K-12 Computer Science Education

North Carolina

This report summarizes the status of computer science (CS) education from a 2014 survey of 9,693 U.S. K-12 school principals. Topics include perceptions, opportunities and participation, as well as support and infrastructure. These data are from a multi-year Google-Gallup study of U.S. students, parents, teachers, principals, and superintendents. g.co/cseduresearch

A greater portion of North Carolina principals correctly distinguish CS from computer literacy and value CS than the U.S. average. Yet, they much less likely offer AP CS, other CS classes, and afterschool programs with CS, with fewer including programming. North Carolina principals also report less CS support from school stakeholders.

Values below indicate percentage point difference from the U.S. average. See back for full data tables. Knowledge & Perceptions Knowledge of CS

+5

Image of CS careers

+1

Recommendations

CS offered > 5 years

-4

CS offerings CS includes programming

-10

CS growth & participation

-2

School Infrastructure -1 -4 Teacher availability

Results from the 2014-15 Google-Gallup study indicate that improvement is needed for North Carolina schools to implement CS education for all students. • Most confuse CS as basic computer literacy. In North Carolina, only 39% of principals surveyed correctly identified computer literacy activities as not computer science (U.S. average 33%). • CS offerings are limited, with 21% of North Carolina principals reporting offering CS classes with programming and coding (U.S. average 26%). • CS offerings often appeal to and serve a subset of students. North Carolina principals report CS students are most often White, and more often girls and slightly more often Black compared to the U.S. average.

No prerequisites

Opportunities & Participation

-2

Findings

+1

+3

Math or science credit for CS

Broadening equitable student access to computer science (CS) is critical to our future, not only because of the increasing demand created by computing-related jobs but also because it develops critical thinking to solve complex problems, creativity to foster new ideas, and skills to drive innovation. To inform progress in ensuring Computer Science for All, this report provides a status of CS education and recommendations for North Carolina.

To help prepare schools for CS education, the study also identified challenges to providing CS education for all students in North Carolina. • Parents’ demand for CS is not heard; 91% of U.S. parents want their child to learn CS, whereas only 6% of North Carolina principals believed there was high demand for CS (U.S. average 7%). • Principals perceive low school board and staff support for CS in North Carolina at 34% (U.S. average 37%). • Not enough budget for a CS teacher (48%), focus on test preparation for other subject areas (45%), and lack of teachers trained in CS (40%) were reported by North Carolina principals as the greatest barriers to offering CS for their schools.

Value of CS in schools

-8

Background

Demand for CS Support for CS +1

• Differentiate between computer literacy and computer science to ensure students not only learn to use technology, but learn to create technologies. • Expand CS offerings by connecting with communities, legislators, and organizations advocating for CS. • Promote diverse participation by integrating equity practices into CS pedagogy, encouraging participation through various pathways, and diversifying portrayals of CS to build confidence and identities. • Prioritize funding to meet the demand for CS. • Integrate CS via flexible curricula, empowering teachers to use CS in their subjects. • Allow CS classes to count towards graduation and college admissions to encourage participation. • Increase qualified CS teachers through incentives and support of quality teacher preparation and certification. See g.co/cseduresearch for recommended resources.

K-12 Computer Science Education

North Carolina Data Tables The descriptive data tables below show responses by 411 North Carolina K-12 principals compared to the full sample of 9,693 U.S. K-12 principals, surveyed Nov.-Dec. 2014; sample size may vary by question. Percentage point differences from the U.S. for each category were calculated from the percentages bolded below. Full methodology is at g.co/cseduresearch. Knowledge & Perceptions

Opportunities & Participation

NC

US

CS growth & participation (average % positive)

44

46

[Of those offering CS] In the last 3 years, has CS participation increased, stayed about the same, or decreased? (% increased)

49

51

46

49

24 /66 58 /38 19 /58 17 /51 23 /48

27 /54 60 /32 21 /43 21 /44 26 /41

NC

US

Demand for CS (average % positive)

26

27

Demand for CS education among parents in your school is (%) ...High ...Increasing

6 35

7 36

Demand for CS education among students in your school is (%) ...High ...Increasing

12 50

14 49

Support for CS (average % positive)

34

37

CS education is currently a top priority for my school. (% agree)

19

24

My school board believes CS education is important to offer in our schools. (% agree)

40

43

The majority of teachers and counselors in my school think it is important to offer CS. (% agree)

41

45

NC

US

Knowledge of CS (% no to both)

39

33

Which of the following activities do you consider part of CS? (% no) ...Creating documents or presentations on the computer ...Searching the Internet

40 50

35 44

In the next 3 years, will the number of opportunities to learn CS in your school increase, stay the same, or decrease? (% increase)

Image of CS careers (average % positive)

88

87

People who do CS make things that help improve lives. (% agree)

83

82

There are a lot of good jobs available in the U.S. for people who know CS. (% agree)

89

90

CS can be used in a lot of different types of jobs. (% agree)

91

89

Value of CS in schools (average % positive)

74

72

It is a good idea to try to incorporate CS education into other subjects at school. (% agree)

69

70

Most students should be required to take a computer science course. (% agree)

59

59

Do you think offering opportunities to learn CS is more important, just as important, or less important to a student’s future success than (% just as/more important) ...required courses like math, science, history and English? ...other elective courses like art, music, and foreign languages?

…Black/African-American ...Hispanic/Latino

School Infrastructure

68 91

NC

US

CS offered > 5 years: How long has your school offered opportunities to learn computer science? (% greater than 5 years)

41

49

Math or science credit for CS ( % positive to either)

14

13

Which of the following describe how credit is given for computer science courses offered at your school? Select all that apply. (%) ...A math requirement ...A science requirement

...White/Caucasian

...Asian

74 94

Opportunities & Participation

Students who learn CS: How often are students who learn CS at your school (% usually/sometimes) ...Girls

12 5

10 8

No prerequisites: Do CS classes offered in your school have prerequisites? (% no)

71

73

Teacher availability (average % positive)

48

48

56

56

CS offerings (average % positive)

49

53

I could easily identify a staff member with the skills and knowledge to teach a CS course. (% agree)

About how many different types of CS courses are available in your school this year? (% 1+)

55

54

Would you have to hire a new teacher to teach CS or is there teacher at your school could teach CS? (% there is a teacher)

40

40

96 13 36

95 21 44

48

44

As far as you know, is CS taught as part of other classes at your school? (% yes)

34

43

45

47

How many school clubs or after-school activities that expose students to CS are at your school? (% 1+)

59

62

40

42

CS includes programming: Do the computer science opportunities offered in your school include any of the following elements? ...Computer programming and coding (%)

43

53

18

13

For each of the CS classes available this year, how many are (% 1+) ...Introductory level ...AP courses ...Other

Barriers As far as you know, why doesn’t your school offer any ways to learn computer science? Select all that apply. (%) …There is not enough money to train or hire a teacher. ...We have to devote most of our time to other courses that are related to testing requirements and computer science is not. …There are no teachers available at my school with the necessary skills to teach computer science. What was the largest barrier your school had to overcome to offer CS? (%) ...There was not enough money to train or hire a teacher.

North Carolina Services

ensuring Computer Science for All, this report provides a status of CS ... North Carolina principals as the greatest barriers to offering CS for their schools.

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