in order to produce mistake proofing system (Sadri R., Taheri P., Azarsa P., Ghavam H., 2011). Ajay Rathee, IJRIT

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3.19 Computer Integrated Manufacturing In CIM, the integration initially takes place with the CAD/CAM, which was subsequently developed with other methodologies. The growing need to produce better quality goods without rejection move towards integration and automation and may be implemented in Poka-Yoke system to avoid mistakes (Rozenfeld H., Eversheim W., 2002). 3.20 Quality Function Development QFD may be implemented as a fail-safe tool which promotes integration between engineering manufacturing and marketing-“ground to factory” reducing the total cycle time of developing a product, and implements product quality to reduce rejection (Krumenauer F.Z., Matayoshi C.T., Silva I.B., StipkovikFilho M., Batalha F., 2008). 3.21 Benchmarking Benchmarking is the process of identifying, understanding, and adapting outstanding practices from organizations anywhere in the world to help your organization improve its quality and to eliminate rejection in a fail-safe process (Vowosielski R., Kania A., Spilka M., 2008). 3.22 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) FMEA is a method which enterprise use at preventing and eliminating defects which can appear preventing and eliminating defects which can appear in the manufacturing process, FMEA is the best analytical technique, because allow for establishing links between cause and effects of defects, as well as searching solving and withdrawing the best decisions concerning applying proper action to make the system error-proof (Hamrol A., Mantura W., 2005) (Dudek M., Szewieczek D., 2003). 3.23 Zero Quality Strategy In fact zero quality strategy is one of the most important strategies of Poka-Yoke system, the goal of which is to eliminate defective products reducing rejection (Nazir S.M.). 3.24 Maintenance By using strategies that are not just preventive, maintenance is seen as an opportunity to prevent unnecessary downtime increase plant availability and improve productivity. A computerized maintenance management information system (CMMS) helps to detect the errors of the system and to make the process fail-safe in an organization (Saha R. & Grover S., 2011). 3.25 Synchronization Seamless integration of all tools techniques and processes from shop floor to top floor is required to provide a basis for successful Poka-Yoke system in an organization to increase the productivity (Lee J. &Koc M.2003). 3.26 Single Minute Exchange of Dies SMED is a philosophy where the target is to reduce all setups to less than ten minutes. The area of study is to improve the productivity and increase quality of product with mixing CNC system in order to make the system error-proofing and may be implemented to help a Poka-Yoke system. (Timasani R., Mahesh N.S., Doss K., 2011).

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3.27 Quick Change Jaw and Fixture Concept Design To avoid the errors and trial and to eliminate the whole chuck & fixture replacement theory, the new method of quick change jaw and fixture is designed which would be supporting in Poka-Yoke system by aligning the system. (Timasani R., Mahesh N.S., Doss K., 2011). 3.28 Warning Device Warning device such as sensors, alarms etc. supports the Poka-Yoke system to avoid the mistake in the production system (Sadri R., Taheri P., Azarsa P., Ghavam H., 2011). 3.29 Equipment and Environment Influence of the environment and equipment used in production system (both internal and external) is the most important to implement the Poka-Yoke system (Paun A., Sergiu D., Vladut v., Gagenu P., 2008). 3.30 Software Tools The software tools, which resembles very much to Poka-Yoke system, are programs such as: Lint, Printfck, Cache, and Clash, which examine the programs syntax and alert the programmer about a possible error. Table shows enablers relevancy implemented to Poka-Yoke. Table1 shows level of relevance of various enablers on the basis of experts’ opinion.

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Table 1: Prioritization of Enablers on the basis of Experts’ Opinion Very Relevant Less Relevant Relevant Quality of Raw Materials √ Quality of Technological Design √ Methods of Production System √ Personnel Involved in Technical Process √ Equipments and Environment √ Inspection and Examination √ Handling Complexity of Work √ Color Coding √ Warning Device √ Brain Storming √ Enablers

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Single Minute Exchange of Dies Quick Change Jaw & Fixture Concept Design Training Management Support Cost Evaluation Audit and Review Feedback Mechanism Maintenance Customer Relationship Management

20 21 22 23 24

Synchronization Automation Technology Self-Service Layout

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√ √ √ √ √

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25 26

Computer Integrated Manufacturing Quality Function Development

27

Benchmarking

28

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

29 30

Zero Quality Strategy Software Tools

√ √ √ √ √ √

5. Conclusions Poka- Yoke has been increasingly gaining importance to improve quality of products and services. We have identified Poka-Yoke as an important research area. We have identified 30 important enablers to implement PokaYoke in Indian manufacturing industries. Experts’ opinion on the issue has helped to classify these enablers into 3 categories: very relevant; relevant; less relevant. 14 enablers have been identified as very relevant whereas 13 enablers have been identified as relevant. This paper may help to manage Poka-Yoke implementation process. The scope of paper has been kept limited to identification and classification (on the basis of relevance) of enablers of Poka-Yoke implementation. Various techniques like Interpretive Structural Modeling, Analytical Hierarchy Process and Interpretive Ranking Process may be further utilized to model and rank these enablers.

6. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

11.

12. 13. 14. 15.

M. Dudek-Burlikowksa, D.szewieczek, AMME 2009, The Poka-Yoke method as an improving quality tool of operation in the process, Achievements in materials and manufacturing engineering, Vol. 36, PP.95-102 J.Ketola, K. Roberts,2001,Demistifing ISO 9001:2000- Part 2,Quality progress,34/10(2001). H.Lachajczyk, M. Dudek-Burlikowksa, Quality continuous improvement of company with usage thePoka-Yoke methods,PSKN 7/2006,57-64(in- Polish) Michael Fisher,1999,Process improvement by Poka-Yoke,MCB University press,Vol. 48,No. 7, PP.264-266, ISSN 10043-8022 S. Shinto, 1986, Zero Quality Control:source inspection and the Poka-Yoke System, Cambridge, MA: Productivity press, 1986. K. Ishikawa,1982,Guide to quality control, White Plains, NY: Quality Resources, 1982 Anisoara PAUN, DumitruSERGIU, ValentinVLADUT, PaulGAGEANV,2011, Reducing the time consuming “coming Back” in manufacturing process by using anti error system, Analysis of Faculty engineering Hunedoara- International Journal of Engineering,(Tome IX (year 2011)), Fascicule 3 (ISSN 1584-2673) P.S. Pande, R.R. Neuman, R.R. Cayanagh, Six Sigma- The Six Sigma way: hoe GE, Motorola and other TOP companies are honing their performance, K.E. Liber S.C. Warsaw, 2003(in polish) N.K.Shimbum, Improving Product quality by preventing defects, Productivity Press Cambridge, Massachusetts 1998. CristubalMiralles, Raymond Holt, Jaun A. Marian- Garica, Lourdes Canos-Daros, 2011, Universal design of workplaces through the use of Poka-Yokes: Case study and implications, journal of Industrial engineering and management, PP. 436-452. S. Kumar,E. Strandlund,D.Thomas,(2008), Improved service system design using six sigma DMAIC for a major US consumer electronics and appliance retailer, International journal of retail & distribution management,36(12),PP. 970-994 A. Hamrol,1988, Quality Management Science and practice,PWN, Warraw-Poznan,(in polish) M. Dudek-Burlikowsha,2006,Quality research methods as factor of improvement of preproduction sphere, Journal of achievements in Materials and manufacturing Engineering vol. 18, PP. 435-438. E.W. Deming, 1982, Quality Productivity and competitive position, University of Cambridge. S. Kumar& M. Steinebach, 2008, Eliminating US hospital medical errors, International journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(5), PP. 444-471.

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16. S. Patel, B.G. Dale & P. Shaw (2001), Set-up time reduction and mistake proofing methods: An examination in precision component manufacturing, The TQM Magazine, 13(3), PP. 175-179. 17. S. Shingo, 1986, Zero Quality Control: Source inspection and the Poka-Yoke system, Portland OR: Productivity Press. 18. S. Shingo, 1987, The sayings of Shiego Shingo: Key strategies for plant improvement, Portland, OR: Productivity press. 19. R. Saha& S. Grover, 2011, Identifying Enablers of E- manufacturing, International Scholarly Research Network, Vol. 2011, ID 193124,PP. 1-6. 20. J. Lee, A. Ali & M. Koc , E- manufacturing- Its elements and impact, Annual institute of Industrial Engineering Conference,Vol.23,Dallas, Tex,USA May 2001. 21. G. Morel, P. Valckenaers, J.M. Faureetal, Manufacturing plant control: Challenges and open issues, in proceedings of the 16th IFAC Triennial World Congress, 2005. 22. M. Koc and J. Lee, 2003, E- Manufacturing- Fundamentals , Requirements and expected impacts, International journal of advanced manufacturing system,Vol. 6 , No. 1, PP. 29-46 23. H. Lachajczyk, M. Dudek-Burlikowaska, Quality Continuous improvement of company with usage thePokaYoke methods, PSKN 7/2006,PP. 57-64 24. R. Timasani, N.S. Mahesh & K. Doss, 2011, Reducing the set up time in a CNC Machinery line using QCO methods, SASTECH, Vol. 10, Issue 2, PP. 56-62. 25. R. Sadri, P.Taheri, P. Azarsa,& H. Ghavam,2011, International conference on intelligent building and management, improving productivity through mistake-proofing of construction process,Vol. 5 , IACSIT Press,Singapore,PP. 280-284. 26. F.Z. Krumenauer, C.T. Matayoshi, I.B. Silva, M.StipkovikFilho, G.F. Bathalha, 2008, Concurrent Engineering and DFMA approaches on the development of automotive panels and doors, Proceedings of 9thGlobal Congress on Manufacturing and Management(GCMM 2008) Holiday Inn, Australia,PP. 205-210. 27. H. Rozenfeld, W. Eversheim, An architecture for management of explicit knowledge applied to product development process, CIRP Annals 51/1(2002), PP. 413-416. 28. R. Nowosielski, A. Kania, M. Spilka, 2008, Integrated recycling technology as a candidate for best available techniques,Archives of Material Science and Engineering 2008, PP. 49-52 29. A. Hamrol, W. Mantura, Quality management theory and practice, PWN, Warsaw, 2005(in Polish). 30. A. Shahin, M. Ghasemaghaei, 2010, Service Poka-Yoke, International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol.2, No.2, PP. 190-201. 31. R.Chase& D. Stewart,1994, Make Your Service fail-Safe, Sloan Management Review, 35(3), PP 35-44. 32. R.B. Chase, R.F. Jacobs & N.J. Aquilano, 2005, Operation Management for Competitive Advantage, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. 33. M. Dudek-Burlikowksa, D. Szewieczeek, Usage of quality methods: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Statistical Process Control (SPC) as aelement of continuous improvement of production process, Proceedings of the 12th International Scientific Conference “Achievements in Mechanical and Material Engineering” AMME’ 2003, Gliwice-Zakopane,2003, PP. 317-321. 34. S.M. Nazir, World-Class Manufacturing Practices-The Best Strategy for Indian Manufacturing Organization to Endure in New Millennium, Abhinav National Monthly Refereed Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, Vol. 1, Issue 6, and PP. 144-160. 35. H. Bieniok, Basic rule of company management, AE, Katowce, 2003 (in Polish). 36. E.W. Deming, Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position, University of Cambridge, 1982. 37. M. Dudek, Quality methods as a factor of functionality and improvement preproduction of organization sphere, Proceedings of the Materials of Nationwide Scientific Conference: „Management of organization of project oriented” UMCS’2004, Lublin, 2004, 89-93 (in Polish). 38. P.P. Shah, R.L. Shrivastava, 2012,Supplier Quality Assurance in Supply Chain Management (SCM) Through Quality Tools and Techniques, Proceedings of the National Conference on Trends and Advances in Mechanical Engineering, YMCA University of Science & Technology, Faridabad, Haryana, Oct 19-20, 2012,PP.884-889.

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Identification of Enablers of Poka-Yoke: A Review - IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 1, Issue 8, ... application of this tool, errors are removed in production system before they produce ... Chase and Stewart state that Poka-Yoke involves a three steps process of (Chase R., ... c) Then developing and implementing the related safe.

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