Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes Simina Brânzei, Tomasz Michalak,Talal Rahwan, Kate Larson and Nicholas Jennings

Matchings

Stability

Intensely studied class of combinatorial problems:

One-to-One: The stable marriage problem

Stability is a central question in game theoretic analyses of matchings Which matchings are such that the agents don't have incentives to (i) cut existing matches or (ii) form new matches?

One-to-Many: House allocation problems, assigning medical interns to hospitals

The stable outcomes depend on the solution concept used

This work: pairwise stability and the core

Many-to-Many: Most labor markets, friendships

Deviation: Each member of a deviating coalition B must either sever a match with a player in N, or form a new match with a player in B

Externalities

Response to a deviation: Given matching A and deviation A' of coalition B, the response Γ(B, A, A') defines the reaction of the players outside B upon the deviation

Also known as transaction spillovers Third parties are influenced by transactions they did not agree to

Stability: A matching is stable if no coalition can deviate and improve the utility of at least one member while not degrading the other members in the response of N \ B

Positive externalities: Education, immunization, environmental remediation, research

How will society react to a deviation?

Negative externalities: Environmental pollution, smoking, alcohol consumption and car accidents

Externalities in Matchings Matchings are a natural model for studying externalities: Agents are influenced not only by their own choices (matches), but also by the transactions that others make In general, agents can have a different utility for every different state of the world

This work: Succinct model of externalities in matchings (polynomial-size preferences in the number of agents)

Model Matching game: G = (M, W, Π), where M andW are agents on the two sides of the market Denote by Π(m, w | z) the influence of match (m, w) on agent z (if the match forms)

m

The agents need to compute the response (possibly intractable)

Attitudes (Heuristics) Optimism: Deviators assume the best case reaction from the rest of the agents (attitude à la “All is for the best in the best of all the possible worlds”) Neutrality: No reaction (the deviators assume the others are not going to do anything about it) Pessimism: Worst case reaction (deviators assume the remaining agents will retaliate in the worst possible way Many others possible: Contractual: Assume retaliation from players hurt by the deviation, and no reaction from the rest

Many-to-Many Matchings Core

Optimism

Neutrality

Membership

P

Nonemptiness

NP-complete

coNP-complete coNP-complete NP-hard

NP-hard Pessimistic Core

The cores are included in each other:

Neutral Core Optimistic Core

w Π(m,w|x)

Π(m,w|y)

y

x Π(z,t|x)

Π(z,t|y)

z

t

The utility of an agent z in matching A is:

u(z, A) = ∑(m,w) ∈ A Π(m, w | z)

Pessimism

One-to-One Matchings Pairwise Stable Set

Optimism

Neutrality Pessimism

Membership

P

P

P

Nonemptiness

NP-complete

P

P

Core

Optimism

Neutrality

Pessimism

Membership

P

coNP-complete

coNP-complete

Nonemptiness

NP-complete

NP-hard

NP-hard

## Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes Simina ...

Pessimistic. Core. The cores are included in each other: Core. Optimism. Neutrality. Pessimism. Membership. P. coNP-complete coNP-complete. Nonemptiness NP-complete. NP-hard. NP-hard. One-to-One Matchings. Pairwise Stable Set Optimism Neutrality Pessimism. Membership. P. P. P. Nonemptiness. NP-complete. P.

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