Effects of Lipid Oxidation • Flavor Quality Loss

Rancid flavor Changes of color and texture Consumer Acceptance Economic loss



Nutritional Quality Loss



Health Risks

Essential Fatty Acids Vitamins

Toxic Compounds Growth Retardation Heart Diseases

General Considerations • Unsaturated fatty acids [RH] main reactant Energy for H removal (kcal/mole) H - CH2 - CH2 - CH3

100

H - CH = CH2

103

H - CH2 - CH = CH2

85

CH2 = CH - CH - CH = CH2 H

65

→ H on carbon next to double bond easier to remove

General Considerations • Requires oxygen • Auto-oxidation or Enzyme catalyzed • Catalyzed by trace metals (fe, Cu, Co…) and Heme compounds • Catalyzed by light (UV) and irradiation

Free Radical Mechanism

Initiation • Initiation of autoxidation occurs when hydrogen atom at α-methylene group in double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids is removed to form an alkyl radical (R●).

RH

R



+

H



Initiation • Initial generation of free radicals is slow – Initiated by singlet oxygen (1O2) • metastable, excited energy state of O2 • two unpaired electrons in same orbital

triplet oxygen ground state 2 electrons w/ same spin in 2 orbitals

singlet oxygen excited state 2 electrons w/ different spin in 1 orbital

Production of 1O2 by Photochemical, Chemical, and Biological Systems (11) RCOO • + RCOO • (10)

(12) ENZYMES

RC O + RCOH

ENDOPEROXIDES

(1) 3 O2 + SENSITIZER

SENSITIZER

(2) H2O2 + OCl-

PRODUCTS

H2O + Cl(9)

PRODUCTS

OZONIDES

1

(3) H2O2 + O2-

O2 OH- + OH•

H2O + OHH2O2

(8) -

H2O2 + HO2

2H+ O2- + O2(7)

OHY

O2- + Y+

eO2(5)

(4) •

OH + O2-

Initiation • Oxygen raised to excited state (1O2) by light energy – called photooxidation – promoted by pigments called sensitizers light sens sens* + 3O2

sens* sens + 1O2

– e.g. chlorophyll, riboflavin

Initiation Mechanisms • Initiated by enzymes called lipoxygenases – Inactivate by blanching (short heating to denature enzymes)

• Metal ions (e.g. Fe, Co, Cu) can also initiate reaction – found naturally in foods, from metal equipment – Prevent using chelating agents such as EDTA or citric acid

Propagation +

3O

ROO • +

RH

R•

2

ROO • ROOH + R•

ROOH

RO •

+

RO • + RH

ROH

+



OH R•

Termination R•

+

R•

2RO •

R-R ROOR

ROO • +

R•

ROOR

RO • +

R•

ROR

ROO • + ROO •

ROOR + O2

Lipid Oxidation 14

CH3

13

12

11

10

9

(CH2)3 CH2 CH CH CH2 CH CH INITIATION (METAL)

CH3

CH2

R

- H• 12

11

10

9

(CH2)4 CH CH CH CH •

CH CH2 R

+ O2 12

11

10

9

(CH2)4 CH CH CH CH CH O O PROPAGATION • + H• CH3

CH2 R

Lipid Oxidation 12

C H3

(C H 2) 4

CH O O H

HYDROPEROXIDE DECOMPOSION

CH

(C H 2)4

CH

10

CH

CH

9

CH

CH2

R

CH

C H2 R

- •OH

12

C H3

11

CH

11

10

CH

CH

9

O• O CH 3



(C H 2)3 C H 2 TERMINATION

CH 3

R = (CH2)6-COOH

+

C

CH

CH

H + H•

(C H 2) 3 C H 3 (PENTANE)

CH

CH

C H2 R

Peroxide Decomposition H R C R 1 O O H

H C

R



R1 +

O •

+•

OH R' R

+ R'H

O

O R•

+ R

1

C

H1

or

O R C H +

C

R1 •

R

H C

R1

+

R'•

OH R' • +

• OH

ROH

R1 +

R'H

Some volatile aldehydes obtained from oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids Fatty Acid Oleic (18:1)

Linoleic (18:2)

Linolenic (18:3)

Aldehyde formed Hydroperoxide Name Flavour 2-undecenal 8-OOH

9-OOH

decanal 2-decenal,nonanal

10-OOH 11-OOH 9-OOH

nonanal octanal 2,4-decadienal

fatty, waxy

13-OOH 9-OOH

3-nonenal hexanal 2,4,7-decatrienal

green painty, fishy

3,6-nonadienal

soapy

12-OOH

2,4-heptadienal 3-hexenal

green bean

13-OOH

3-hexenal

green bean

16-OOH

propanal

Characteristic flavour descriptions of vegetable oils Vegetable Oil Type

Storage Conditions Soybean

Cannola

Sunflower

Fresh

Nutty, buttery

Nutty, buttery

Nutty, buttery

In Dark, slight oxidation

Hay, grassy, green, beany

Cabbage, sulphur, grassy, green

Pine/cedar, weedy, acid

In Dark, moderate to high oxidation

Rancid, painty

Rancid, painty, fishy

Rancid

Grassy, sour, metallic, buttery

Buttery, grassy, metallic

Stale, sour

In Light

Lipoxygenase

Peroxidation specificity1

Food

pH optimum 9-LOOH(%)

13LOOH(%)

Type

Soybean, L-1

9

5

95

I

Soybean, L-2

6.5

50

50

II

Pea L-2 Peanut Potato Tomato Wheat

6.5 6 5.5 5.5 6

50 0 95 95 90

50 100 5 5 10

II I I I I

Cucumber Apple

5.5 6

75 10

25 90

-

Strawberry

6.5

23

77

-

Gooseberry

6.5

45

55

II

Initiation and Propagation Overview • Three mechanisms: – Singlet Oxygen (photooxidation) – Lipoxygenase (enzymes) – Metals

• Once free radicals build up, rxn takes off! – Propagation – Chain rxn (autocatalytic)

Oxidation Products • Hydroperoxide decomposition leads to aldehyde formation – E.g. alkanals, hexanal

• Produces rancid flavors • The free radicals produced damage other compounds including vitamins and proteins

Oxidation Rates:Types of Fatty Acids • The number, position and geometry of double bonds also affects the rate. – Conjugated double bonds are less reactive than non-conjugated double bonds.

• Fish oils very susceptible (polyunsaturated) • Free fatty acids react faster than triglycerides – sn-2 react more slowly than sn-1,3

• Saturated triacylglycerides stable at room temperature • Oxidation accelerated during frying (180˚ - 200˚C) – Oxidative odors over time – Hydrolysis produces free fatty acids, foaminess

Oxidation Rates:Types of Fatty Acids • As # of double bonds increases – # and reactivity of radicals increases

Type of Fatty Acid 18:0 18:1Δ9 18:2Δ9,12 18:3Δ9,12,15

Rate of Reaction Relative to Stearic Acid 1 100 1200 2500

Factors affecting Lipid Oxidation • Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the active species in photooxidation deterioration since this is more electrophilic than triplet state oxygen (3O2) , reacting approximately 1500 times faster at carbon double bonds. – – – –

Vacuum packing or N2 flush Oxygen scavengers Low film permeability Antioxidants

Factors affecting Lipid Oxidation • Temperature • Water Activity – Rate of oxidation decreases as the water activity is lowered towards the monolayer – Rate of many lipid oxidation reactions increase under very low Aw (<0.2). Rancidity a major problem in dehydrated foods – Believed to be due a more readily breakdown of lipid hydroperoxides and because non-hydrated metal ions are more effective catalysts

Factors affecting Lipid Oxidation • Metal Ions – If the amount of free metal is restricted, the rate of lipid oxidation will be slower – Use chelators

• Light – Source of energy that can lead to the formation of radical initiators. UV light is particularly harmful. – Packaging

Antioxidants • Substances that delay the onset of, or slow down the rate of oxidation. The most common types of lipid soluble antioxidants are mono or polyhydric phenols with ring substituents. • Works either by inhibiting the formation of free radicals in the initiation step or interrupting propagation of the free radical chain. • The proposed mechanism is believed to involve the antioxidant acting as a hydrogen donor and the phenol group forms radical intermediates that are relatively stable due to resonance delocalisation. This reduces the number of positions suitable for attack by molecular oxygen.

Mechanism R•

+

AH

RH

RO • +

AH

ROH

+ A•

ROOH

+ A•

ROO • + AH

+ A•

Resonance of Antioxidant Radicals OH C(CH3)3

OCH3

RH , ROH , ROOH

R• , RO • , ROO • O

. C(CH ) 33

OCH 3 O

.

.

O C(CH ) 33

OCH 3 O

C(CH3)3

C(CH3)3

. OCH3

OCH3

Ideal Antioxidants • No harmful physiological effects – – – – –

Pathological effect Carcinogenic potential Interactions with enzymes Effects of reproduction Nature of the metabolism rate in man

• No objectionable flavor, odor, or color • Effective in low concentration • Fat-soluble • Carry-through effect • Readily-available • Economical • Not absorbable by the body

Peroxide Value • Peroxides produced by oxidation of the oil are measured using the technique based on their ability to liberate iodine from potassium iodide. • Peroxide value is determined by measuring iodine released from potassium iodide. • The amount of iodine liberated from KI by oxidative action of peroxides present in the oil is determined by titration in a biphasic system with Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution.

Peroxide Value • •

ROOH + 2KI --> I 2 + 2KOH + RO – I 2 + Na 2 S 2 O 3 --> S 2 O 3 + 2NaI



Calculate the peroxide value of each oil sample as meq of peroxide per kilogram of sample:

(S - B) x 1000 x N PV (meq/kg oil) = W B= Titration of blank W= Weight of sample (g) S= Titration of sample N= Normality of Na 2 S 2 O 3

Peroxide Value of Stressed Oils

Peroxide Value (meq/kg oil)

Peroxide value of Stressed Oils (110°C & Oxygen) 15 PV Soybean Oil

10

PV Olive Oil

5 0 0

200

400

Time (minutes)

600

Acid Value Number of mgs of KOH required to neutralize the Free Fatty Acids in 1 g of fat.

AV =

ml of KOH x N x 56 Weight of Sample

= mg of KOH

Iodine Number Number of iodine (g) absorbed by 100 g of oil. Molecular weight and iodine number can calculate the number of double bonds. 1 g of fat adsorbed 1.5 g of iodine value = 150.

Iodine Value Determination Iodine Value = (ml of Na2S2O3 volume for blank - ml of Na2S2O3 volume for sample) × N of Na2S2O3 × 0.127g/meq × 100 Weight of Sample (g)

CH CH

CH CH Cl I

+ ICl Iodine chloride

Excess unreacted ICl ICl I2

+ +

KI 2 Na 2 S 2 O 3

KCl

+

Na 2 S 4 O 6

I2 +

2 NaI

Iodine Numbers of Triglycerides Fatty Acids

# of Double-bonds

Iodine #

Palmitoleic Acid

1

95

Oleic Acid

1

86

Linoleic Acid

2

173

Linolenic Acid

3

261

Arachidonic Acid

4

320

Natural Antioxidants Benefits • Health implication • Stability in food system

Limits • Characteristic flavor • Safety test required

Tocotrienols R1 HO CH3 R2

CH3

CH3

CH3

O R3

α-tocopherol: A chain breaking antioxidant competes with polyunsaturated lipid for the lipid peroxyl radicals.

Ascorbic acid • • • • •

Hydrogen donation to lipid radicals Quenching of singlet oxygen Removal of molecular oxygen Regenerate tocopherol radicals Prooxidant – Reduce ferric iron to ferrous iron

Ascorbic acid CH2OH H C OH O

CH2OH

O

H HO

-H

OH

L-Ascorbic acid

H C OH O •

H HO

O

• O

-H•

CH2OH H C OH O

O

H O

O

Dehydroascorbic acid

Synthetic Antioxidants OH

OH

C(CH3)3

(CH3)3C

C(CH3)3

CH3

OCH3 Butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA)

Butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) OH

OH OH

C (C H 3 ) 3

OH

C O O C 3H 7

Propyl gallate

OH

Tertiary butylhydroquionone (TBHQ)

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