An Incrementally Modular Abstraction Hierarchy for Linear Software Development Methodology Kenji Ohmori Computer and Information Sciences Hosei University Tosiyasu L. Kunii IT Institute Kanazawa Institute of Technology CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The Combinatorial Explosion Problem has to be Solved • Many software development methodologies including the water-fall model and rational unified process have been introduced for avoiding serious problems in software engineering. • These current methodologies cannot yet avoid the combinatorial explosion problem, which is the basic problem since the study of software engineering started in 1960s. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

Modeling and Designing of Cyberworlds • Cyberwords have the same problem as software engineering, having difficulties in avoiding the combinatorial explosion problem. • Most engineering is analytic, however, cyberworlds and software engineering are synthetic. • A new approach, which is different from traditional engineering approach, is strongly required from both cyberworlds and software engineering. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

Incrementally Modular Abstraction Hierarchy • We propose incrementally modular abstraction hierarchy as a new methodology for cyberworlds and software engineering. • It allows incrementally modeling and designing by preserving invariants defined on more abstract levels while climbing down abstraction hierarchy.

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

Keeping Invariants Abstract

• What is common among these very different events? – – – – –

Kaleidoscope On-line shopping e-Learning Manufacturing A fallen leave

Homotopy level -Identify spaces Set theoretical level -Identify elements Topological space level -Continuity (Neighbors) Adjunction space level -Dynamic relations Cellular structure level -Identify dimensions Presentation level -Physical presentation View level -Visualization Specific

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The Homotopy Level • The most essential part of an accounting system is represented by a fiber bundle. • The conceptual development from the most essential part is represented by a homotopy lifting property.

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

A fiber bundle

A journal voucher

p-1(U)

E: A total Space

Transaction

ju: a coordinate chart (homeomorphism) UxF

p: a bundle projection U œ {U}, where {U} an open covering of B

B: A Base Space

Voucher Frame

F: A fiber

A serial # space

A header A detail space space

Serial #, Header & Details

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

A voucher frame space

A homotopy lifting property k X

Y

h p

i0

E: A total Space

K

Transaction

H XxI

A journal voucher

B

+ BPM + BSPL + GL CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

B: A Base Space Voucher Frame

The Set Theoretical Level • Elements of each space are defined. • Logical operations are also introduced.

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

Elements used for representing a journal voucher: A set of journal voucher frames: J = {j1, j2, j3, …., jn}, where ji is a journal voucher frame. A journal voucher frame: ji = (si, hi, DSi) œ J, where si œ Ù, hi and DSi are a journal voucher number, a header and details. A list of headers: H = {h1, h2,….,hs} A header: hi = (ti, ai, ri) œ H, where ti, ai and ri are application date, applicant name and remarks. A list of details D = {d1, d2,…..,dj} A detail: di = (dii, dai), where dii, dai are an accounting item and amount. If amount is positive, the detail is debtor, otherwise it is creditor.

Ù: A serial H: A header D: A detail space space # space

These elements are included in the spaces defined on the homotopy level: J constitutes a base space and Ù, H, D do a fiber. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

J: A journal voucher frame space

The Topological Space Level • A topological equivalence is an important invariant on this level. • A topological space is induced to the spaces defined on the homotopy level. • It allows us to define continuous mapping among spaces. • A continuous mapping is the most fundamental concept for showing distance. • We can define the strongest or weakest topology for a space defined by discrete elements. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The strongest topology is introduced for an accounting system. Here is an example: A topology for the base space B. (B, T) = {f, j1, j2, j3,…, jn, (j1, j2), (j1, j3),…, (jn-1, jn),……., (j1, j2, j3,…, jn) }

Transaction between companies A and B The journal voucher for company A

The journal voucher for company B

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The Adjunction Space Level • Invariants included in dynamic changes are represented on this level. • The basic properties of information is attaching and detaching among entities. • These properties are represented using an attaching function, where a part of one space is regarded to be identical to a part of another space between two disjoint spaces. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

Transaction J+D

Journal voucher frames

An accounting system

A voucher frame Details j0

The map g

The attaching map f

Transaction details

f (j0) Detail

The adjunction space J f identification A voucher frame Acc Item Amount f (j0) Detail

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

Journal voucher frames

Transaction details

The cellular Space Level • An embryo appears on this level. • The structure which you are modeling and designing becomes physically clear.

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The journal voucher frame space: B1+3+2 The serial # space: Bs1 The header space: Bh3 The detail space: Bd2 f1: ∑3+2 Bj1+3+2 Ø Bs1 f2: ∑1+2 Bj1+3+2 Ø Bh3 f3: ∑1+3 Bj1+3+2 Ø Bd2

A set of journal voucher frames: J = {j1, j2, j3, …., jn}, where ji is a journal voucher frame. A journal voucher frame: ji = (si, hi, Constitute the detail space: DSi) œ J, where si œ Ù, hi and DSi are a 0 0 0 0 0 Xd = {ed1 , ed2 ,….,edn }, where edi is the index of journal voucher number, a header and detail. details. Xd1 = {ed11, ed21,…., edn1 | "i ∑edj1 Ø edi0}, where A list of headers: H = {h1, h2,….,hs} accounting items are attached. A header: hi = (ti, ai, ri) œ H, where ti, Xd2 = {ed12, ed22,…., edn2 | "i ∑edj1 Ø edi0, "i ∑edk2 ai and ri are application date, applicant 1 Ø edj }, where amount is attached. name and remarks. Index index item index item A list of details D = {d1, d2,…..,dj} (a primary key) A detail: di = (dii, dai), where dii, dai are an accounting item and amount. If amount is positive, the detail is debtor, amount otherwise it is creditor. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The Presentation Level • On this level, traditional tools become available. • For software development, UML diagrams are useful.

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

1

1 <> VoucherFrame

1..n

<> SerialNumber <>number: Integer

< Header applicationDate: Date applicantName : String

<> Detail accountingItem: String amount: Money

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The View Level • Programs are provided. • As this system is simple, everything including program codes, configuration files and deploy files is automatically generated from UML diagrams using AndroMDA.

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

A JSP for the header space

CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

Enhancing the System by Adding GL A journal voucher E: A total Space Transaction

XxI

K

B: A Base Space

+ BPM H + BSPL

Voucher Frame

+ GL CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

The First Thought item1

item2 A general ledger space

A serial # space

A voucher frame space CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

A header A detail space space

Problems in the First Thought • When a journal voucher is recorded in the database, the general ledger has to be revised as well. • This process seems to take a lot of processing time as the system continues to be developed and becomes bigger. • We want to separate it so that the general ledger is revised only when it is referenced by an accountant. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

When a Journal Voucher is Recorded A general ledger space

processing list space

A serial # space

A header A detail space space

waiting processed

A voucher frame space CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

When GL is Referenced

A general ledger space

processing list space waiting processed item1

Get a general leger

item2

A general ledger space waiting processed processing list space CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

< GeneralLedgerHandler

The Presentation Level <> SerialNumber <>number: Integer

getGeneralLedger():void 1 parent < GeneralLedger accountingItem: String totalAmount : money

<> ProcessingList

< Header applicationDate: Date applicantName : String 1

processed 0..n

waiting 0..n

<> Voucher

1..n CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

<> Detail accountingItem: String amount: Money

Conclusions • A new methodology for software development has been introduced. • It has abstraction hierarchy from the homotopy to view levels. • It keeps invariants while climbing down abstraction levels. • Modules are incrementally added while avoiding exponential explosion, which is the essential problem in software engineering. CW2006, Nov. 28-29, Lausanne

J

Many software development methodologies including the water-fall .... It allows us to define continuous mapping among spaces. ... between companies A and B.

838KB Sizes 1 Downloads 341 Views

Recommend Documents

J A W A J A
That year the National Institute of Design, NID, Ahmedabad was invited to be involved with The Rural University .... and more predictable tanning for instance, followed in consultation with organizations like the Central Leather Research Institute. .

J&J Universal Placement ID
Business Impact. It is important to note J&J are not a retailer, and as such their websites offered no e-commerce purpose or functionality. As such, their brand experience is paramount to them. Their advertising, POS material,. DM, flyers, websites -

I; Jaw' J j 4 Z
Be it known that we, LOUIS ScHnLMAN and JOSEPH SCHULMAN, citizens of the. United States, residing in the borough of. Brooklyn, city of New York, county of.

J
A cardiac rhythm management device that utilizes blanking .... accounting for the complex polarization voltages and after ..... software in a known manner.

._ I” j
Dec 4, 2000 - (10) Patent Number: US RE41,169 E. Arthun. (45) Date of Reissued Patent: Mar. 30, 2010. (54) SEALING APPLIANCE. (56). References Cited.

J - GitHub
DNS. - n~OTHOCTb aamiCI1 Ha IAJI i. FILE - CllHCOK HOUepOB OCipaCiaTbiBaeu~ tlJai'i~OB i. RCBD - KO~HqecTBO OCipaCiaTbiB86Y~ ~E3;. PRT.

$ YLO£J
8. Jesse Robredo. 9. Myrtle. 10. Jamich. )HONDSRWW. 3ROLWLNXVRN. 1. Jesse Robredo. 2. Corona. 3. Barack Obama. 4. Iggy Arroyo. 5. Romney. 6. Shalani Soledad. 7. Miriam Defensor Santiago. 8. Juan Ponce Enrile. 9. Tito Sotto. 10. Serafin Cuevas. /HJNHU

$ YLO£J
Was ist Wirtschaft. 6. Was ist KONY. 7. Was ist LTE. 8. Was sind Kapern. 9. Was ist Zumba. 10. Was ist MS. )HONDSRWW. ‹WHOHN «V LWDORN. 1. Red Bull. 2. ...... Boris Johnson. 3. Justine Greening. 4. Alex Salmond. 5. Michael Gove. 6. George Osborne.

044., j
Aug 17, 2015 - MANUELA S. TOLENTINO, Ed.D. 01C, Schools Division Superintendent. Subject. : Crafting of first Division GAD Magazine-type newsletter and.

ESApetition2009final Glowa, J., W.L. Pepperman, C.L. Schadler, J ...
The eighty miles between Gananoque and Cornwall, Ontario contain one or more ... 2009.pdf. ESApetition2009final Glowa, J., W.L. Pepperman, C.L. Sc ... ves ...

pdf-54\tracers-by-j-j-howard.pdf
DOWNLOAD EBOOK : TRACERS BY J. J. HOWARD PDF. Page 1 of 40 ... TRACERS BY J. J. HOWARD PDF ... and Tiffin University with an MH in Humanities.

Employment, Hours and Optimal Monetary Policy j Online appendix j
j Online appendix j .... degree of increasing marginal disutility of hours. ... variety i, final good firms choose optimally the inputs Y

\J-“M
Oct 29, 2009 - Sun: “Intra-Prediction Mode Ordering and Coding”, ITU Study ... 1 of 1 -7 of7, [online], 07.10.02, H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 White Paper,. [retrieved on Sep. ..... across computer networks because of bandwidth limitations. In addition .

\J-“M
Oct 29, 2009 - 1 of 6-6 of 6, [online], Apr. 30,. 2008. ... SC29/WG11 and ITU-T SG-16 Q.6), Document JVT-G013, 'Online! Mar. .... amount of storage space.

@» [28 j
Jul 24, 2012 - the vehicle consumer or after-market technician rather than relying on the ... 2 is an illustration of an automotive dash assembly illustrating an ...

J'\ “5
Aug 5, 2010 - See application ?le for complete search history. (56) ..... of Experiments Techniques in Optimisation of Supported Reagent. Chemistry”.

j B0~B7
_ Related U's' Patent Documents. Saito and Kitamura, “17.3: A 64bit Digital Data Driver for. Relssue of'. _. Color TFTiLCDs”, Society for Information Display (SID).

J
A second analy- sis was perfonned to estimate the effect of data missing ..... Data on the primary end point of the B-blocker ..... ical Center; New York, N.Y. Principal Investigator: ..... De Geest H: Reduction in infarct size and enhanced recovery.

cameron j. bytheway - GitHub
Incorporated video streaming/recording in BYU's Digital Dialog, a web discussion application. iOS Developer. August 2010-Present. Bytheway Apps, Provo, UT.

J Boulton - Broadlands Academy
Jul 14, 2017 - small amount of change for these would be good. The school day will finish ... Tel: 0117 986 4791. Email: [email protected].

I J. .1
R. O'Hara and A. Petrick, The IEEE 802.11 HandbookiA Design er's Companion ... Protocol”, Technical Study Report of The Institute of Electronic,. Information and ...... While the Web broWsing CCls could be sent every 200 milli second, or ...

J
Section, Baylor College of Medicine, The Methodist Hospital,. 6535 Fannin—MS ..... Roberts et al immediate Versus Delayed fl-Blockade 427. TABLE 2. Cllnleal ...... Wackcrs FIT, Terrin ML, Kayden DS, Knattcrud G, Forman. S, Braunwald E ...

.tt-t- J 0
Dec 27, 2017 - -ft-:S( £3 Jl"ij : tP ~ t\ 1m 106lf=-12 Jl 25 £3. -ft-:S(~!t: *t/;-ft-ff5~~1060523077!t. 11ft 1t- : -ko:£. ~. £ l§ : ~% r [email protected]!n5Mt.~~45 .tt-t- J 0. *.:.j!~

YLO£J
9. Nokia Lumia. 10. Nokia Lumia 800. /HJNHUHVHWWHEE. 0£UN£N. 1. Apple. 2. Toyota. 3. Blackberry. 4. Nokia ...... Software Developer. 10. Financial Analyst.