AP WORLD HISTORY PERIOD 1: C. 8000 – 600 BCE Technological and Environmental Transformations

Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography & the Peopling of the Earth ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻



Big Bang (13.75 Billion Years Ago) Human-like creatures (2.7 Million Years Ago) Paleolithic Age = 95% of man’s time on earth Homo-sapiens evolved in East Africa (200,000 years ago) Migrated “out of Africa” 100,000 to 60,000 years ago; Asia 70,000; Europe 45,000; Americas 30,000-15,000

Migration of Humans Map

Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography & the Peopling of the Earth ❑ ❑ ❑

❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑

What was life like in the Paleolithic Era? Small hunting-foraging bands (30-40 people) Egalitarian (men=women) Used tools made from stone and wood (spears, bows, arrows, club, axe) Used fire to adapt to different climates Family and kinship ties Animistic religious beliefs Trade of goods and technology Easier lives? - more free time (Worst Mistake in History?)

Key Concept 1.2 Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies ◻ ◻ ◻

Neolithic Revolution - 8,000 BCE (10-12,000 years ago) Began in Middle East, but agricultural villages also emerged at different times in other areas Changes Agriculture & domestication of animals ➢ Surplus of food ➢ Permanent settlements ➢ Denser populations ➢ Job specialization ➢ Social stratification (kings, religious leaders, warriors, scribes, crafts people) ➢

Key Concept 1.2 Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies What was life like during the Neolithic Era? ◻ New technologies increased food production ◻ ◻

Metallurgy (manipulating metals) ◻ ◻

◻ ◻

irrigation, wooden plows, wheels, sickles, traps, clay pots, woven baskets Bronze Age 3000 BCE (copper & tin) Iron Age 1,300 BCE

Patriarchy Develops (continuity for rest of WH) Human Impact on Environment (agriculture irrigation and pastoralism overgrazing and erosion)

Key Concept 1.3 Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies ◻



Rise of Civilizations 3000 BCE (5000 years ago) Characteristics of Civilizations ◻ Agricultural surplus, specialization of labor, cities, complex institutions (political bureaucracies, armies, religious hierarchies), stratified social hierarchies, long distance trade, record keeping &/or writing systems, technology and warfare

Period 1 Must Know Civilizations

Key Concept 1.3 Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies ◻

Mesopotamia ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻

Middle East – crossroads, many invasions Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, unpredictable flooding Not centralized, city-states Cuneiform writing system Polytheistic Ziggurats (religious temples) Achievements: wheel, calendar Babylonian Empire, King Hammurabi’s Law Code (harsh, evidence of social classes and patriarchy) Epic of Gilgamesh

Key Concept 1.3 Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies ◻

Ancient Egypt ◻ Nile River, predictable flooding ◻ Highly centralized, unified under pharaoh (divine rule) ◻ Hieroglyphics - writing system ◻ Polytheistic ◻ Contact with Nubian Empire to South

Key Concept 1.3 Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies ◻

Indus River Valley ◻ Located in present day Pakistan (South Asia) ◻ Two major cities Harappa and MohenjoDaro ◻ Not able to decode written language ◻ Indoor plumbing, more equal society ◻ Indo-European Aryan Migration – 1750 BCE ■ Brought Vedas, beginning of Hinduism?

Key Concept 1.3 Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies ◻

China ◻ Shang – 1st dynasty ■Ancestor worship ■Oracle bones and Shaman ◻ Zhou – longest dynasty ■Mandate of Heaven

Key Concept 1.3 Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies ◻

Exceptions to the River Valley Rule ◻ ◻



Olmecs of Mesoamerica (Central America) Chavin/Norte Chico of the Andean Region (South America)

Don’t Forget About the Pastoralists ⬜ ⬜ ⬜ ⬜

Animal herders, follow migratory patterns Found in mountainous regions and/or areas with insufficient rainfall to support other settlements No permanent settlement Spread diseases and encourage trade

Key Concept 1.3 Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies Notable Groups from Period 1 ◻









Indo-Europeans from Central Asia ◻ Horses, Aryans in India and Huns Bantus 2,000 BCE ◻ Sub-Saharan migration, spread of language, farming techniques, use of iron Hebrews ◻ Development of Monotheism, influenced development of Christianity and Islam Phoenicians ◻ 22 letter alphabet, adopted by Greeks, influences later languages Hittites ◻ Brought iron knowledge to Mesopotamia

Major Themes for Period 1 Migrations ◻ Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution ◻ Iron Metallurgy ◻ Development of Patriarchy ◻ Ancient River Valley Civilizations ◻

Period 1Review Questions 1. All of the following were features of the civilizations in Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, the Indus River Valley, and the Yellow River Valley EXCEPT A.A degree of craft specialization B.A level of social stratification C.Religious sacrifice rituals D.Development of irrigation systems

Period 1Review Questions 2. In the Zhou dynasty, the Mandate of Heaven meant that rulers A.Had an absolute right to rule over the governed as they wished B.were direct descendants of the gods C.Were encouraged to spread Buddhism through the building of monasteries D.Were allowed to keep their power if they ruled justly and wisely

Period 1Review Questions 3. Which of these was NOT an outcome of the Bronze Age? A.Increased agricultural efficiency B.The fall of centralized governments C.The rise of an aristocratic military class D.Increased contact among different cultures

Period 1Review Questions 4. The Neolithic Revolution was characterized by the A. Change from nomadic herding to settled farming B. Growth of iron tool making technology C. Migration of early peoples to the Americas D. The development of written legal codes

Period 1 Essay Question ◻

Compare the social and economic structures of Paleolithic and Neolithic communities

Hunting and Gathering Neolithic Culture Bronze Age

Period 1 Essay Question

Civilization Nomads Homo Sapiens Matrilineal ◻

Compare and contrast social and demographic Neolithic Revolution characteristics of agricultural and pastoral Domestication Paleolithic societies Neanderthals Pastorialism Social Differentiation

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