Student’s guide to maxwells’ equations. problem 4.1 Peeter Joot July 20, 2008

1 http://www4.wittenberg.edu/maxwell/chapter4/problem1/ Problem is: Two parallel wires carry currents I1 and 2I1 in opposite directions. Use Amperes law to find the magnetic field at a point midway between the wires. Do this instead (visualizing the cross section through the wires) for N wires located at points Pk , with currents Ik .

Figure 1: Currents through parallel wires This is illustrated for two wires in figure 1.

1

1.1 Consider first just the magnetic field for one wire, temporarily putting the origin at the point of the current. Z

B · dl = µ0 I

At a point r from the local origin the tangent vector is obtained by rotation of the unit vector:      r xˆ yˆ r = yˆ yˆ exp xˆ yˆ log krk krk Thus the magnetic field at the point r due to this particular current is: B(r) =

µ0 I yˆ 2π krk



r krk

xˆ yˆ

Considering additional currents with the wire centers at points Pk , and measurement of the field at point R we have for each of those: r = R−P Thus the total field at point R is: µ0 yˆ B(R) = 2π

1.2

∑ k

Ik kR − Pk k



R − Pk kR − Pk k

xˆ yˆ (1)

Original problem.

For the problem as stated, put the origin between the two points with those two points on the x-axis. P1 = −xˆ d/2 P2 = xˆ d/2 Here R = 0, so r1 = R − P1 = xˆ d/2 and r2 = −xˆ d/2. With xˆ yˆ = i, this is:  µ0 yˆ  I1 (−xˆ )i + I2 xˆ i πd µ0 yˆ = (− I − 2I ) πd −3Iµ0 yˆ = πd

B (0) =

Here unit vectors exponentials were evaluated with the equivalent complex number manipulations: 2

(−1)i = x i log (−1) = log x iπ = log x exp (iπ ) = log x x = −1

(1) i = x i log (1) = log x 0 = log x x=1

3

Student's guide to maxwells' equations. problem 4.1

Jul 20, 2008 - http://www4.wittenberg.edu/maxwell/chapter4/problem1/. Problem is: Two parallel wires carry currents I1 and 2I1 in opposite directions. Use.

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