Overview and Status of SMRs Being Developed in the United States Daniel Ingersoll

Oak Ridge National Laboratory [email protected]

October 10-14, 2011 INPRO Dialog Forum on Common User Considerations for SMRs

U.S. utility interests in SMRs U.S. Coal Plants

• Affordability

– Smaller up-front cost – Better financing options

Plants >50 yr old have capacities Less than 300 MWe

• Load demand

– Better match to power needs – Incremental capacity for regions with low growth rate – Allows shorter range planning

• Site selection

– Lower land and water usage – Replacement of older coal plants – Potentially more robust designs

• Grid stability

– Closer match to traditional power generators – Smaller fraction of total grid capacity – Potential to offset non-dispatchable renewables

2

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

U.S. Government interests in SMRs • Carbon Emission

2005 U.S. CO2 Emissions (Tg)

− Reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions 17% by 2020…83% by 2050 − Reduce federal GHG emissions 28% by 2020

• Defense Mission Surety − Studying SMR deployment at DOD domestic facilities − Address grid vulnerabilities and fuel supply needs

• Energy and Economic Security − Pursue energy security through a diversified energy portfolio − Improve the economy through innovation and technology leadership 3

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

U.S. vendors are developing several LWRbased SMR designs for electricity production

SMR (Westinghouse)

HI-SMUR (Holtec)

mPower (B&W)

NuScale (NuScale)

225 MWe

140 MWe

125 MWe

45 MWe

4

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Newly announced Westinghouse SMR • Replaces IRIS as Westinghouse’s SMR design

• Integral PWR configuration • 225 MWe capacity • Standard 17x17 pin fuel assemblies

• Heavy reliance on AP-1000 and past reactor experience • Internal control rod drive mechanisms

• Straight tube steam generator • External primary coolant pump motors

• Small volume containment vessel 5

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

NuScale Module • Initially developed by INL/OSU then licensed to NuScale Power • 45 MWe capacity

• Integral PWR configuration • Natural circulation of primary coolant

• Standard 17x17 pin fuel assemblies with 3.5-yr refueling cycle • Dual helical coil steam generators • Reference plant contains 12 modules 6

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Containment Reactor Vessel Helical Coil Steam Generator

Nuclear Core

Generation mPower • Developed by Babcock & Wilcox • 125 MWe capacity • Integral PWR configuration

• Forced circulation of primary coolant • Standard 17x17 pin fuel assemblies with 4.5-yr refueling cycle • Once-through straight tube steam generator • 3.6-m-dia by 22-m-tall reactor vessel 7

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Pressurization Volume Steam generator coils Control Rod Drive Mechanisms Reactor coolant pumps DHRS heat exchangers Core

Holtec International SMR • Developed by SMR, LLC • 140 MWe capacity • “Integrally connected” PWR configuration • Natural circulation of primary coolant • Standard 17x17 pin fuel assemblies • Horizontal steam generator • 2.7-m-dia by 40.2-m-tall reactor vessel 8

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Gas-cooled SMRs are being developed primarily for process heat

MHR (General Atomics)

280 MWe 9

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

PBMR (Westinghouse)

ANTARES (Areva)

250 MWe

275 MWe

Modular High-temperature Reactor (MHR) • Sized at 287 MWe to meet the requirements of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project • Helium coolant

• Prismatic graphite block moderator • TRSIO coated particle fuel with UO2 or UCO fuel kernel • Direct Brayton cycle power conversion and indirect loop for process heat applications • Passive decay heat removal 10

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Liquid-metal-cooled SMRs are being developed for fuel cycle management

PRISM (General Electric) 11

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

ARC-100 (ARC)

HPM (Hyperion)

Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) • General Electric design originally sized at 160 MWe per module • Later upsized to 380 MWe (Super PRISM and then reduced to 311 MWe for GNEP • Integral (pool) configuration with internal intermediate heat exchangers

• Passive decay heat removal • Seismic isolation • U-Pu-Zr metal fuel • Integrated with reprocessing facility 12

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC-100) • Newly formed company supported by several former national lab researchers • 100 MWe from S-CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion unit

• Sodium coolant • U/Zr metallic alloy fuel • 20-year refueling interval • Focused on distributed power model with regional fuel cycle centers 13

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Hyperion Power Module (HPM) • LANL concept licensed to and marketed by Hyperion Power Generation • 25 MWe units for distributed power generation • Uranium nitride fuel • Lead-bismuth eutectic coolant • Five year core life

• Entire module returned to factory for refueling • Fully buried unit and concrete enclosure 14

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is preparing for SMR applications • Has identified several generic issues in four primary categories: – Licensing process – Design requirements

– Operational requirements – Financial implications

• Is aggressively working many of these issues with focus on LWR-based designs • Expect non-LWR designs to require more review time, although some licensing experience exists 15

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

U.S. Department of Energy expects to initiate an SMR program in FY12

16

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Summary • Strong interest in SMRs has emerged in the United States

• All sectors are actively engaged: – U.S. Department of Energy – U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission – SMR vendors and suppliers – Utilities

• First potential deployment could be as early as 2020 “If commercially successful, SMRs would significantly expand the options for nuclear power and its applications.” - Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy, 3/23/10 17

Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

Oak Ridge National Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency

Oct 14, 2011 - Smaller fraction of total grid capacity ... Improve the economy through innovation and technology ... motors. • Small volume containment vessel ...

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