IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014, Pg: 653- 658

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT) www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

Multipath Routing process for enhancement of base station security in wireless sensor network Deepika Tyagi Computer Science and Engineering Doon Valley Institution of Engineering and Technology Karnal,India [email protected]

Mrs. Sarita Choudhary Computer Science and Engineering Doon Valley institution of Engineering and Technology Karnal,India [email protected]

Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks is habitually consisting of colossal number of restricted sensor devices which are commune Over the wireless forum. As sensor devices are lean, the networks unprotected to assorted kinds of attacks and customary defenses against these attacks are not apposite due to the resource constrained. Therefore, security in WSNs is a challenging chore due to inheritance limitations of sensors. As a result, many routing protocols are introduced such as multipath routing protocols to enhancement of base station security. In this paper we focus at security issues concerns in WSNs and present a matrix that peruse the security factor provided by the secure multipath routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. Index Terms—Wireless Sensor Networks, Sensor Nodes, Secure Routing, Protocols, Base Station.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Wireless Sensor Networks are compactly place low cost, low processing power, less memory and lean energy resource networks. In topical years WSN found a prodigious number of applications in the turf of both research and academics. In WSN, the nodes are called sensors which sense the data like heat, humidity, noise or sound, pressure soil variety, movements of objects, stress levels, detection of objects around and other properties from the adjacent and send this information to the base station for further scrutiny and decision making. WSN are mainly place in expected environment where the sensor nodes endure forsaken and used for scrunity and monitoring. WSN finds a large relevance in the fields reminiscent of armed, traffic manage, home mechanization, healthcare applications and many civilian application areas. Since WSN sensor nodes are place in forsaken and rough natural environment there are prodigious number of security issues with them. Data transmitted in WSN should be shielded from unauthenticated and unauthorized nodes and attackers. We have to maintain the legitimacy, veracity and confidentiality of the data that is transmitted between the nodes of the network. Impostor may attack the network in many traditions as jampering and overcrowding the data packets affect the integrity, unauthorized access to the network (Eavesdropping), profess to be authenticated node to incarcerate the data.

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014, Pg: 653- 658

II.

Related work.

However, a ample review on secure multipath routing issues in WSNs appears to be gone astray.In [9,10], the authors have performed a review of the devise issues that impinge on the routing process in WSN and an all-embracing survey of WSN routing protocols; their taxonomy is based on the network’s structure and the protocols’ operation. Al-Obaisat and Braun [14] have reviewed well-known WSN routing protocols, recitation their devise goals, distinctiveness and challenges. The working [12] classifies obtainable WSN routing protocols based on a set of criteria and selects routing protocols for diverse application types. Akyildiz et al. [17,19] have provided a broad assessment of WSN-related issues, focusing on an scrutiny of the protocols developed for each layer of the WSN’s protocol stack. For the network layer, they thrash out how an energy-efficient route can be preferred and also diverse routing schemes that have been anticipated for the WSNs.Although moderately a number of WSN routing protocols are preuse in the abovementioned papers, far-reaching review of security issues has not been performed since mainly of the protocols have not been premeditated with security requirements in mind. However, the need for routing in WSN applications has lead researchers to devise secure routing protocols. Now, some hard work for reviewing WSN routing protocols can be initiate in the literature. However, these reviews neither focus on multipath routing issues nor swathe a expansive exploration and taxonomy of obtainable WSN multipath routing protocols. For example, a comprehensive review [18] of the broader state-of-the-art in WSNs briefly discusses a few representative routing approaches along two secure routing protocols [20,21].Wang et al. [11] impression routing protocols according to the network’s configuration and also discuss, to some pull out, the dispatch authentication problem and provide a squat allusion to a few secure routing schemes [23,25,26]. The work in [13] also reviews diverse routing techniques and three security schemes [22–24]. Djenouri et al. [16], survey security issues in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks with a epigrammatic allusion to WSN secure routing schemes [22,25]. Walters et al. [15] have conducted another survey on WSN-related security issues and presented a few techniques for securing the routing protocols [22,27].

3.Security necessities in susceptible WSN and routing shore up Security requirements shore up the necessitate to recognize what we are wearisome to shield. In the milieu of multipath routing, all the classical security requirements considered necessary in single-path routing still pertain, but multipath routing also contributes to the enterprise of these requirements, providing supplementary reimbursement and risks.

Deepika Tyagi, IJRIT

654

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014, Pg: 653- 658

Fig.3 Routing Schemes 3.1. Accessibility–steadfastness–resiliency–self healing The most imperative security requirements in vital WSNs applications are the accessibility–steadfastness–resiliency–self-healing. accessibility ensures that the services and information can be accessed at the time that they are obligatory. The network has to be pliant in order to abide attacks and continue contribution its services successively.In accumulation, if the network has a selfhealing competence, it can auxiliary prop up the resiliency and accessibility of the network. By self-healing, we mean the knack to convalesce from security tribulations and even segregate the source of intimidation so that it stops jeopardizing the accessibility of the network in future communications. The exploit of single-path routing is exceedingly predisposed to security attacks that intention to conciliation the accessibility, steadfastness and resilience of the network. The antagonist can sever the communication by just compromising one or more nodes along the utilized path. Since packets are sent in excess of a single path, the destination may not receive them or use erroneous information to feed decisive decision making.To recuperate from path collapse, the route continuance segment must be initiated to find new routes to the destination that it does not embrace the knotty nodes (note that the same logic applies for flaw nodes). This is a time horrendous and beyond a shadow of a doubt risky maneuver since a new route has to be customary to support a new communication path stuck between sensor nodes. This is unacceptable in mission-decisive applications that require incessant monitoring of the environment to shore up timely decisive verdict assembly.

3.2. Endorsement Endorsement verifies the distinctiveness of the participants in a communication, distinctive in this way justifiable node from intruders. In single-path routing, if endorsement stuck between two communicating nodes cannot be customary or verified due to malevolent bustle or network tribulations, then the Utilized path cannot be worn to route packets from source to destination. The route continuance segment must be initialized in order to ascertain a new route and prop up packet barter.

3.3. Veracity – freshness Having customary the data and verified that the sender is a trusted node, center of attention should now be placed on verifying that the data have not been tainted nastily and are up-to-date. Sensitive applications such as effluence and healthcare monitoring rely on the veracity of the information to purpose accurately. In single-path routing the packet veracity corroboration is performed stuck between adjoining nodes incorporated in the precise route or at the destination. If a amendment has been detected, the node acts according to the protocol in use, e.g. it drops the packet and informs sender to resend the packet. This causes delay to packet deliverance that can affect the verdict assembly progression in case of an urgent situation.

3.4. Confidentiality Confidentiality is obligatory to ensure that sensitive Information is well cosseted and not bare to unauthorized third parties.

Deepika Tyagi, IJRIT

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014, Pg: 653- 658

Fig. 3 single path

4. Multipath routing protocols in WSNs Multipath routing protocols in WSNs can be alienated into three categories based on the security-related equipped objective they dole out: the multipath routing fortification only, the attack-specific, and the security operations support categories. In multipath routing fortification only protocols, the objective is enhancement of base station secuirty in WSNs. The protocols just execute mechanisms to protect the multipath procedure and the data forwarding segment. In the attack-specific category, the protocols use security mechanisms to perceive and convalesce from specific attacks. The unconventional paths can be either used to support attack credentials or augment the overall security and steadfastness of the network. In the security operations support category, the protocols use security mechanisms and unconventional paths to support the functionality of supplementary security areas in WSNs.

4.1 Accessibility–steadfastness–resiliency–self healing The use of multipath routing can lessen the effect of security attacks that intention the accessibility, steadfastness and resilience of the network. By transmitting data redundantly in the course of multiple paths, the packets have a higher probability to accomplish destination, even if some of the paths have been compromised. In this way, packet steadfastness is promoted. Furthermore, the subsistence of multiple routes when some of the paths not be up to snuff to deliver packets ensures that the maneuver of the network is incessant and verdict making can tranquil be achieved based on the customary information. The use of multiple paths can also shore up the network’s accessibility by distributing the energy expenditure over diverse paths and achieving a more unbiased network energy diminution.

Fig 4.a multipath

Deepika Tyagi, IJRIT

656

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014, Pg: 653- 658

4.2 Endorsement Multipath routing this issue can be easily overcomed. The antagonist does not have acquaintance of the way alterative paths are customary and worn and therefore does not know which nodes to conciliation in order to persuade all accessible routes. If the endorsement fails in a specific path, alternative paths subsist to execute endorsement stuck between other nodes and establish communiqué.

Fig 4.b multipath

4.3 Veracity – freshness Multipath routing can triumph over these tribulations and set aside for precise and timely verdict making. The use of alternative paths allows to some broaden the innovative packet to accomplish the destination, even though several of the paths may be embellished and packets may be illicitly adapted..Furthermore, while the sink may collect old packets,it can obtain the most topical packets through some supplementary paths and consequently decide which data to use. In this way,multipath promotes the reliability and sparkle of the received information.

5. Conclusion As per conclusion, this paper discussed an overview of multipath routing process for enhancement of base station in wireless sensor network, the applications, history and how it‟s differs from single path routing process. This paper also highlighted a review of research and development of routing protocol.

6. Future Research Security is always the main concern in any kind of network and the wireless networks are much vulnerable to the internal and external threats due to the presence of malicious nodes. Prior work that has focused on securing the routing between sensor nodes has assumed that the base station is sufficiently powerful to defend itself against security threats. Our proposed work considers strategies for securing the sensor network against a variety of threats that can lead to the failure of the base station, which represents a central point of failure. In our work we have considered mainly three points. These are: First, multipath routing to multiple destination base stations is analyzed as a strategy to provide tolerance against individual base station attacks and/or compromise. Second, Second, user will decide the source node and the destination for the transmission of data. Third, relocation of the base station in the network topology is studied as a means of enhancing resiliency and mitigating the scope of damage

Deepika Tyagi, IJRIT

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014, Pg: 653- 658

7. References [1].Sayed Yousef Monir Vaghefi, Reza Monir Vaghefi “A Novel Multilayer Neural Network Model for TOA-Based Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks” Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, San Jose, California, USA, July 31 – August 5, 2011 pp. 3079-3084 [2].J. Deng, Y.S. Han, Multipath key establishment for wireless sensor networks using just-enough redundancy transmission, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing 5 (3) (2008) 177–190. [3]. S.S. Al-Wakeel, S.A. Al-Swailemm, PRSA: a path redundancy based security algorithm for wireless sensor networks, in: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2007), 2007. [4].X. Huang, Y. Fang, Multiconstrained QoS multipath routing in wireless sensor networks, ACM Wireless Networks 14 (4) (2008) 465–478. [5].R. Vidhyapriya, P.T. Vanathi, Energy efficient adaptive multipath routing for wireless sensor networks, IAENG International Journal of Computer Science 34 (1) (2007). [6]. F. Ye, G. Zhong, S. Lu, L. Zhang, GRAdient broadcast: a robust data delivery protocol for large scale sensor networks, in: ACM Wireless Netw. (WINET), vol. 11 (2), 2005. [7]. F. Ye, G. Zhong, S. Lu, L. Zhang, GRAdient broadcast: a robust data delivery protocol for large scale sensor networks, in: ACM Wireless Netw. (WINET), vol. 11 (2), 2005. [8]. J. Deng, R. Han, S. Mishra, Intrusion tolerance and anti-traffic analysis strategies for wireless sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, 2004, p. 637. [9]. S. De, C. Qiao, H. Wu, Meshed multipath routing: an efficient strategy in sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), New Orleans, LA, March 2003. [10] K. Sohrabi, J. Gao, V. Ailawadhi, G.J. Pottie, Protocols for selforganization of a wireless sensor network, IEEE Personal Communications 7 (5) (2000) 16–27. [11] D. Ganesan, R. Govindan, S. Shenker, D. Estrin, Highly-resilient energy-efficient multipath routing in wireless sensor networks, in:ACM Mobile Computing and Communication Review (MC2R), vol. 1(2), 2002. [12] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, D. Estrin, Directed diffusion: a scalable and robust communication in wireless sensor networks, in:Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE/ACM Mobicom, 1999, pp. 174–185. [13]. G. Casella, R.L. Berger, Statistical Inference, Duxbury Press, Boston, MA, 1990. [14]. P. Djukic, S. Valaee, Minimum energy fault tolerant sensor networks, in: IEEE Globecom Workshops Proceedings, 2004. [15]. N. Abu-Ghazaleh, K. Kang, K. Liu, Towards resilient geographic routing in WSNs, in: Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Quality of Service & Security in Wireless and Mobile Networks, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2005, pp. 71–78.

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