KENYA FIELD RESEARCH – NOVEMBER 2014

Webmaker User Research

INTRODUCTION

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Kenya Field Research

This document highlights the findings from a three week research trip to Kenya from the 9th to the 28th of November 2014. This research is part of the Mobile Opportunity Initiative, a 6 month multi-disciplinary research program that aims to study technology and to design approaches for greater participation in mobile digital life. We are interested in empowering new smartphone users to create and distribute locally-relevant mobile apps. To achieve this, we are studying the motivations and constraints for local content creation in emerging digital economies.

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION KENYA AT A GLANCE Fact Sheet Brief History Language & Culture Mobile Penetration RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Goals Research Questions METHODOLOGY Scope & Participants Locations FINDINGS Kenyans are Trilingual There is no Kenyan Web Internet = WhatsApp Access is a Struggle Data is a Currency The web is Unknown Micro-business Struggle Remixing is a Crime Making is not Cool

FRAMEWORKS Web Journey Threshold Diagram PERSONAS Lucy Greg Melanie Ken Cliff Ann University Students APPENDIX THANK YOU

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INTRODUCTION

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KENYA AT A GLANCE

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Fact Sheet

STATUS Republic FORMER STATUS British Colony from 1895 to 1963 POPULATION 45 million (1) OFFICIAL LANGUAGES English & Kiswahili (1) OTHER LANGUAGES 66 (2) LOCATION East Africa NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES Ethiopia Somalia Tanzania Uganda

MAJOR URBAN AREAS Nairobi: 3.363 million Mombasa: 972,000 (1) HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX 147/187 (3) CATEGORY Low Human Development (3) SCHOOL LIFE EXPECTANCY 10 Years (3) POVERTY 43.37% of the population earns less than $1.25/day (3) URBAN POPULATION 24.79% (1)

(1) CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html (2) Ethnologue https://www.ethnologue.com/country/KE (3) UNDP HDR http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KEN

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KENYA AT A GLANCE

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KENYA AT A GLANCE

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Brief History

600: Arab traders settle in coastal areas 1895: Formation of British East African Protectorate 1920: British East African Protectorate becomes Crown Colony of Kenya

2001: Ethnic tension culminate 2006: 35,000 Somalis escape to Kenya 2007: Post election violence / launch of M-Pesa

1964: Kenyatta presides over the Republic of Kenya

2010: Formation of the East Africa Common Market

1982: Kenya declared a one-party state by National Assembly

2011: Worst drought in 60 years / Kenyan troops enter Somalia and endures reprisals

1997: Creation of Safaricom 1999: Creation of Telkom Kenya

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“The Cradle of Humanity”

1963: Independence

1992: Tribal conflicts. 2000 killed

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Languages & Ethnic Groups

2009: Kenya states minimum one third of the population are in need of food aid

1991: Introduction of multi-party political system

KENYA AT A GLANCE

2012: Al-Shabab militia attacks several times, including the shopping mall massacre

Often described as “The Cradle of Humanity”, Kenya is home to a large number of ethnic groups, each of which speak different languages and observe different customs. This ethnic diversity is a source of conflict, but also of vibrant culture and compendium of language. ETHNIC GROUPS Kikuyu: 22% Luhya: 14% Luo: 13% Kalenjin: 12% Kamba: 11% Kisii: 6% Meru: 6% Other African: 15% Non-African: 1% (1)

LANGUAGES There are 67 living individual languages in Kenya. 14 are institutional 28 are developing 19 are vigorous 3 are in trouble 3 are dying (2)

“We have no national language.” WS01-M01

2014: Construction work starts on Kenya’s first fiber optic cables

(1) CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html BBC News http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13682176

(2) Ethnologue https://www.ethnologue.com/country/KE

KENYA AT A GLANCE

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KENYA AT A GLANCE

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Mobile Penetration Fact Sheet

MOBILE SERVICE MARKET SHARE Safaricom: 64.5% Airtel: 16.9% Yu: 10.5% Orange: 8.1% (4) NETWORK SUBSCRIPTIONS 3G: 20% 2G: 80% (4)

(4) GSMA Intelligence

SMARTPHONE USAGE 12.7% of connections in Kenya are from smartphones (4) FORECAST in 2017 33% of connections will be from smartphones (4) ACCESS 60% of Kenyans living on less than $2.50/day have access to mobile phones (4)

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KENYA AT A GLANCE

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KENYA AT A GLANCE

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FINDINGS OBJECTIVES RESEARCH

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Some Headline Goals Sub-head goes here

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

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Questions

USERS Who are the primary and secondary potential users of Webmaker? Are people willing to be makers? Do they see making as a rewarding activity? PRODUCT What type of content would users like to create on/for the web and why? How can we enable the creation of meaningful local content on the web? Do users understand the product? Do users like the product? How can the product be improved? Are there any usability issues?

ECONOMY How can Webmaker provide economic opportunities for the enduser? COMPETITION What are users’ alternatives to Webmaker for content creation and consumption on desktop/mobile in their language and market? Does Webmaker provide the web with a competitive advantage? How?

METHODOLOGY

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Methods & Participants

This research project intended to analyze the different trends, mindsets, and behaviors surrounding Internet and mobile usage in Kenya. We studied the diverse reasons prompting users’ behaviors toward consuming, making and sharing, to understand how to create value with Webmaker. To this end we conducted indepth qualitative research with 59 participants through a set of interviews and research workshops in 4 different cities. METHODS Individual interviews Pair interviews Friends interviews Expert interviews Research workshops

PARTICIPANTS 5 Artists 6 Experts 1 Tech blogger 1 Artist community lead 3 Micro-business trainers 1 Tech-farmer leader 5 Journalists 2 Teachers 4 Mothers 17 Small business owners 4 “Wings to Fly” Scholars 16 University Students ACTIVITIES Design Day on a University Campus with 14 students Digital Literacy Bootcamp with 50 participants who conducted 7 digital literacy trainings with different target audiences in 3 cities

METHODOLOGY

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METHODOLOGY

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FINDINGS METHODOLOGY

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Limits

Part of our research was oriented to learn about the different types of content, web-pages and apps people would want to create if they could easily do so. Therefore, the brainstorming activities often led to answers such as, “I want to make an app which helps me find my school schedule.” In addition, we acknowledge that the data collected reflects only a part of the population, despite our effort to have a representative sample. The extrapolation and application of these results should be done accordingly.

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METHODOLOGY

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Locations

NAIROBI – 10 DAYS - Capital - Largest city - 3.363 million inhabitants - Majority of Kikuyu ethnic Group KISUMU – 3 DAYS - Third largest city - 409,928 inhabitants - Majority of Luo ethnic group - Second largest city in the Lake Victoria Bassin - Proximity to Uganda - Port city MOMBASA – 3 DAYS - Second largest city - 972,000 inhabitants - Port City - Historical trading center - On the boarder of Indian Ocean - Cultural and economic hub - Muslim majority

NAKURU – 3 DAYS - Capital of Nakuru County - Former capital of the Rift Valley Province - Fourth largest urban center - 307,990 inhabitants

LOCATION FACTORS - Economic and trade dynamics - International influence - Population density - Cultural diversity - Concentration of small businesses - Universities and student activity

METHODOLOGY

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FINDINGS

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Some Headline Kenyans Are Trilingual Sub-head goes here

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FINDINGS

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FINDINGS

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FINDINGS

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There Is No Kenyan Web

Today, web content created by Kenyans and for Kenyans is far from meeting the population’s needs. Current trends are gossip and entertainment, which are perceived as a waste of time and unreliable by the adult population.

“Trends of local content is the rise of Kenyan gossip websites which gets traction from youth.” INT01-M02

Participants deplore the lack of aesthetics of Kenyan websites, and prefer international content which has a higher quality standard. A similar phenomenon can be observed for mobile content: mobile applications made in Kenya are nonexistent or unknown.

“I have never seen anyone using a Kenyan application.” WS01-M01 During our research workshops and interviews, we invited participants to engage in mind-mapping activities to analyze motivations and constraints of a Kenyan Web. Participants identified a number of recurring elements: - Lack of access to the right content creation technology - Lack of supporting infrastructure from the government - Lack of information about what is possible - Lack of motivation from citizens

“People do not feel the urge to create content, since they believe other people will do it.” INT01-M01 When participants were presented with the idea of creating their own content on the web without seeing our prototype, the response was enthusiastic, but lacking in confidence. They were excited about expressing themselves, but wary of the necessary technical skills. One of the major problems when considering local content is the language diversity of Kenya, which is not reflected on the Internet today. Only educated people are able to access content on the web, since most web content is in English.

“If I look for information in Swahili, I always think that I won’t find it.” WS06 M02 With Webmaker, it is possible to lower the bar for local content creation by giving access to a simple tool which does not require any technical skills. However, another barrier needs to be addressed by informing, stimulating, and teaching digital literacy to promote an understanding of what is possible.

“We have no Kenyan Internet and that is not OK.” WS01-M01

FINDINGS

“Local content will be driven by businesses online.” INT01-M01 & M02

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FINDINGS

“Until Internet access gets better, there will be no local content. No one will edit a Wikipedia article in a cybercafe.” INT01-M02

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FINDINGS

Social Media is Exciting

In Kenya, the Internet is mainly perceived as social media, and the majority of online interactions are canalized on WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. These social media platforms are considered exciting and assert themselves as strong trends.

“Before, people wanted to start blogs. Now social media meet their needs” INT19

Two of the questions we ask in each interview are, “What does the Internet mean to you?” and “How do you use the web today?” Their answers revealed clear patterns:

Social media, as a way to interact with friends, is a primary driver for online connections. Local news websites are popular. Selling and purchasing products on OLX is also a very popular online activity. The social dynamism and sense of community that can be infused into Webmaker are crucial to drive adoption and usage. Users do not want to create; they want to interact.

“I had a phone, so of course I had to join social media. If you are not on there, you are not the one standing out, you are the odd man out.” INTO9-M01

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FINDINGS

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FINDINGS

Internet = Whatsapp

More than a messaging application, WhatsApp has become a strong social networking and business platform in Kenya. According to our research participants, WhatsApp is the favorite mobile application and is often mistaken to be made-in-Kenya. Belonging to different WhatsApp groups is trendy and gives users a sense of community. It is often considered a better communication channel than Facebook due to its lower data consumption (and therefore cost), simpler navigation, and its more private atmosphere.

COMMON USES - Interacting with friends, family, clients, and suppliers - Sharing news and relaying important information - Organizing a community (church groups, wedding groups, etc.) - Sharing files & photos - Fundraising

“I changed my WhatsApp status because I needed to express that I was sad about a girl.” INT11-M03

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FINDINGS

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Access is a Struggle

Today, many people can only access the Internet through their mobile phones and are not able to use computers or other devices due to cost constraints. University Students must go to cyber cafes or the school computer lab when necessary, which makes it very difficult for them to engage in learning activities. Those infrastructures often provide unreliable equipment and are crowded due to high demand.

“I borrowed my brother’s phone for a week, because a girl I was pursuing was on WhatsApp and I only have my feature phone.” INT11-M03

“I tried to enroll in an online course, but I could not finish. One of the assignments was to listen to an audio clip and write about it. The computers in our lab don’t have speakers so I could not do it.” INT11-M01

FINDINGS

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Data is a Currency

In Kenya, mobile data can be compared to a currency. It is possible to buy it, exchange it, re-transform it into cash, or transfer it to someone else. It is rare and costly, and this cost drives users’ behaviors and decisions. It is by comparing data consumption that users choose to use a product over another.

“We go to cyber cafes for real browsing because it is cheaper than our own data.” WS01-ALL This means that it is imperative that Webmaker allows users to manage their data consumption and use the product offline.

“I could buy a cheap smartphone, but I could not afford the data.” INT11-M01

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FINDINGS

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The Web is Unknown

The Internet and its potential are yet to be discovered by a substantial amount of people. Participants mainly considered the Internet as a way of interacting with others through social media, and are not aware of other resources the Internet has to offer.

“What is Wikipedia?” INT01-F01

When presented with Webmaker, participants expressed frustration about not knowing what was possible on the Web.

“You can’t just wake up and do something that you don’t understand.” WS01-M02

While encouraging users to create content on the web from their mobile devices, Webmaker should include a program to share resources and allow users to use the Internet to develop new skills.

“Internet is only for people who work in big offices.” ADH

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Micro-Businesses Struggle

Entrepreneurship is widespread among all generations. From teenagers to adults, anyone can become an entrepreneur and start a small business easily. The only necessary element is a product to sell, or a service to offer, and one is a micro-business owner. From the teenager who is charging for nail-polish application in her school, to the one who is selling cakes on Saturdays or painting for tourists, to the structured delivery of vegetables, all micro-business owners are assiduous and struggle to develop.

“Only 10% of microentrepreneurs focus on one activity. They hustle for money.” INT03-F01

People are always looking for new opportunities to generate revenue, and there is no age to start. The most frequent dream in Kenya is to be a successful entrepreneur, having grown a company which generates high income. Embarking on the adventure is not rare or taboo, and not seen as risky as it can be in other cultures. Rather, it is considered as a necessity, given that young people are often unable to find suitable jobs after graduation.

“I sell shoes to students on campus on the side because it is profitable. I sell through WhatsApp and by going door-todoor.” WS02-F01

Webmaker must allow users to develop their micro-businesses from their mobile phones and provide tips for mobile marketing. Users are hungry for different ways to share their ideas and their products, and would be happy to discover new channels of communication aside from WhatsApp and Facebook.

“I used to just take money from my business whenever I needed. Now I take a salary every two weeks instead.” WS03-F01

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FINDINGS

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FINDINGS

“I text my customers to tell them I receive new things. I post the pictures on Facebook. They answer by SMS if they are interested. We conclude the sale via M-Pesa.” WS03-F02

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FINDINGS

Remixing is a Crime

Scratch and Soundcloud have found success in allowing users to freely remix others users’ content. However, this sentiment is not shared in all cultures.

“If you remix it, I call the police.”

Entering into the digital era, Western society evolved from a Read-Only culture, where people passively consume content published by an author, to a growing Read & Write culture. The latter implies that anyone can use existing open content and remix it to create new content.



Somebody who remixes content lacks creativity and talent



All remixes should highlight the original creation, and not get more credits



If a remix generates revenue for the author it is not acceptable, and can only be done by partnering with the original author



The original author should always be able to decide if his creation is remixable or not

By enabling people to build upon existing content and express themselves, this movement brings several benefits from the individual, to his community and his society.

ws02-F01 We identified the following patterns:

We researched the remix culture in Kenya, evoking all kinds of content, and the phenomenon is not yet accepted in the society.

“Remixing shows lack of originality.” INT11-M03

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FINDINGS

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Making is Not Cool

Being a maker is not considered a rewarding activity in Kenya. Offline making is a job associated with low social status. However, online making is simply a job like any other. Saying, “I made this myself” does not make people proud. The number of comments, likes, or share is what matters.

considered a rewarding activity. Makers are innovators, proud to create so as to address a specific need, to learn or simply to have fun. The Maker Movement is also growing year after year in the Education landscape, and its benefits on learning are defended by many experts. (7)

“Making is manual labor. It is something people look down on.” INT19-M01 This perception is drastically different from what we observe in North America, Europe and other countries with the tremendous growth of the Maker Movement. In these countries, making is

(7) Maker education initiative http://makered.org/resources/making-the-case/ (8) Impact of the Maker Movement, https://makermedia.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/impact-of-themaker-movement.pdf

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FRAMEWORKS

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The Web Journey

A framework for mapping users based on their relationship with technology

To structure our persona analysis, we created different clusters according to their relationship with technology. The Web Journey framework represents the typical path of a user, from the “Unaware” to the “Super Creator” stage. We are then able to identify the position of the research participants, so as to understand who we can guide and who we cannot. Thanks to this user research and product testing, we were able to recognize behavioral patterns for the different stages, and specific triggers allowing people to move along the Web Journey. While we cannot increase internet coverage on a national level nor

directly reduce poverty level, we can work on: •

Enabling local content authoring by giving people the tools to create a meaningful web for themselves and their communities



Building confidence and awareness with our digital literacy programs along with partners



Allow users to join and belong to a community which helps them grow and learn.

FINDINGS FRAMEWORKS

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FRAMEWORKS

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FRAMEWORKS

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FRAMEWORKS

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FRAMEWORKS

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Threshold Diagram

A framework for mapping users based on their motivations and constraints

The following diagram illustrates

EMBRACE

potential Webmaker users and their

Our primary potential Webmaker users,

motivations. From each cluster (Small

who are enthusiastic about the product,

Business Owners, University Students,

could use it on their own and leverage it

Artists...) we observed patterns within four distinct zones:

INABILITY People who will not be using Webmaker

REJECTION

because they have more urgent human

People who will not be using Webmaker

needs

by choice AMBIVALENCE Secondary Webmaker users, who might use our product if we are able to meet their motivation (Utility, Aspiration, Learning...)

FRAMEWORKS

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FRAMEWORKS

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PERSONAS

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Personas

Individual user portraits

Among the 59 participants we interacted with, we identified potential primary and secondary Webmaker users. As illustrated in the framework described previously, participants located in the Embrace zone are likely to become users of Webmaker for one or more of the following reasons: They are young: young people have time, are not reluctant to trying new experiences, are looking for inspiration and are at a point in their lives where anything is possible. They hustle: they are not part of the poor population who struggle to survive but they hustle to find new ways to earn money.

The following is a series of individual portraits from each cluster: true stories from participants, given in confidence to us. Their names have been changed to protect their privacy. They mainly represent primary Webmaker users, and are intended to help us better understand the subtleties of the people for whom we work, in order to adapt our programs and product.

PERSONAS

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PERSONAS

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Alice

University Student

STORY Alice is a 23 year old University Student in Maseno Campus, 20 minutes away from Kisumu Town. She studies French, because she is attracted to the international scene and she is confident she can find a job easier with her diploma, either by moving into an African French speaking country or by teaching. Currently, she is sharing a simple room with two friends, and they have enough resources to cook for themselves. She loves to spend time on social media, and hiking with her friends in the countryside. They take a lot of pictures when doing so, and share them on WhatsApp groups. DREAM She dreams of becoming fluent in French, and working in an international organization such as the United Nations or UNESCO.

INCOME She is currently struggling with money, and is hustling to find new ways to earn an income. To do so, she just started making jewelry that she sells on campus to her friends. She buys her beads and material when she goes to Nairobi to get a better price. Then, she makes different necklaces and bracelets when she is back on campus. She sells them face to face when she brings them on campus, and takes orders while she’s there.

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MOTIVATED BY

THRESHOLD ZONE

Attention Community Self Expression Aspiration

Rejection Ambivalence Embrace Ambivalence Inability

Instagram the day prior to the interview. She is eager to learn more about the web, and is frustrated by the limits of her computer class in University.

opportunity to market her products. She is excited to discover the different ways she could customize her webpage.

She is able to connect to the University Wi-Fi, but it is highly unreliable. She has no personal computer and goes to the cybercafe for her school work.

Additionally she shares pictures of her latest creations on WhatsApp, and she plans to try to increase her sales through OLX.

CHALLENGES She dreams of upgrading her smartphone to be able to accomplish more, but she cannot afford to do so. She struggles to manage her finances and she is very conscious about her data spending.

TECHNOLOGY She owns a low-end Smartphone, which she uses to go on WhatsApp, Facebook and browse with Opera Mini. She just signed-up for

WEBMAKER Alice is eager to create an app for her jewelry micro-business. She never thought she could create a small boutique, but definitely sees the

She is also interested in apps for her fellow female friends, such as the “Are You Pregnant App?” or the “Is Your Husband Cheating on You App?” She would be upset if somebody remixed her app without her consent, and if that person generated profit from the remix.

PERSONAS

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PERSONAS

“When it comes to jewelry making, I can consider myself a creator. On the other hand I am a consumer when it comes to IT related stuff.”

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Greg

University Student

STORY Greg is a 20 year old University Student living in Nairobi, Kenya. He studies Hospitality and is passionate about cooking, which he does with friends on weekends. He is about to start his internship in a hotel to gain more experience in Hospitality. DREAM Greg dreams of launching and growing his own business, and does not want to be employed. He is confident he will be able to generate more profit and flourish as an entrepreneur. INCOME Today, Greg earns some side money by selling Kenyan Arts and Crafts to tourists. He shares University fees with his father, and still lives with his

family. He is a talented painter and sometimes gets orders from friends or tourists. TECHNOLOGY He had a smartphone, but it got stolen, so he is back to using a feature phone. Greg uses email, WhatsApp and Facebook. He uses the University Computer lab to connect, and also goes to the Cyber Cafe when the computer lab is full. He tried to publish stories on iWriters, where he can get paid if he is selected. Recently, he was selected to publish one of his recipes on the University Website, which he is very proud of. CHALLENGES He is eager to start his business

PERSONAS

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MOTIVATED BY

THRESHOLD ZONE

Attention Community Self Expression Aspiration

Rejection Ambivalence Embrace Ambivalence Inability

as soon as possible, but he was stopped by his parents who are not comfortable with the idea. He has little access to his own devices since his last smartphone was stolen, and he cannot afford a computer.

He would be happy to see his recipe app remixed by others, since it would mean that people are interested by what he is doing. However, he feels like credit should be given to the original creator.

WEBMAKER Greg is enthusiastic about creating an app for sharing recipes and cooking tips with his friends. This would not only allow him to share his passion with people who have the same interest, but also become recognized in his field of study. He was especially attracted by the family template, expressing the value of a special personal place to share with his family.

“I shared a recipe on the school website. I was proud to receive lots of comments.”

PERSONAS

“If somebody remixes my recipes it’s okay because I would feel encouraged that more people are into the same type of cooking. Giving me credit is enough.”

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Jane

Micro-business Owner

STORY Jane is a 22 year old business owner living in Kisumu. She is in the process of starting her new venture, a rabbit farm on the outskirts of town. Previously she was running a potato selling business. She would drive to various farms in the region to buy potatoes, and then deliver them to different vendors in the city for resale. Staring a rabbit farm will allow her to have a stable lifestyle, and spend less time traveling. She is active on Facebook, and found a lot of information about rabbit farming on the Facebook page of a popular Kenyan website for young farmers, Mkulima Young. She is part of the Equity Group

Foundation’s “Improve your Business Program”, which helps her build her business plan. DREAM Jane dreams of succeeding in her new business and growing it quickly. INCOME Jane spent all of her savings building the rabbit farm, and had to borrow from her family for the project. Once her rabbit business is running, she estimates she will sell 50 rabbits per month, for an approximate income of 300,000 Ksh (331 USD). TECHNOLOGY She owns a feature phone which she uses to go on Facebook and browse the web when she needs to.

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MOTIVATED BY

THRESHOLD ZONE

Attention Community Self Expression Aspiration

Rejection Ambivalence Embrace Ambivalence Inability

She was able to leverage the Internet, and particularly Facebook to learn new skills. She did not know anything about farming, and learned all she could through Facebook. She intends to use Facebook to promote her new business and sell her rabbits. CHALLENGES Jane dreams of owning a smartphone for easier connection to the Internet but she cannot afford one currently. Before starting her business, Jane was hustling for money and doing many other things at the same time. She is currently learning to focus on one project to grow it successfully. She is worried about the success of her new farm since she spent all her savings on it.

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WEBMAKER Jane wants to use Webmaker to learn how she could create an online presence. She is curious about how the product works, and not afraid to try. She sees an opportunity in creating mobile content since all of her clients are likely to only connect on mobile devices. She would love to see some tips about managing an online presence integrated in the app itself.

PERSONAS

“I learned about technology and farming from the internet. They give farming techniques and help you improve your products. I use it on my phone and it is easy to read.“

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James

Micro-business Owner

STORY James recently started his small driving company in Nairobi. He hired one driver, and he makes profit by contracting with tourists. He has no family yet but intends to marry and have children soon. DREAM His dream is to grow his business and provide the best services for tourism in Kenya. He is proud of his country and culture, and wishes to contribute to its expansion. INCOME James’s income is very irregular, as it depends on the tourism season. He is therefore conscious of his spending, such as his mobile data.

TECHNOLOGY James owns a smartphone and spends most of his time on WhatsApp. He belongs to various groups on WhatsApp: his chama, his church group, his friends’ groups. Currently, he is raising money through the app for some friends who are getting married. He finds it very convenient since he is able to share and receive instant updates. Most of all, he appreciates the ease of sharing pictures, videos and the feeling of being close to his community. James dreams of seeing more web content in Kenyan languages. He deplores the absence of content in Kenya’s 42 languages, which makes internet inaccessible for people living in remote areas, or lacking secondary education.

PERSONAS

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MOTIVATED BY

THRESHOLD ZONE

Attention Community Self Expression Aspiration

Rejection Ambivalence Embrace Ambivalence Inability

CHALLENGES His biggest challenge today is the ongoing decline of tourism, which has been dropping dramatically with the Ebola outbreak (despite the distance from affected countries), a violence crisis in Kenya, and the constant threat of terrorism.

presence as it would include contracting web developers.

WEBMAKER James wants to create an app to advertise his business, and in the meantime, promote Kenyan beauty to prospective tourists. His app would feature his services, and suggestions for areas to visit. He mentioned the lack of awareness of existing tools for people to create on the web, and before discovering Webmaker was convinced that he could not afford to have an online

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“I became an entrepreneur by default. There was no job for me, so I decided to employ myself. ”

PERSONAS

“I never made because there was nobody to encourage and push me. ”

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PERSONAS

“There is no Kenyan Internet, and that is not OK.“

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Lewis

PERSONAS

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MOTIVATED BY

THRESHOLD ZONE

Artist & Community Leader

Attention Community Self Expression Aspiration

Rejection Ambivalence Embrace Ambivalence Inability

STORY Lewis is an artist living on the outskirts of Kisumu. He studies Health and Community at the University, works as a spoken word artist the rest of the time, and is currently writing his first book.

INCOME Lewis only earns money when he speaks at events such as weddings and funerals.

He regularly post quotes on Facebook through his feature phone, and he feels that he can touch and inspire people this way.

“The highest point of my earnings is when I have enough money to eat for two weeks.”

CHALLENGES His biggest challenges are finding more work opportunities and helping children in his community.

become famous and earn more money. He recommends that we make it more colorful and “sparkling” to allow more creativity and customization.

He writes poems about anything that inspires him, like politics, life, and love. In his slum, he teaches young children to express themselves as spoken word artists as well. He cares very much about the children he works with, who call him “Daddy”. DREAM His dream is to change the world, and help his community as much as possible.

TECHNOLOGY Lewis owns a feature phone, which he calls his “Walkie Talkie”. He cannot afford to buy a smartphone today, and he connects to the internet in cyber cafes when he needs to, but it is too expensive for him. He promotes his art through his popular Facebook page, which helps him find different work opportunities.

WEBMAKER Lewis dreams of having a website where he can post his poems, which could help him become famous. He is enthusiastic about the idea of being able to do this by himself, the way he wants it, and for free. He had hired someone to make his website previously, but that person ran away with his money. In Webmaker, he sees a true opportunity to reach more people,

“Every morning, I wake up wondering what I can change.”

PERSONAS

“I always think about a quote when I go to bed and when I wake up. I post the quotes on Facebook from my walkie-talkie via sms to 8141.“

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Isabel

Micro-business owner

STORY Isabel is a 36 year old shop owner, living on the outskirts of Kisumu. She has an mPesa shop, a butcher shop, and sells vegetables. She started her own business to increase her income and become an independent woman when she left her husband. She now takes care of her two children by herself, and is able to provide for her whole family thanks to her micro-business. She is a beneficiary of the Equity Group Foundation’s “Improve your Business Training”, which helped her manage her business successfully. DREAM Isabel dreams of growing her business to save more money and provide financial security for her

children. She also wishes to start a community of independent women. INCOME Her income is highly unstable and dependent on the farming crops. TECHNOLOGY She owns a feature phone, and a low-end Tecno smartphone. She has an email address, WhatsApp and Facebook account. She uses these to connect to her friends and customers. CHALLENGES She struggles with having a stable income and saving money, so she wants to expand her customer reach and grow her business.

PERSONAS

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MOTIVATED BY

THRESHOLD ZONE

Attention Community Self Expression Aspiration

Rejection Ambivalence Embrace Ambivalence Inability

WEBMAKER When brainstorming for the app she would make, Isabel came up with the idea of advertising specific products together to prompt customers to buy more. She thought she could start proposing different recipes, which would lead to either a new catering business, or an increase in her sales. THE TRIGGER Today Isabel is not comfortable with technology. Like most of her peers, she does not believe that the Internet is for her, and does not know how she can leverage the web. She is very eager to learn but she would need guidance and mentorship while she brings her business online.

“I am now able to have a real salary, I use to just take what I needed from the shop”.

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PERSONAS

“What if I put recipes on my app, maybe it would encourage people to buy more products? For example, I could sell tomatoes with the meat from the butcher. It could help me grow my business I think. No?“

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University Students A day in the life

To have a more accurate and unbiased idea of what it is like to be a University student in Kenya, we gave disposable cameras to three students and asked them to photograph their lives.

We requested photos of: Their home Their family Their friends Their neighborhood Their classroom Their commute to class Their work The computer lab in their University The places they like to hang out

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Kenya Field Research Report

Acknowledgments

THANK YOU

FIELD RESEARCH TEAM

We wish to deeply thank the individuals

Laura de Reynal

and organizations who made this work

Webmaker Research, Mozilla, UK.

possible:

[email protected] @lau_nk

Mozilla Kenya Mozilla Mombasa Alifiyah Ganijee Said Fuad Equity Group Foundation Peter Ibaare Peter Njema Ivy N. Mwai Digital Opportunity Trust Egerton University We are especially grateful to the 73 participants who shared their lives with us.

Luke Pacholski Webmaker Designer, Mozilla, Canada. [email protected] @flukeout Steven Wanjau Representative, Mozilla, Kenya. [email protected] @uwanja

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kenya field research

multi-disciplinary research program that aims to study ... Micro-business Struggle ..... applications made in Kenya are non- ..... He uses the University Computer.

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