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The Lady, or the Tiger? ---------

Frank R. Stockton

(Page 31)

ADVERB CLAUSES

Writers often supply details that tell when, where, how, why, how much, to what extent, or under what condition. As you read the selection below, notice what kind of information Frank Stockton adds to the independent clauses in the underlined subordinate clauses. He was a man of exuberant fancy, and, withal, of an authority so irresistible that, at his will, he turned his varied fancies into facts. He was greatly given to self-communing; and when he and himself aw-eed upon anythin~, the thing was done. When every member of his domestic and political systems moved smoothly in its appointed course, his nature was bland and genial; but whenever there was a little hitch, and some of his orbs ~ot out of their orbits, he was blander and more genial still.... (Page 31) An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb in the main clause. EXAMPLES

when he and himself aw-eed upon anythin~, the thing was done . . . . so irresistible that ... he turned his varied fancies into facts. •• ,

[Modifies the verb was done]

[Modifies the adjective Irresistible]

Adverb clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions: after although as as if

as long as as soon as

because before if

in order that since

so that than though unless until

when whenever where wherever while

ACTIVITY A Underline the subordinating conjunctions in each of the following passages. There may be more than one subordinating conjunction in a passage. 1. When a subject was accused of a crime of sufficient importance to interest the king, public notice was given that on an appointed day the fate of the accused person would be decided in the king's arena-a structure which well deserved its name ... (Page 31)

2•... although its form and plan were borrowed from afar, its purpose emanated solely from the brain of this man .... (Page 31) continued

30

Teaching Resources A •

Adventures in Reading

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3. If he opened the one, there came out of it a hungry tiger.... ' (Page 32) 4. As the youth advanced into the arena, he turned,.as the custom was, to bow to the (Page 35) king .... 5.. ,. she would never rest until she had made plain to herself this thing, hidden to all other lookers-on, even to the king. (Page 36)

ACTIVITY B Underline the adverb clauses in each of the following passages. There may be more than one adverb clause in a passage. 6. But if the accused person opened the other door, there came forth from it a lady.... (Page 33)

7. When the people gathered together on one of the great trial days, they never knew whether they were to witness a bloody slaughter or a hilarious wedding. (Page 34) 8. This love affair moved on happily for many months, until one day the king happened to discover its existence. (Page 34)

)

9. How often, in her waking hours and in her dreams, had she started in wild horror and covered her face with her hands as she thought of her lover opening the door on the other side of which waited the cruel fangs of the tiger! (Page36) 10. How in her grievous reveries had she gnashed her teeth and torn her hair when she saw his start of rapturous delight as he opened the door of the lady! (Page 36)

ACTIVITY C Underline five adverb clauses in the following passage from "The Lady, or the Tiger?" How her soul had burned in agony when she had seen him rush to meet that woman, with her flushing cheek and sparkling eye of triumph; when she had seen him lead her forth, his whole frame kindled with the joy of recovered life; when she had seen them walk away together upon their path of flowers, of the happy bells; when she had seen the priest, with his joyous followers, advance to the couple, and make them man and wife before her very eyes; and when she had seen them walk away together upon their path of flowers followed by the tremendous shouts of the hilarious multitude, in which her one despairing shriek was lost and drowned! (Page 36)

continued

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Adventures in Reading

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In the space provided, combine each of the following pairs of sentences. Leave one sentence as an independent clause, and use the other as an adverb clause. Each pair of sentences is followed by a subordinating conjunction that will help you form the adverb clause. EXAMPLE

A public announcement was made. A subject was accused ofa crime. [when] A public announcement was made when a subject was accused of a crime.

11. A door opened and the person entered the arena. The king gave a signal. [when]

12. The princess was able to learn which door concealed the lady and which door concealed the tiger. She had gold, power, and motivation. [because]

13. The accused person was immediately married in the arena. He opened the door with the lady behind it. [if]

14. Nobody, not even the king, knew which door concealed the lady. The door was opened and the subject was either eaten on the spot or married on the spot. [until]

15. The youth was immediately arrested and thrown into prison. The king learned of his courtship of the princess. [after]

32

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Adventures in Reading

(

~

The Lady, or the Tiger?

Stockton adds to the independent clauses in the underlined subordinate clauses. He wasa man of exuberant fancy, and, withal, of an authority so irresistible that, at his will,he turned his varied fancies into facts. He wasgreatly given to self-communing; and when he and himself aw-eedupon anythin~, the thing wasdone.

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