IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT) www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

Multi-Scale Retinex Based Medical Image Enhancement Using Laplacian Surround Function Shilpa Asok Mote M.tech LEC, Dept.of E&C A.I.T,Tumakuru ,India [email protected]

Prof. Varadaraju H.r Guide/.Professor Dept .of E&C, A.I.T, Tumakuru, India

Abstract. This is one of the papers that deal with improving the quality of the medical images. For improving the quality of the image the Retinex method is used. Retinex is a method that is a combination of operations involving the retina and cortex. Here the retina of the eyes and cortex of the brain are involved in removing the noise occurring at the time of capturing the image by using a camera. Here noise components may be artificial lighting conditions, night time blackness conditions . Here the image is subjected different resolution by down-sampling and Retinex method is applied for each resolution. Finally ,all the resolutions are up-sampled and the original image is created to produce enhanced image. Finally enhancement algorithms are performed and finally comparative study is done by calculating PSNR and MSE.

Key Words: Medical image enhancement, MSR.PSNR, MSE

I. INTRODUCTION Digital image processing involves the modification of the digital data which improves the image qualities. The processing involves the improving the clarity, sharpness and detailed information about the features of need. Enhancement is a process of modification of an image based on the suitable for display or further analysis. We can remove noise, sharpen or brighten an image making it easier to identify the features. Image analysis involves processing an image into fundamental components in order to extract statistical data. Image analysis involves like finding shapes, detecting edges, removing noise, counting objects and measuring region and image properties of an object. While doing the image processing operation, first take an image in one area and generate a new and with good quality image in the other area. The enhancement process involves lots of techniques which are used to improve the visual appearance of the images, which converts an image to a form which is better for the analysis by the human or the machines. By removing the noise will be the cause for the image decrease of image quality. The main goal of the image

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

enhancement process is to make the image clearer to the observer, so that any problem of the defect present in the image is detected by the enhancing the image over several methods and using appropriate algorithms. Image enhancement can be divided into two categories, as follows, 1.

Spatial domain methods, which directly operates on pixels.

2.

Frequency domain methods, which operates on the Fourier transform of an image.

Nowadays,medical picture development became an important aspect in the image enhancement area. Medicinal picture development be solitary input explore field for the researchers because wide spread of medical images in the diagnosis of the various diseases[2].Many researchers still inventing many methods and algorithms to improve the quality of the medical image.Medical image enhancement has got more attention because if we improve the quality of the image so that doctors can study the image clearly where is the defect and they can give appropriate treatment to the patient who is suffering from the disease. In the enhancement of medical image spinal cord enhancement is the most popular case which offers more detail for the diagnosis of the disease.

II. LITERATURE SURVEY Before the Multi-scale Retinex there were many methods that are used to enhance the medical image, they are as follows, Consarado[6] given a tips for the radiologist that how to treat the spinal cord tumors with proper knowledge of diagnosing the tumor.[6] Ronald proposed method for the treatment of patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, it provides full details about the specific patient without concerning the other cases.[7] Sundaram presented a method for the contrast enhancement for the mammogram images, it gives satisfactory results for the mammogram images but it fails to adopt this method for other medical images.[8] Indira improved a method for the enhancement of medical images in two steps,in first step contrast of an image is corrected insecond step wavelet fusion is applied.As it over enhances the images hence this method is not suitable for the enhancement of medical images.[9] Chao proposed a method fast colo image enhancement bahe enhancementsed on fuzzymulti-scale Retinex using Gaussian mask in order to reduce the computation time.But this enhancement introduces black spot in the image,hence cannot be used forthe enhancement of medicsl images.

METHOD

LIMITATION

Histogram Equalization & Adaptive

This fails to give the satisfactory results for bimodal

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

Histogram Equalization

scenes.

Gamma correction &Intensity Correction

These techniques fails to adapt itself depending on the image details.

Contrast stretching

Single outlying picture elements by also a extremely large or very less value severely affect the value of cord this could lead to very unrepresentative scaling.

M.C Hanumanthraju proposed a Multi-scale Retinex algorithm with multi rate sampling to rnhance the medical image using Gaussian surround function. As it enhances the image but the performance matrices are not satisfactory for the enhancement of the image[13] so we go for the proposed method for the enhancement of the spinal cord medical image with Laplacian Surround

Function,

which

gives

satisfactory

PSNR

and

MSE

values.

III. RETINEX THEORY When processing an image human vision is better than the machines.In recent years,more attention is given to the image enhancement algorithms.Eventhogh the radiation goes through the similar transmit from source to destination in HSV, as HSV provides more useful knowledge about the image which is being transformed. Specifications of the HSV: 

Locality



Color constancy



The fundamental idea for the Retinex Hypothesis is intensity human eye can understand which depends on the product of reflectance and illumination. The fundamental Retinex form for every picture element x is, I (x) =L (x) *R (x) ----z--------(vii)

Where, I (x) the light intensity that people can realize, L (x) smooth or uneven distribution of natural illumination and R (x) is the object reflectance of the light which related to physical characteristics of the object. Retinex generates suitable intensity related to the reflectance channel by channel. Retinex theory was proposed by Land & McCann in 1971 which is applied to the image based on visual perception. In 1983 there tinex theory proposed is to attempt to develop a computer model of human perception of colors. In 1986 E. The land proposed a simple alternative technique for calculation of the designation in retinex theory.

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

So because of the drawbacks of the existing system we go for the Multiscale Retinex process using Laplacian Surround Function.

IV. PROPOSED METHOD Multi-Scale Retinex Algorithm Many algorithms were used by the researcher for the enhancement of the medical image. The most popular one is the Multi Scale retinex algorithm since it gives the better enhanced image compared with the other algorithms. The core of the Multi-scale retinex algorithm is the Laplacian surround function. This Laplacian Surround functions are used here for sampling versions of the values channels. The pixel range for Laplacian Functions

are

tiny

scale(16x16pixels),small(32x32pixels),medium(64x64pixels),fine(128x128pixels),normal(256x256pixels). To get better enhanced output and best PSNR and MSE we use the Laplacian Surround Function is given by

F (x, y) =

  

 (

( ( 

-----------(viii)

Where,µ is mean and c is noise variance In order to carry out the medical image development the Single Scale Retinex algorithm is followed by MultiScale Retinex. Single Scale Retinex: The basics of SSR [7] include a logarithmic photoreceptor function that approximates the vision system based on a center/surround function. The SSR is given by:  (,  =  (,  −  (,  ∗  (,  -------(iX) Where Iis image distribution in theIthcolor band,F(x, y) is the normalized surround Function, 

(,  =   -----------(x) C is the scalar value called as surrounds space constant and selected such that r=! " +  " -------------(xi) And ∬ (,  % , % = 1---------------- (xii)

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

The purpose of logarithmic simplification is to transform a ratio at the pixel level to a mean value for a target region. The surround space computes the average of the surrounding pixel values and it will assign it to the center pixel. Small kernels gives results in dynamic range compression. With the large kernel the output looks more like natural impression of the image. The middle value of surround space constant is good for the processed image. Multi-ScaleRetinex: In order to store the dynamic range compression, multi-scale Retinex which is the combination of weighted different scales of SSR, '() (,  = ∑,. +, ∗ , -------- (xiii) Where N is the number of the scale,Rni is the I the component of the /01 ,Wn is the weight of the n scale. For MSR the number of scale need, the scale value and weight value are important. The MSR based images have important energetic series density at the edge among the light parts and dark parts and reasonable color rendition in the entire image scale. MSR combines multiple SSR weightings, selecting the number of scales that can be merged. The best weight has to be chosen in order to get suitable dynamic range compression at the boundary between light and dark parts of the image and to increase the brightness of the entire image. There are two methods for achieving this 1.

Compare the psychophysical mechanisms between the human visual perception of a real scene and captured image.

2.

Compare the captured image with the measured reflectance values of the real scene. The single scale retinex algorithm is followed by multi scale retinex methodMulti scale retinex method is measured as extensive SSR process. Flower arrangement for multi scale retinex system is shown in the below fig. 1.1

The single scale Retinex results are obtained in equivalent by subtracting the logarithm of low pass filtered images starting from the logarithm of unique picture. Here low pass filtered images are obtained by using Laplacian surround function with different Laplacian space constant σ and single scale retinex results in the proposed method we use Laplacian surround function to get better enhanced image with good PSNR and MSE values.

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

Fig 1.1:Flow of system Architecture of proposed method

Proposed method Implementation Using MSR algorithm with Laplacian Surround Function we can achieve enhancement of medical image by applying the algorithm for each down sampled versions subsequent to SSR operation. By using individual improved imagery sampled scaled versions in an efficient way

we can get the new value channel is

reconstructed. The enhanced image of tiny sampled version of dimension 16x16 pixels is up sampled by two to match with the resolution of 32x32pixels of the small version. The up sampling and reconstruction operation done by Chao technique introduces zeros between alternative pixels. The image enhanced by this technique is good but it results in appearance of dots in the enhanced medical image. The presented algorithms efficiently reduces the dark spots were present in the enhanced medical image by Chao image is obtained as follows technique. And by using Laplacian Surround Function we get better PSNR and MSE it means image enhanced with good quality than by using Gaussian Surround Function. 1.

Input image of 256x256 pixels is taken from the RGB colos space.

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

2.

Input image is converted from RGB to HSV(Hue Saturation Value) color space.RGB space is the basic color space in computer, but the three primary colors have a strong correlation. The separate disposal of the different color may result in the distortion of the entire color, so it needs relevant methods toprevent the distortion of color. HSV color space is based on the psychological feeling of human being to the color; it expresses the color through H (Hue), S (Saturation), and V (Value). It is a good choice for color image because of the less correlation among the three components. In the situation of not adjustment of saturation, HSV color space only has to deal with one component. Compared with RGB color space which deals with three components, it can reduce the amount of calculation and prevent effectively the color distortion..

3.

Value channel of the HSV color space is separated and H&S are preserved in order to avoid the distortion.

4.

Value channel is scaled into five versions that is,Tiny scale(16x16 pixels),small(32x32pixels),medium (64x64pixels), fine (128x128pixels), normal (256x256pixels) to speed up the MSR base image improvement method.

5.

On the V component apply the down sampling and apply Retinex methods

6.

Finally Up sampling is performed to get the final enhanced image

7.

Writing matlab code for the above steps.

8.

Reconstructed image

Proposed Multi-Scale Retinex based enhancement Multi-Scale Retinex Algorithm Many algorithms were used by the researcher for the enhancement of the medical image. The most popular one is the Multi Scale retinex algorithm since it gives the better enhanced image compared with the other algorithms. The core of the Multi-scale retinex algorithm is the Laplacian surround function. This Laplacian Surround functions are used here for sampling versions of the values channels. The pixel range for Laplacian Functions are

tiny

scale(16x16pixels),small(32x32pixels),medium(64x64pixels),fine(128x128pixels),normal(256x256pixels). To get better enhanced output and best PSNR and MSE we use the Laplacian Surround Function is given by

F (x, y) =

  

 (

( ( 

---------(viii)

Where,µ is mean and c is noise variance In order to carry out the medical image development the Single Scale Retinex algorithm is followed by MultiScale Retinex.

Shilpa Asok Mote, IJRIT-46

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

Single Scale Retinex: The basics of SSR [7] include a logarithmic photoreceptor function that approximates the vision system based on a center/surround function. The SSR is given by:  (,  =  (,  −  (,  ∗  (,  ------(iX) Where I is image distribution in theIthcolor band,F(x, y) is the normalized surround Function, 

(,  =   -----------(x) C is the scalar value called as surrounds space constant and selected such that r=! " +  " -------------(xi) And ∬ (,  % , % = 1---------------- (xii) The purpose of logarithmic simplification is to transform a ratio at the pixel level to a mean value for a target region. The surround space computes the average of the surrounding pixel values and it will assign it to the center pixel. Small kernels gives results in dynamic range compression. With the large kernel the output looks more like natural impression of the image. The middle value of surround space constant is good for the processed image. Multi-ScaleRetinex: In order to store the dynamic range compression, multi-scale Retinex which is the combination of weighted different scales of SSR, '() (,  = ∑,. +, ∗ , ---------(xiii) Where N is the number of the scale, Rni is the I the component of the /01 ,Wn is the weight of the n scale. For MSR the number of scale need, the scale value and weight value are important. The MSR based images have important energetic series density at the edge among the light parts and dark parts and reasonable color rendition in the entire image scale. MSR combines multiple SSR weightings, selecting the number of scales that can be merged. The best weight has to be chosen in order to get suitable dynamic range compression at the boundary between light and dark parts of the image and to increase the brightness of the entire image. There are two methods for achieving this

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

1.

Compare the psychophysical mechanisms between the human visual perception of a real scene and captured image.

2.

Compare the captured image with the measured reflectance values of the real scene.

The proposed method involves the following steps. 

To get the new small scale version is obtained as, the pixel value of the small sampled version is kept for zeros which occurred during the up sampling the tiny sampled version of the image



If there are no zeros exist in the tiny sample version during the up sampling than the pixel average of the both small sample version and up samples tiny version is computed.



The new medium sampled version and to new fine for new normal sampled version the proposed method is applied to get enhanced image.



The below figures illustrate this process in detail.



Fig 1.2(a): Flow map for getting the value of new small sample value by the proposed method



Fig 1.2(b):Flow map for getting the value of new medium sample value by the proposed method



Fig 1.2(c): Flow map for getting the value of new fine sample value by the proposed method



Fig 1.2(d):Flow map for getting the value of new fine sample value by the proposed method.

(a) (b)

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

(c)

(d)

V. RESULTS ANALYSIS The development tool used is MATLAB and emphasis will be only on the software for performing enhancement and not hardware for enhancing an medical image. The proposed method is most robust to enhanced medical image with good PSNR and MSE values we used multiscaleRetinex algorithm for enhancing the medical image. Results by Gaussian Surround Function used to enhance the medical image using Multi-Scale Retinex method Fig 1.3(a). Results by Laplacian Surround Function used to enhance the medical image using Multi-Scale Retinex method fig1.3(b).

Fig 1.3(a):PSNR and MSE values obtained by Gaussian Surround Function

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

Fig 1.3(b):PSNR and MSE values obtained by Laplacian Surround Function COMPARISON OF PSNR AND MSE VALUES USING GAUSSIAN SURROUND FUNCTION AND LAPLACIAN SURROUND FUNCTION. If we use Gaussian and Laplacian Surround we get PSNR and MSE values as follows Table 1.1:PSNR and MSE values using Gaussian and Laplacian surround function with the proposed method.

From the above table one can see that by using Laplacian Surround Function and Gaussian Surround Function Spinal Cord Image

PSNR

Value

SSR Laplacian Surround

for

PSNR

Value

for

MSE Value for SSR

MSR

MSE

Value

MSR

28.5792

31.5978

90.1906

45.0094

28.5277

39.0755

96.5672

8.045

Function Gaussian Surround Function we get the PSNR and MSE values are shown in below table.

VI. APPLICATION AND ADVANTAGES Advantage A medical image enhancement has several applications in medical field. If the surgeons get the image with good quality then they

can clearly get where is the problem with the patient and they can give better treatment to the patient without any harmful side effects Without cutting the patient body doctor can detect what is the problem with the patient. Medical image also helps to learn more about the neurobiology and human behaviors.

Shilpa Asok Mote, IJRIT-50

for

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

The proposed method provides a correct and secure method for medical image enhancement. The image enhanced by this method has good quality and it is clear to detect the any damage in the spinal cord or any abnormal growth found surrounding the spinal cord and it ca be cured with proper treatment by the surgeon. Simpler to implement, it removes blur from the images, sharpen the edges of the image, and it gives strong response for the fine detail of the image. Applications of the proposed method 

Here, the Laplacian surround function will restore the fine details of the an image which is smoothened for the removing the noise from the image.



Multi-Scale Retinex method for enhancing the medical image with Gaussian and Laplacian surround functions gives good results compared to the existing method which is done by using Gaussian surround function.

 The PSNR and MSE values obtained for the Multi-scale Retinex with Laplacian surround function for the enhancement for the medical image enhancement are good.

VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENT In this chapter conclusion of the dissertation work is presented and also this chapter provides the future enhancement of the work.

Conclusion Among all the medical image enhancement, the spinal cord enhancement has achieved highest enhancement accuracy. It is also a fast and accurate and secure medical image enhancement technique that can operate in enhancement of the medical image accurately. In this technique we utilized Laplacian Surround Function for redusing the unwanted information like contrast, brightness etc features. The combinations of this property have led to extract image features.The performance metrics values are used to compare the vlues with the previously existing method. This method is robust to enhance the medical image. The experimental results shows that the proposed method is an effective approach which can reduce the error rate of the enhanced medical image.

Future Work Since medical image enhancement is an important issue in detecting the tumors in medicinal field, the proposed method can be extended to all other images of medical.

References: [1] E. R Davies, Computer and Machine Vision:Theory,Algorithms,Practicalities, Academic Press, 2012. [2] Klaus D. Toennies, Guide to Medical Image Analysis: Methods and Algorithms, Springer, 2012. [3] Huifang Li, Liangpei Zhang and HuanfengShen, A Perceptually Inspired Variational Method for the Uneven Intensity Correction of Remote Sensing Images,IEEE Transactions

on Geoscience and Remote Sensing,

Vol.50, No. 8, pp. 3053-3065, 2012. [4] SahuSmriti. Comparative Analysis of Image Enhancement Techniques for Ultrasound

LiverImage,

International Journal of Electrical and ComputerEngineering (IJECE), Vol. 2, No. 62012.

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2015, Pg.40-52

[5] Dongni Zhang, Won-Jae Park, Seung-Jun Lee, Kang-A Choi and Sung-JeaKo, HistogramPartition based Gamma correction for Image Contrast Enhancement, 16th IEEE International, Symposium on Consumer Electronics(ISCE-2012), 2012. [6] G. Cosnard, Tips and Traps in Spinal Cord Pathology, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, 2012. [7] Ronald Boet, Yu-Leung Chan, Ann King, Chung-Tong Mok and Wai-Sang Poon, ContrastEnhancement of the Spinal Cord in a Patient with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Vol.11, No. 5, pp. 512-514, 2004. [8] M. Sundaram, K. Ramar, N. Arumugam and G. Prabin, HistogramModified Local ContrastEnhancement for Mammogram Images, InternationalJournal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.60-71, 2012. [9] K. P Indira and R. Rani Hemamalini, A Method for Contrast Correction and Enhancement For Medical Images using Wavelet Fusion, In proceedingsof International Conference onComputing and Control Engineering(ICCCE 2012), 2012. [10] Chao An and Mei Yu, Fast Color Image Enhancement based on Fuzzy Multiple-Scale Retinex, In 6th International Forum on StrategicTechnology (IFOST 2011), Vol. 2, pp.1065-1069, 2011. [11] Daniel J. Jobson, Zia-urRahman and Glenn A. Woodell, A MultiscaleRetinex for Bridgingthe Gap Between Color Images and the Human Observation of Scenes, IEEE Transactionson Image Processing, Vol. 6,No. 7, pp. 965-976, 1997. [12] M. C Hanumantharaju, V. N ManjunathAradhya, M. Ravishankar, andA. Mamatha, A Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Tuning the Parameters of MultiscaleRetinex Based,Color Image Enhancement, InProceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computing,Communications and Informatics, pp. 721-727, 2012. [13] M. C Hanumantharaju, SreenivasaSetty, N. K Srinath, Development of Multiscale RetinexAlgorithm for Medical Image Enhancement Based on Multi-Rate Sampling,2013 International Conference on Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition [ICSIPR]

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Multi-Scale Retinex Based Medical Image Enhancement Using ...

is corrected insecond step wavelet fusion is applied.As it over enhances the images hence this method is not suitable for the enhancement of medical images.[9].

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