BACKGROUND GEOMETRY IN GAUGE GRAVITATION THEORY Gennadi Sardanashvily Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 117234 Moscow, Russia E-mail: [email protected] Abstract Dirac fermion fields are responsible for spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge gravitation theory because the spin structure associated with a tetrad field is not preserved under general covariant transformations. Two solutions of this problem can be suggested. (i) There exists the universal spin structure S → X such that any spin structure S h → X associated with a tetrad field h is a subbundle of the bundle S → X. In this model, gravitational fields correspond to different tetrad (or metric) fields. (ii) A background tetrad field h and the associated spin structure S h are fixed, while gravitational fields are  λ = q λ hμ of h. One identified with additional tensor fields q λ μ describing deviations h μ a a  can think of h as being effective tetrad fields. We show that there exist gauge transformations which keep the background tetrad field h and act on the effective fields by the general covariant transformation law. We come to Logunov’s Relativistic Theory of Gravity generalized to dynamic connections and fermion fields.

1

Introduction

Existence of Dirac fermion fields implies that, if a world manifold X is non-compact in order to satisfy causility conditions, it is parallelizable, that is, the tangent bundle T X is trivial and the principal bundle LX of oriented frames in T X admits a global section [1]. Dirac spinors are defined as follows [2, 3]. Let M be the Minkowski space with the metric η = diag(1, −1, −1, −1), written with respect to a basis {ea }. By C1,3 is meant the complex Clifford algebra generated by M. This is isomorphic to the real Clifford algebra R2,3 over R5 . Its subalgebra generated 1

by M ⊂ R5 is the real Clifford algebra R1,3 . A Dirac spinor space Vs is defined as a minimal left ideal of C1,3 on which this algebra acts on the left. We have the representation γ : M ⊗ Vs → Vs ,

ea = γ(ea ) = γ a ,

(1)

of elements of the Minkowski space M ⊂ C1,3 by the Dirac matrices on Vs . The explicit form of this representation depends on the choice of the ideal Vs . Different ideals lead to equivalent representations (1). The spinor space Vs is provided with the spinor metric 1 + a(v, v ) = (v + γ 0 v  + v  γ 0 v). 2

(2)

Let us consider morphisms preserving the representation (1). By definition, the Clifford group G1,3 consists of the invertible elemets ls of the real Clifford algebra R1,3 such that the inner automorphisms ls els−1 = l(e), e ∈ M, (3) defined by these elements preserve the Minkowski space M ⊂ R1,3 . Since the action (3) of the group G1,3 on M is not effective, one usually considers its spin subgroup Ls = Spin0 (1, 3)  SL(2, C). This is the two-fold universal covering group zL : Ls → L of the proper Lorentz group L = SO 0 (1, 3). The group L acts on M by the generators Lab c d = ηad δbc − ηbd δac .

(4)

The spin group Ls acts on the spinor space Vs by the generators 1 Lab = [γa , γb ]. 4

(5)

0 0 Since, L+ ab γ = −γ Lab , the group Ls preserves the spinor metric (2). The transformations (4) and (5) preserve the representation (1), that is,

γ(lM ⊗ ls Vs ) = ls γ(M ⊗ Vs ). A Dirac spin structure on a world manifold X is said to be a pair (Ps , zs ) of an Ls -principal bundle Ps → X and a principal bundle morphism of Ps to the frame bundle LX with the structure group GL4 = GL+ (4, R) [2, 4, 5]. Owing to the group epimorphism zL , every bundle morphism zs factorizes through a bundle epimorphism of Ps onto a subbundle Lh X ⊂ LX with 2

the structure group L. Such a subbundle Lh X is called a Lorentz structure [6, 7]. It exists since X is parallelizable. By virtue of the well-known theorem [10], there is one-to-one correspondence between the Lorentz subbundles of the frame bundle LX and the global sections h of the quotient bundle Σ = LX/L → X.

(6)

This is the two-fold covering of the bundle of pseudo-Riemannian metrics in T X, and sections of Σ are tetrad fields. Let P h be the Ls -principal bundle covering Lh X and S h = (P h × Vs )/Ls

(7)

the associated spinor bundle. Sections sh of S h describe Dirac fermion fields in the presence of the tetrad field h. Indeed, every tetrad field h yields the structure T ∗ X = (Lh X × M)/L of the Lh X-associated bundle of Minkowski spaces on T ∗ X, and defines the representation γh : T ∗ X ⊗ S h = (P h × (M ⊗ Vs ))/Ls → (P h × γ(M ⊗ Vs ))/Ls = S h ,  λ = x˙ hλ (x)γ a , γh : T ∗ X  t∗ = x˙ λ dxλ → x˙ λ dx λ a

(8)

of covectors on X by the Dirac matrices on elements of the spinor bundle S h . The crucial point is that different tetrad fields h define non-equivalent representations (8) [8, 9]. It follows that every Dirac fermion field must be considered in a pair with a certain tetrad field. Thus, we come to the well-known problem of describing fermion fields in the presence of different gravitational fields and under general covariant transformations. Recall that general covariant transformations are automorphisms of the frame bundle LX which are the canonical lift of diffeomorphisms of a world manifold X. They do not preserve the Lorentz subbundles of LX. The following two solutions of this problem can be suggested. (i) One can describe the total system of the pairs of spinor and tetrad fields if any spinor bundle S h is represented as a subbundle of some fibre bundle S → X [11-14]. To construct S, let  of the group GL and the corresponding us consider the two-fold universal covering group GL 4 4   admits principal bundle LX covering the frame bundle LX [2,15-17]. Note that the group GL 4  only infinite-dimensional spinor representations [18]. At the same time, LX has the structure  → Σ [13, 14]. Then let us consider the associated spinor bundle of the Ls -principal bundle LX  × V )/L → Σ S = (LX s s

3

which is the composite bundle S → Σ → X. We have the representation γΣ : (Σ × T ∗ X) ⊗ S → S, X λ

γΣ : dx →

Σ λ a σa γ ,

(9)

of covectors on X by the Dirac matrices. One can show that, for any tetrad field h, the restriction of S → Σ to h(X) ⊂ Σ is a subbundle of S → X which is isomorphic to the spinor bundle S h , while the representation γΣ (9) restricted to h(X) is exactly the representation γh  inherits general covariant transformations of LX [15]. They, in turn, (8). The bundle LX induce general covariant transformations of S, which transform the subbundles S h ⊂ S to each other and preserve the representation (9) [13, 14]. (ii) This work is devoted to a different model. A background tetrad field h and the associated background spin structure S h are fixed, while gravitational fields are identified with the sections of the group bundle Q → X associated with LX (in the spirit of Logunov’s Relativistic Gravitation Theory (RGT) [19]). We will show that there exists an automorphism fh of LX over any diffeomorphism f of X which preserves the Lorentz subbundle Lh X ⊂ LX.

2

Gauge transformations

With respect to the tangent holonomic frames {∂μ }, the frame bundle LX is equipped with the coordinates (xλ , pλ a ) such that general covariant transformations of LX over diffeomorphisms f of X take the form f : (xλ , pλ a ) → (f λ (x), ∂μ f λ (x)pμ a ). They induce general covariant transformations f : (p, v) · GL4 → (f(p), v) · GL4 of any LX-associated bundle Y = (LX × V )/GL4 , where the quotient is defined by identification of elements (p, v) and (pg, g −1v) for all g ∈ GL4 . Given a tetrad field h, any general covariant transformation of the frame bundle LX can be written as the composition f = Φ ◦ fh of its automorphism fh over f which preserves Lh X and some vertical automorphism Φ : p → pφ(p), 4

p ∈ LX,

(10)

where φ is a GL4 -valued equivariant function on LX, i.e., φ(pg) = g −1 φ(p)g,

g ∈ GL4 .

Since X is parallelizable, the automorphism fh exists. Indeed, let z h be a global section of Lh X. Then, we put fh : Lx X  p = z h (x)g → z h (f (x))g ∈ Lf (x) X. The automorphism fh restricted to Lh X induces an automorphism of the principal bundle P h and the corresponding automorphism fs of the spinor bundle S h , which preserve the representation (8). Turn now to the vertical automorphism Φ. Let us consider the group bundle Q → X associated with LX. Its typical fibre is the group GL4 which acts on itself by the adjoint representation. Let (xλ , q λ μ ) be coordinates on Q. There exist the left and right canonical actions of Q on any LX-associated bundle Y : ρl,r : Q × Y → Y, X

ρl : ((p, g) · GL4 , (p, v) · GL4 ) → (p, gv) · GL4 , ρr : ((p, g) · GL4 , (p, v) · GL4 ) → (p, g −1v) · GL4 . Let Φ be the vertical automorphism (10) of LX. The corresponding vertical automorphisms of an associated bundle Y and the group bundle Q read Φ : (p, v) · GL4 → (p, φ(p)v) · GL4 , Φ : (p, g) · GL4 → (p, φ(p)gφ−1(p)) · GL4 . For any Φ (10), there exists the fibre-to-fibre morphism Φ : (p, q) · GL4 → (p, φ(p)q) · GL4 of the group bundle Q such that ρl (Φ(Q) × Y ) = Φ(ρl (Q × Y )),

(11)

ρr (Φ(Q) × Φ(Y )) = ρr (Q × Y ).

(12)

For instance, if Y = T ∗ X, the expression (11) takes the coordinate form ρr : (xλ , q λ μ , x˙ μ ) → (xλ , x˙ λ q λ μ ), Φ : (xλ , q λ μ ) → (xλ , S λ ν q ν μ ), ρr (xλ , S λν q ν μ , x˙ α (S −1 )α λ ) = (xλ , x˙ λ q λ μ ). 5

Hence, we obtain the representation γQ : (Q × T ∗ X) ⊗(Q × S h ) → (Q × S h ), Q

 μ = x˙ q λ hμ γ a , γQ = γh ◦ ρr : (q, t∗ ) → x˙ λ q λ μ dx λ μ a

(13)

on elements of the spinor bundle S h . Let q0 be the canonical global section of the group bundle Q → X whose values are the unit elements of the fibres of Q. Then, the representation γQ (13) restricted to q0 (X) comes to the representation γh (8). Sections q(x) of the group bundle Q are dynamic variables of the model under consideration. One can think of them as being tensor gravitational fields of Logunov’s RTG. There is the canonical morphism ρl : Q × Σ → Σ, X

ρl : ((p, g) · GL4 , (p, σ) · GL4 ) → (p, gσ) · GL4 ,

p ∈ LX,

ρl : (xλ , q λ μ , σaμ ) → (xλ , q λμ σaμ ). This morphism restricted to h(X) ⊂ Σ takes the form ρh : Q → Σ, ρh : ((p, g) · L, (p, σ0 ) · L) → (p, gσ0) · L,

p ∈ Lh X,

(14)

ρh : (xλ , q λ μ ) → (xλ , q λ μ hμa ), where σ0 is the center of the quotient GL4 /L. Let Σh , coordinatized by σaμ , be the quotient of the bundle Q by the kernel Ker h ρh of the morphism (14) with respect to the section h. This is isomorphic to the bundle Σ provided with the Lorentz structure of an Lh X-associated bundle. Then the representation (13), which is constant on Ker h ρh , reduces to the representation (Σh × T ∗ X) ⊗ (Σh × S h ) → (Σh × S h ), (σ , t∗ ) →

Σh x˙ λ σaλ γ a .

(15)

 = h of the bundle Σ as being an effective tetrad field, Thence, one can think of a section h h μν μν   is not a true tetrad field, while  and can treat g = ha hb ηab as an effective metric. A section h a = h  a dxμ have the same representation by γ-matrices as g is not a true metric. Covectors h μ a a μ the covectors h = hμ dx , while Greek indices go down and go up by means of the background metric g μν = hμa hνb ηab .

6

Given a general covariant transformation f = Φ ◦ fh of the frame bundle LX, let us consider the morphism fQ :

Q → Φ ◦ fh (Q),

S h → fs (S h ),

 ∗ X). T ∗ X → f(T

(16)

This preserves the representation (13), i.e., γQ ◦ fQ = fs ◦ γQ , and yields the general covariant transformation σaλ → ∂μ f λ σaμ of the bundle Σh . Thus, we recover RTG [19] in the case of a background tetrad field h and dynamic gravitational fields q.

3

Gauge theory of RTG

We follow the geometric formulation of field theory where a configuration space of fields, represented by sections of a bundle Y → X, is the finite dimensional jet manifold J 1 Y of Y , coordinatized by (xλ , y i, yλi ) [14, 21]. Recall that J 1 Y comprises the equivalence classes of sections s of Y → X which are identified by their values and values of their first derivatives at points x ∈ X, i.e., y i ◦ s = si (x),

yλi ◦ s = ∂λ si (x).

A Lagrangian on J 1 Y is defined to be a horizontal density L = L(xλ , y i , yλi )ω,

ω = dx1 · · · dxn ,

n = dim X.

The notation πiλ = ∂iλ L will be used. A connection Γ on the bundle Y → X is defined as a section of the jet bundle J 1 Y → Y , and is given by the tangent-valued form Γ = dxλ ⊗ (∂λ + Γiλ ∂i ). For instance, a linear connection K on the tangent bundle T X reads K = dxλ ⊗ (∂λ + Kλ α ν x˙ ν

∂ ). ∂ x˙ α

Every world connection K yields the spinor connection 1 Kh = dxλ ⊗ [∂λ + (η kbhaμ − η ka hbμ )(∂λ hμk − hνk Kλ μ ν )Lab A B y B ∂A ] 4 7

(17)

on the spinor bundle S h with coordinates (xλ , y A ), where Lab are generators (5) [12, 14, 22]. Using the connection Kh and the representation γQ (13), one can construct the following Dirac operator on the product Q × S h : DQ = q λ μ hμa γ a Dλ ,

(18)

where Dλ = yλA −KλA are the covariant derivatives relative to the connection (17). The operator (18) restricted to q0 (X) recovers the familiar Dirac operator on S h for fermion fields in the presence of the background tetrad field h and the world connection K. Thus, we obtain the metric-affine generalization of RTG where dynamic variables are tensor gravitational fields q, general linear connections K and Dirac fermion fields in the presence of a background tetrad field h [20]. The configuration space of this model is the jet manifold J 1 Y of the product Y = Q × CK × S h , (19) X

X

where CK = J 1 LX/GL4 is the bundle whose sections are world connections K. The bundle (19) is coordinatized by (xμ , q μ ν , kα μ ν , y A ). A total Lagrangian on this configuration space is the sum L = LM A + Lq (q, g) + LD (20) where LM A is a metric-affine Lagrangian, expressed into the curvature Rλμ α β = kλμ α β − kμλ α β + kμ α ε kλ ε β − kλ α ε kμ ε β and the effective metric σ μν = σaμ σbν η ab , the Lagrangian Lq depends on tensor gravitational fields q and the background metric g, and i 1 μ − σkν kλ μ ν )Lab B C y C ) − LD = { σqλ [yA+ (γ 0 γ q )A B (yλB − (η kb σ −1aμ − η kaσ −1bμ )(σλk 2 4 1 μ + C 0 q A B (yλA − (η kbσ −1aμ − η ka σ −1bμ )(σλk − σkν kλ μ ν )yC+ L+ ab A (γ γ ) B y ] − 4 + 0 A myA (γ ) B y B } | σ |−1/2 , σ = det(σ μν ) is the Lagrangian of fermion fields in metric-affine gravitation theory [12-14], where tetrad fields are replaced with the effective tetrad fields σ . If LAM = (−λ1 R + λ2 ) | σ |−1/2 ,

Lq = λ3 gμν σ μν | σ |−1/2 ,

where R = σ μν Rα μαν , the familiar Lagrangian of RTG is recovered. 8

LD = 0,

(21)

4

Energy-momentum conservation law

We follow the standard procedure of constructing Lagrangian conservation laws which is based on the first variational formula [14, 23]. This formula provides the canonical splitting of the Lie derivative of a Lagrangian L along a vector field u on Y → X. We have ∂λ uλ L + [uλ ∂λ + ui ∂i + (dλ ui − yμi ∂λ uμ )∂iλ ]L =

(22)

(ui − yμi uμ )(∂i − dλ ∂iλ )L − dλ [πiλ (uμ yμi − ui) − uλ L]. This identity restricted to the shell (∂i − dλ ∂iλ )L = 0,

i dλ = ∂λ + yλi ∂i + yλμ ∂iμ ,

comes to the weak equality ∂λ uλ L + [uλ∂λ + ui ∂i + (dλ ui − yμi ∂λ uμ )∂iλ ]L ≈

(23)

−dλ [πiλ (uμ yμi − ui ) − uλ L]. If the Lie derivative of L along u vanishes (i.e., L is invariant under the local 1-parameter group of gauge transformations generated by u), we obtain the weak conservation law 0 ≈ −dλ [πiλ (uμ yμi − ui) − uλ L]. For the sake of simplicity, let us replace the bundle Q in the product (19) with the bundle Σh , and denote Y  = Σh × CK × S h . X

X

There exists the canonical lift on Y  of every vector field τ on X: ∂ ∂ + ∂ν τ μ σ ν a μ + (24) α ∂kμ β ∂ σa 1 kb a ∂ (η hμ − η ka hbμ )(τ λ ∂λ hμk − hνk ∂ν τ μ )(Lab A B y B ∂A − Lab c d σdν ν ), 4 ∂ σc

τ = τ μ ∂μ + (∂ν τ α kμ ν β − ∂β τ ν kμ α ν − ∂μ τ ν kν α β + ∂μβ τ α )

where Lab c d are generators (4). This lift is the generator of gauge transformations of the bundle Y  induced by morphisms fQ (16). Its part acting on Greek indices is the familiar generator of general covariant transformations, whereas that acting on the Latin ones is a local generator of vertical Lorentz gauge transformations. 9

Let us examine the weak equality (23) in the case of the Lagrangian (20) and the vector field (24). In contrast with Lq , the Lagrangians LM A and LD are invariant under the abovementioned gauge transformations. Then, using the results of [12, 14], we bring (23) into the form ∂λ (τ λ Lq ) + (∂α τ μ gαν + ∂α τ ν gαμ ) dλ (2τ μ gλα

∂Lq ≈ ∂ gμν

(25)

∂Lq + τ λ Lq − dμ U μλ ), αμ ∂ g

where U =2

∂LAM (∂ν τ α − kσ α ν τ σ ) α ∂Rμλ ν

is the generalized Komar superpotential of the energy-momentum of metric-affine gravity [12, 14, 24]. A glance at the expression (25) shows that, if the Lagrangian L (20) containes the Higgs term Lq , the energy-momentum flow is not reduced to a superpotential, and the familiar covariant conservation law ∂Lq  ∇α tαλ ≈ 0, tαλ = 2gαμ μν , (26) ∂ g ∇α are covariant derivatives relative to the Levi–Civita connection of the takes place. Here,  effective metric g. In the case of the standard Lagrangian Lq (21) of RTG, the equality (26) comes to the well-known condition ∇α (g

αμ



| g |) ≈ 0,

where ∇α are covariant derivatives relative to the Levi-Civita connection of the background metric g. On solutions satisfying this condition, the energy-momentum flow in RTG reduces to the generalized Komar superpotential just as it takes place in General Relativity [25], Palatini formalism [26, 27], metric-affine and gauge gravitation theories [12, 14, 24].

References [1] R.Geroch, Spinor structure of space-time in general relativity, J. Math. Phys. 9 (1968) 1739. 10

[2] H.Lawson and M-L. Michelson, Spin Geometry (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1989). [3] J.Crawford, Clifford algebra: Notes on the spinor metric and Lorentz, Poincar´e and conformal groups, J. Math.Phys. 32 (1991) 576. [4] S.Avis and C.Isham, Generalized spin structure on four dimensional space-times, Comm. Math. Phys. 72 (1980) 103. [5] I.Benn and R.Tucker, An Introduction to Spinors and Geometry with Applications in Physics (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1987). [6] R.Zulanke and P.Wintgen, Differential geometrie und Faserb¨ undel, Hochschulbucher fur Mathematik, Band 75 (VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1972). [7] F.Gordejuela and J.Masqu´e, Gauge group and G-structures, J. Phys. A 28 (1995) 497. [8] G.Sardanashvily, Gauge gravitation theory, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 30 (1991) 721. [9] G.Sardanashvily and O.Zakharov, Gauge gravitation theory (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992). [10] S.Kobayashi and K.Nomizu, Foundations of Differential Geometry, Vol.1. (John Wiley, N.Y. - Singapore, 1963). [11] G.Sardanashvily, On the geometry of spontaneous symmetry breaking, J. Math. Phys. 33 (1992) 1546. [12] G.Sardanashvily, Stress-energy-momentum conservation law in gauge gravitation theory, Class. Quant. Grav. 14 (1997) 1371. [13] G.Giachetta, L.Mangiarotti and G.Sardanashvily, Universal spin structure in gauge gravitation theory, E-print: gr-qc/9505078. [14] G.Giachetta, L.Mangiarotti and G.Sardanashvily, New Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Methods in Field Theory (World Scientific, Singapore, 1997). [15] L.Dabrowski and R.Percacci, Spinors and diffeomorphisms, Comm. Math. Phys. 106 (1986) 691. [16] S.Switt, Natural bundles. II. Spin and the diffeomorphism group, J. Math. Phys. 34 (1993) 3825. 11

[17] R.Fulp, J.Lawson and L.Norris, Geometric prequantization on the spin bundle based on n-symplectic geometry: the Dirac equation, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 33 (1994) 1011. [18] F. Hehl, J. McCrea, E. Mielke and Y. Ne’eman, Metric-affine gauge theory of gravity: field equations, Noether identities, world spinors, and breaking of dilaton invariance, Phys. Rep. 258 (1995) 1. [19] A.Logunov, Yu.Loskutov and M.Mestvirishvili, Relativistic theory of gravity, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 3 (1988) 2067. [20] G. Sardanashvily, Relativistic theory of gravity: Gauge approach In vol.: Proceedings of the XIX Workshop on High Energy Physics and Field Theory, Protvino, 1996 (Protvino, IHEP Press, 1997) p.184. [21] G.Sardanashvily, Generalized Hamiltonian Formalism for Field Theory. Constraint Systems (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995). [22] A.Aringazin and A.Mikhailov, Matter fields in spacetime with vector non-metricity, Class. Quant. Grav. 8 (1991) 1685. [23] G.Sardanashvily, Stress-energy-momentum tensors in constraint field theories, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 847. [24] G.Giachetta and G.Sardanashvily, Stress-energy-momentum of affine-metric gravity. Generalized Komar superportential, Class. Quant. Grav. 13 (1996) L67. [25] J.Novotn´ y, On the conservation laws in General Relativity, Geometrical Methods in Physics, Proceeding of the Conference on Differential Geometry and its Applications (Czechoslovakia 1983), Ed. D.Krupka (Brno, University of J.E.Purkynˇe, 1984) p.207. [26] J.Novotn´ y, J.Novotn´ y, Energy-momentum complex of gravitational field in the Palatini formalism, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 32 (1993) 1033. [27] A.Borowiec, M.Ferraris, M.Francaviglia and I.Volovich, Energy-momentum complex for nonlinear gravitational Lagrangians in the first-order formalism, GRG 26 (1994) 637.

12

Sardanashvily, Background Geometry in Gauge Gravitation Theory.pdf

Sardanashvily, Background Geometry in Gauge Gravitation Theory.pdf. Sardanashvily, Background Geometry in Gauge Gravitation Theory.pdf. Open. Extract.

137KB Sizes 4 Downloads 259 Views

Recommend Documents

Geometry, Topology, and Gravitation Synthesized by ...
Geometry, Topology, and Gravitation Synthesized by Cosmic Strings 3 only if the connection ... long, perhaps forming loops that could encircle an entire galaxy.

Naber, Topology Geometry and Physics, Background for the Witten ...
Retrying... Naber, Topology Geometry and Physics, Background for the Witten Conjecture, Part I.pdf. Naber, Topology Geometry and Physics, Background for the ...

Gravitation Worksheet Answers.pdf
There was a problem previewing this document. Retrying... Download. Connect more apps... Try one of the apps below to open or edit this item. Gravitation ...

Aitchison, Hey, Solutions to Problems in `Gauge Theories in Particle ...
VI. V. y I. using rst the unitarity of V. and then that of V So the product of. any two such matrices is a unitary. matrix Similarly. detVV. detVdetV. using the. det V. condition for each matrix So. the product of any two such matrices is a unitary.

Aitchison, Hey, Solutions to Problems in `Gauge Theories in Particle ...
There was a problem previewing this document. Retrying... Download. Connect more apps... Try one of the apps below to open or edit this item. Aitchison, Hey ...

gauge theories
Apr 3, 2003 - between them looks virtual, as the two spins are geometrically disconnected. ... In [9] one examined theories with centre ... percolation possible at the critical temperature Tc (we call such probability pCK after Coniglio.

Modeling and Integrating Background Knowledge in Data ...
However, the adversary may know the correlations between Emphysema and the non-sensitive attributes Age and Sex, e.g., “the prevalence of emphysema was appreciably higher for the 65 and older age group than the. 45-64 age group for each race-sex gr

Background System
Software Defined Radio with Commercial. Detection Technology. System. The commercial-detecting radio automatically changes the station to one of four preset ...

Background System
This project brings life back into radio and improves the overall ... the development of Radio Commercial Detection ... Software Defined Radio with Commercial.

Antihydrogen physics: gravitation and spectroscopy in ...
Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia, ... Department for Physics and Technology, University of Bermen, Allegaten 55, NO-5007 Bergen, Norway. .... drogen H at CERN's antiproton decelerator (AD) [3, 13

Makeenko, Non-Perturbative Methods in Gauge Theory, A Set of ...
There was a problem previewing this document. Retrying... Download. Connect more apps... Try one of the apps below to open or edit this item. Makeenko, Non-Perturbative Methods in Gauge Theory, A Set of Lectures.pdf. Makeenko, Non-Perturbative Method

Gravitation-Foundations-And-Frontiers.pdf
There was a problem previewing this document. Retrying... Download. Connect more apps... Try one of the apps below to open or edit this item. Gravitation-Foundations-And-Frontiers.pdf. Gravitation-Foundations-And-Frontiers.pdf. Open. Extract. Open wi

Interrelations between electrodynamics and gravitation
In Coulomb's and Newton's laws the potential depends only on the distance r .... This ensures compliance with the principle of energy conservation E = T + V = ...

Abelian Gauge Theories
Abstract: This is a cheat sheet for D = 2, N = (2,2) supersymmetric abelian gauge theories. We explicitly work out the components of chiral, twisted chiral and vector super- fields and construct terms of supersymmetric gauge theory Lagrangians using

gauge CS theory
Dec 21, 1989 - be interested in solutions that do not necessarily re- strict Vto be one on 0M. ..... see also M Bos and V P Nam preprmt 89-0118,. Y Hosotam ...

Albeverio, Altaisky, Gauge Invariance in Wavelet-Based Quantum ...
Albeverio, Altaisky, Gauge Invariance in Wavelet-Based Quantum Field Theory.pdf. Albeverio, Altaisky, Gauge Invariance in Wavelet-Based Quantum Field ...

Percolation and Deconfinement in SU(2) Gauge Theory
The correlation creates thus ”ordered” regions which drive the behaviour of the whole system. .... The second difficulty is hard to overcome. In fact ...... that, for instance, a cluster of the initial lattice could be broken into pieces in the r

Low activity nuclear density gauge
Sep 4, 2003 - source. The gamma radiation detector is operable for quan ... than the characteristic primary energy of said source. The ..... In an alternative.

gauge CS theory
Dec 21, 1989 - M.A. AWADA 1. Physws Department, Impertal College, London SW7 2BZ, UK and ... versity of Florida, FL 3261 l, Gameswlle, USA. 2 Supported by the ... Z and (¢ be the gauge group (set of all maps from Z to SO (2,1 ) ) then ...