On the Performance of Selection Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels Trung Q. Duong, Vo Nguyen Quoc Bao, and Hans-J¨urgen Zepernick

Abstract—In this paper, we present the performance of fixed decode-and-forward cooperative networks with relay selection over independent but not identically distributed Nakagamim fading channels, with integer values of the fading severity parameter m. Specifically, closed-form expressions for the symbol error probability and the outage probability are derived using the statistical characteristic of the signal-to-noise ratio. We also perform Monte-Carlo simulations to verify the analytical results. Index Terms—Decode-and-forward, symbol error probability, outage probability, relay selection, Nakagami-m fading.



ECENTLY, the performance analysis of cooperative communications with amplify-and-forward (AF) relays over Nakagami-m fading channels has gained a great interest in the research community (see, e.g., [1]–[5]). Specifically, the performance of dual-hop wireless communications system over Nakagami-m fading channels with channel state information (CSI)-assisted AF relays was studied in [1]. The same authors further extended their work to derive the outage probability of multihop relay transmission in [2]. In [3], [4], a tight lower bound for the performance of CSI-assisted AF relay and exact closed-form expression of error rate performance with semi-blind AF relays over Nakagami-m fading channels were reported, respectively. In a recent contribution, closed-form expressions for the outage probability of a dualhop cooperative system equipped with AF relays and selection combiner at the destination over Nakagami-m fading channels have been studied [5]. Besides the AF protocol, an important relaying scheme which also have attracted research interest is decode-andforward (DF). An adaptive version of DF, in which the relays only assist the source-destination communications if the relay can correctly decode the source’s messages, has been investigated in [6], [7]. With this adaptive DF strategy, the assumption of the perfect capability of decoding the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) at the relay has been applied. In contrast, for the fixed DF protocol, by relaxing this assumption the relay always decodes, re-encodes, and transmits the message. The performance of fixed DF relaying systems equipped with selection combining at the destination terminal over Rayleigh fading channels have been investigated in [8], [9]. In [5], Manuscript received November 5, 2008. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and approving it for publication was T. Ho. T. Q. Duong and H.-J. Zepernick are with the Radio Communications Group, Blekinge Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 520, SE-372 25 Ronneby, Sweden (e-mail: quang.trung.duong, [email protected]). V. N. Q. Bao is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Nam-Gu, Ulsan, 680-749 Korea (e-mail: [email protected]). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LCOMM.2009.081858

closed-form outage probability expressions were presented for dual-hop adaptive DF relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels considering maximum ratio combining (MRC). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no published work concerning the performance of fixed DF relays with selection combiner at the destination over Nakagami-m fading channels. Motivated by all of the above, in this paper, we extend our previous work [9] by deriving closed-form outage probability and symbol error probability (SEP) expressions of fixed DF relay networks equipped with selection combiner over independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) Nakagami-m channels, with integer values of parameter m. II. S YSTEM AND C HANNEL M ODEL Let us consider the specific cooperative relay-based wireless system with K + 2 terminals: one source S, K relays Rk with k = 1, . . . , K, and one destination D. The source S broadcasts the signal to K relays in the first-hop transmission (broadcasting phase). During the second-hop transmission (relaying phase), selection diversity is applied, i.e., only the best relay is selected for forwarding the message to the destination. We also assume that channels in the two hops are quasistatic i.n.i.d. Nakagami-m fading. Specifically, we denote hSRk and hRDk as the independent channel gains for the sourceto-relay Rk (S → Rk ) link and the k-th relay-to-destination (Rk → D) link, respectively. These channel gains are modeled as Nakagami-m random variables. Then, the effective power channel gains |hSRk |2 and |hRDk |2 follow the gamma distribution with different fading parameters 1/ΩSRk , 1/ΩRDk and fading severity parameters m1k , m2k , respectively. Moreover, the instantaneous SNR for S → Rk and Rk → D are given by γSRk = γ0 |hSRk |2 and γRDk = γ0 |hRDk |2 , respectively, where γ0 is the average SNR. Due to the imperfect detection at the relay, incorrectly decoded signals may be forwarded to the destination. Hence, similarly as in [10], for any modulation scheme the dual-hop S → Rk → D channel can be modeled as an equivalent single hop whose output SNR γeqk can be tightly approximated in the high SNR regime as follows: γeqk = min{γSRk , γRDk }


For the selection combining scheme, the signal with largest equivalent received SNR is selected. Then the instantaneous SNR at the output of the relay selection combiner is given by γSC =

max γeqk


c 2009 IEEE 1089-7798/09$25.00 

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III. P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS Since γSRk and γRDk are independent gamma distributed random variables, the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of γeqk can be written as [3] Fγeqk (γ) = 1 − ∞

Γ (m1k , αk γ) Γ (m2k , βk γ) Γ (m1k ) Γ (m2k )

where Ak and Bk will be calculated in a compact form in the sequel. Specifically, we have Ak =


n1 =n2 =···=nl =l

where Γ (a, x) = x e t dt, αk = and βk = m2k . Assuming m and m are integers and using the 1k 2k ΩRDk γ0  i n−1 fact that Γ (n, x) = (n − 1)!e−x i=0 xi! , we have Fγeqk (γ) = 1 − e

−(αk +βk )γ

m 1k −1 m 2k −1 i=0


αik βkj γ i+j i!j!



pγeqk (γ)

K  l=1 l=k


pγSC (γ) =


pγeqk (γ)


Fγeql (γ)

(1 − xl )




αil βlj γ i+j i!j!


Furthermore, the last term in (7) can be described in a more tractable form with the help of the identity product given by K 

(1 − xl ) =


K K  (−1)l  l=0


n1 =1


K  l 



nl =1 t=1



m1nl −1 m2nl −1 l    il =0

jl =0

αintt βnjtt it !jt ! t=1

i1 =0



t=1 it +jt

j1 =0


pγSC (γ) =

K  k=1

−αk − βk −

(Ak + Bk )



jl =0

(αnt + βnt ) γ (12)


(αnt + βnt )

t=1 (m1k ,u)



= m1k − 1 + u + =



K  nl =1

l  (it + jt )

t=1 m1n1 −1 m2n1 −1

i1 =0

j1 =0

m1nl −1 m2nl −1


il =0

jl =0

n1 =n2 =···=nl =l

ϑl =

l  αintt βnjtt it !jt ! t=1

Hence, we can rewrite Ak as follows: m K 2k −1 1k αm βku  (−1)l k Ak = Γ (m1k ) u=0 u! l! l=0  (m1k ,u)  × ϑl exp (−ηk,l γ) γ χl


Similarly as in the derivation of Ak , we can provide the expression of Bk as Bk =

m K 1k −1 βkm2k αvk  (−1)l Γ (m1k ) v=0 v! l! l=0  (m2k ,v)  × ϑl exp (−ηk,l γ) γ χl


Finally, substituting Ak and Bk in (11) yields the closed-form expression for pγSC (γ) as pγSC (γ) =

K  k=1

By substituting (10) and (9) in (7), the PDF of γSC can be determined by

il =0

ηk,l = αk + βk +

n1 =n2 =···=nl

From (8), we can describe the product xn1 . . . xnl by

m1n −1 m2n −1 l l 1 1     xnt = exp − (αnt + βnt ) γ ...


αintt βnjtt it !jt ! t=1

t=1  m1k −1+u+ lt=1 (it +jt )


l=1 l=k

m 1l −1 m 2l −1 

j1 =0

n1 =1

where xl = e−(αl +βl )γ

i1 =0

m1nl −1 m2nl −1 l   

For the sake of simplicity, we define the following notations:

Substituting (4) in (6), the PDF of γSC can be rewritten as K 

× exp

From (2), the PDF of γSC is given by K 


By differentiating Fγeqk (γ) given in (4) with respect to γ, the probability density function (PDF) of γeqk can be obtained as follows:  m1k m 2k −1 αk βku γ m1k −1+u pγeqk (γ) = e−(αk +βk )γ Γ (m1k ) u=0 u!  m 1k −1 βkm2k αvk γ m2k −1+v + (5) Γ (m2k ) v=0 v!

pγSC (γ) =

m K K K 2k −1 1k  αm βku  (−1)l  k ··· Γ (m1k ) u=0 u! l! n1 =1 nl =1 l=0 

m1n1 −1 m2n1 −1

m1k ΩSRk γ0 ,

−t a−1


K  (−1)l   l=0


m m 2k −1 1k −1 1k β m2k αm βku αvk k + k Γ (m1k ) u=0 u! Γ (m1k ) v=0 v!

 (m1k ,u)  (m2k ,v) + γ χl (15) ϑl exp (−ηk,l γ) γ χl

The moment generating function (MGF) is defined as the Laplace transform of the PDF and after some elementary

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Fig. 1.


Outage probability of the fixed DF relay with selection combining.

Fig. 2.

SEP of 16-PSK for the fixed DF relay with selection combining.

m21 =3, ΩRD2 =m22 =2, ΩRD3 =m23 =1). The performance of SEP and outage probability for the fixed DF relay selection system are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, respectively. It can clearly be seen from these figures that simulation curves match k=1 exactly with analytical ones. K (m ,u) (m ,v)  (−1)l   χl 2k ! χl 1k !   In conclusion, we have derived closed-form expressions of + ϑl (m ,u) (m ,v) χ 1k +1 χ 2k +1 l! outage probability and SEP for the fixed DF relay selection (ηk,l + s) l (ηk,l + s) l l=0 (16) scheme in Nakagami-m fading channels. Our analysis covers the general cases, i.e., dissimilar fading parameters for all links and no assumption of perfect decoding received signals’ CRC A. Outage Probability at relays. Various numerical examples have been shown to The outage probability Pout is defined as the probability that validate our analytical expressions. the instantaneous SNR falls below a given threshold γth . It is easy to obtain Pout as follows: R EFERENCES m K 1k −1 m 2k −1 i j i+j  [1] M. O. Hasna and M.-S. Alouini, “Harmonic mean and end-to-end perαk βk γth (17) Pout = 1 − e−(αk +βk )γth formance of transmission systems with relays,” IEEE Trans. Commun., i!j! vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 130–135, Jan. 2004. i=0 j=0

manipulations, the MGF of γSC can be expressed as

m m K 2k −1 1k −1 1k  βkm2k αm βku αvk k ΦγSC (s) = + Γ (m1k ) u=0 u! Γ (m1k ) v=0 v!


B. Symbol Error Probability Using the MGF approach, we derive the closed-form expression of SEP for DF relay selection system. In particular, the SEP of our relay selection scheme for M -ary phase-shift keying signals (M -PSK) can be given by [9]   π  g 1 π− M Ps = ΦγSC dθ (18) π 0 sin2 θ where g = sin2 (π/M ). The above SEP can be numerically evaluated by substituting (16) in (18). This can be done with some elementary numerical integration techniques. IV. N UMERICAL R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION In this section, we show Monte-Carlo simulation results and compare them with our analysis for the two considered performance metrics: Outage probability and SEP. We investigate the system with three fixed DF relays (K = 3), 16-PSK modulation, and γth=3 for two topologies: 1) Symmetric case (e.g., ΩSRk =ΩRDk =3, m1k=m2k=2) and 2) Asymmetric case (e.g., ΩSR1 =m11 =1, ΩSR2 =m12 =2, ΩSR3 =m13 =3, ΩRD1 =

[2] ——, “Outage probability of multihop transmission over Nakagami fading channels,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 216–218, May 2003. [3] S. Ikki and M. H. Ahmed, “Performance analysis of cooperative diversity wireless networks over Nakagami-m fading channel,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 334–336, Apr. 2007. [4] H. A. Suraweera and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Closed-form error analysis of the non-identical Nakagami-m relay fading channel,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 259–261, Apr. 2008. [5] C. K. Datsikas, N. C. Sagias, F. I. Lazarakis, and G. S. Tombras, “Outage analysis of decode-and-forward relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels,” IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 15, pp. 41–44, 2008. [6] A. Bletsas, A. Khisti, D. P. Reed, and A. Lippman, “A simple cooperative diversity method based on network path selection,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 659–672, Mar. 2006. [7] J. Hu and N. C. Beaulieu, “Performance analysis of decode-and-forward relaying with selection combining,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 489–491, June 2007. [8] Z. Yi and I.-M. Kim, “Diversity order analysis of the decode-andforward cooperative networks with relay selection,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1792–1799, May 2008. [9] T. Q. Duong and V. N. Q. Bao, “Performance analysis of selection decode-and-forward relay networks,” IET Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 20, pp. 1206–1207, Sept. 2008. [10] T. Wang, A. Cano, G. B. Giannakis, and J. N. Laneman, “Highperformance cooperative demodulation with decode-and-forward relays,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1427–1438, July 2007.

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On the Performance of Selection Decode-and-Forward ...

trast, for the fixed DF protocol, by relaxing this assumption the relay always decodes, re-encodes, and transmits the message. The performance of fixed DF ...

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