268 [2] C. Mfiller, The TkoryofRelatioity. London, England: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952, pp. 274-276, 302-309. [3] E. J. Post, Formal Structure of Elecfromagnetics. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1962, chs. 3, 6, 7. [4] A. Sommerfeld, Elektrodynamik. Wiesbaden, Germany: Dieterich’sche Verlag, 1948, pp. 281-289. [SI T.Schlomka, “Das Ohmsche Gesetz beibewegtenKorpern,” A n n . Phys., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 246-252, 1951. [6] H. Epheser and T. Schlomka,“Flachengrossen und elektrodynamischeGrenzbedingungenbei bewegten Korpern,” Ann. Phys., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 211-220, 1951. [7] J. L. Anderson and J. W. .Ryon,“Electromagneticradiation in accelerated systems,” Phys. Rev., vol. 181, pp. 1765-1775, 1969. [8] C. V. Heer, “Resonant frequencies of an electromagnetic cavity in an

[9] [lo] [ll] [12] [13] [14]


accelerated system of reference,” Phys. Reu., vol. 134,pp.A799A804, 1964. T. C. Mo, “Theoryof electrodynamics in media in noninertial frames and applications,” J. Math. Phys., vol. 11, pp. 2589-2610, 1970. R. M. Fano, L. J. Chu, and R. B. Adler, Electromagnetk Fields, Energy and Forces. New York: Wiley, 1960.pp. 407-416. L.Robin, Fonctions Sphiriques de Legendre et Fonctions Sphtroidulcs, vol. 3.Paris, France: Gauthier-Villars,1959,pp. 94-10. W. R. Symthe, Static and Dynamic Elec#ricity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950, p. 208. M. Faraday, Experimental Researches inElectricity, vol. 3. New York:Dover, 1965, pp. 362-368. E . G.Cullwick, Electromagnetism and Relativity. London, England: Longmans, pp. 36-141, 167.

The Viterbi Algorithm G. DAVID FORNEY, JR. Invited Paper

Abstrucf-The Viterbi algorithm (VA) is a recursive optimalsolution to the problem of estimating the state sequence of a discretetime finite-stateMarkovprocess observed in memoryless noise. Many problems in areas such as digital communicationscan be cast in this form. This paper gives a tutorial exposition of the algorithm and of how it is implemented and analyzed. Applications to date are reviewed. Increasing use of the algorithm in a widening variety of areas is foreseen.

11. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In its most general form, the VA may be viewed as a solution to theproblem of maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation of the state sequence of a finite-state dis-

crete-time Markov process observed in memoryless noise. I n this section we set up the problem in this generality, and then illustrate by example the different sortsof problems that can be made to I. INTRODUCTION fit such a model. The general approachalso has the virtue of tutorial simplicity. HE VITERBI algorithm (VA) was proposed in 1967 The underlying Markovprocessischaracterized as folas a method of decoding convolutional codes. Since that time, it has been recognizedas an attractive solu- lows. Time is discrete. The statex k a t time k is one of a finite tion to a variety of digital estimation problems, somewhat as number M of states m , 1 s m 5 14;i.e., the state space X is variety of analog esti- simply { 1, 2, . . , A I ] , Initiallyweshallassumethatthe the Kalman filter has been adapteda to mation problems. Like the Kalman filter, the VA tracks the process runs only from time 0 t o t i m e K and that the initial a n d final states x0 a n d XK are known; the state sequence is s t a t e of a stochastic process with a recursive method that is , x ~ ) We . see optimum in a certain sense, and that lends itself readily to then represented by a finite vector X = (20, implementation and analysis. However, the underlying pro- later that extension to infinite sequences is trivial. T h e process is Markov, in the sense that the probability cess is assumed to be finite-state Markov rather than GausP ( X k + l I x09 x1, . * . , xk) of being in state X k + l at time k f 1, sian, which leads to marked differences in structure. given all states up to time k , depends only on t h e s t a t e xk at This paper is intended to be principally a tutorial introduction to theVA, its structure, and its analysis. It also pur-time k : ports to review more orless exhaustively all work inspired by P ( X k + l j xo, x1, . . . , Xk) = P(Xk+lI Xk). o r related to the algorithm up to the time of writing (summer 1972). Our belief is that the algorithmwill find application in The transition probabilities P ( x k + l ~x k ) may be time varying, a n increasing diversity of areas. Our hope is t h a t we can ac- but we do not explicitly indicate this in the notation. of this paper. celerate this process for the readers I t is convenient to define the transition & at time k as t h e pair of states (xk+l, x k ) :



This invited paper is one of a series planned on topics of general interestThe Editor. Manuscript received September 20, 1972;revised November 27, 1972. The author is with Codex Corporation, Newton, Mass. 02195.





We let E bethe(possiblytime-varying)set

of transitions



Fig. 1.





Most general model.


for which P(xe11 x k ) ZO,and I X I their number. There is evidently a one-to-one corresponClearly I X 1 5 M2. dencebetweenstatesequences X andtransitionsequences f = (50, * * , &-I). (We write x= t.) Theprocess is assumedtobeobservedinmemoryless noise; t h a t is, there is a sequence z of observations z k in which Zk depends probabilistically only on the transition E at time k:l

& = (%&I,



Fig. 2.






In the parlance of information theory, z can be described as the output of some memoryless channel whose input sequence is(seeFig. 1). Again,though weshallnotindicateit explicitly, the channel may be time varying in the sense that P ( z k I b ) may be a function of k . This formulation subsumes t h e following as special cases. 1) The case in which z k depends only on the state x k :

Fig. 3. A convolutionalencoder.

Finally, we state the problem to which the VA is a solution. Given a sequence z of observations of a discrete-time finite-stateMarkov processinmemorylessnoise,find the state sequence x for which the a posteriori probability P(xl I) is maximum. Alternately, find the transition sequence F, for 2) The case in which 4 depends probabilistically on an which P(F,j z) is maximum (since x 2 E ) . In the shift-register output y k of the process at time k , where y k is in turn a de- model this is also the same as finding the most probable input terministic function of the transition b or the state ?&. sequence u, since X ; or also the most probable signal seExample: T h e following model frequently arises in digital X . I t is well known that this MAP rule miniquence y, if communications. There is an input sequenceu = (UO,ul, * . ), mizes the error probability in detecting the whole sequence where each u k is generated independently according to some (the block-, message-, or word-error probability), and thus is probability distribution P ( i ( k ) and can take on one of a finite optimum in this sense. We shall see that in many applications number of values, say m. There is a noise-free signal sequence it is effectively optimum in any sense. y, not observable, in which eachy k is some deterministic funcApplication Examples: We now give examples showingt h a t tion of the present and thev previous inputs: the problem statement above applies to a number of diverse fields,includingconvolutionalcoding,intersymbolinterfery k = f ( U k , * ’ * 7 Uk-v) ence,continuous-phasefrequency-shiftkeying(FSK),and The observed sequence z is the output of a memoryless chan- text recognition. The adequately motivated reader may skip nel whose input is y. We call such a process a shift-register immediately to the next section. process, since (as illustrated in Fig. 2) it can be modeled by a shift register of length Y with inputs u k . (Alternately, it is a A . Convolutional Codes vth-orderm-aryMarkovprocess.) T o completethecorreA rate-l/n binary convolutional encoder is a shift-register spondence to our general model we define: circuit exactly like that of Fig. 2, where the inputs u k are in1) the state formationbitsandtheoutputs y k areblocks of # bits, y k =(Pa, * * , p,,~),each of which is a parity check on (modulox k & (uk-1, ‘ ‘ 3 uk-v) 2 sum of) somesubset of the v + l informationbits (Uk, 2) the transition Uk-1, * . , Uk-v). When the encoded sequence (codeword) y is sentthroughamemorylesschannel, we have precisely the b & ( u k , * * ’ Uk--.). model of Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows a particular rate-$ code with The number of states is thus 1 XI =m’, and of transitions, v = 2 . (This codeis the only one ever used for illustration in the IEl =m’+l. If theinputsequence“starts” at time 0 and VA coding literature, but the reader must not infer that it is ‘stops” at time K - v , i.e., the only one the VA can handle.) More general convolutional encoders exist: the rate may u = ( . . . 0, u0, u 1 , ’ ’ , ~ K - P 0, , 0, ‘ * ’ ) be k / n , the inputs may be nonbinary, and the encoder may then the shift-register process effectively starts at time0 and even contain feedback. In every case, however, the code may be taken to be generated by a shift-register process [2]. , 0). ends at time K with x0 = XK = (0, 0, We might also note that other types of transmission codes (e.g., dc-free codes, run-length-limited codes, and others) can 1 The notation is appropriate when observations are discrete-valued; be modeled as outputs of a finite-state machine and hencefall for continuous-valued Zk, simply substitute a density P ( z t I&) for the disinto our general setup [49]. tribution P ( z t I&).







J E i J E

B . IntersymbolInterference In digital transmission through analog channels, we frequentlyencounterthefollowingsituation.Theinputsequence u, discrete-time and discrete-valued as in the shiftregister model, is usedto modulate some continuous waveform which is transmitted through a channel and then sampled. Ideally, samples z k would equal the correspondingU k , or some simple function thereof; in fact, however, the samples ,zk a r e perturbed both by noise and by neighboring inputs U p . T h e lattereffectiscalledintersymbolinterference.Sometimes intersymbolinterferenceisintroduceddeliberatelyforpurposes of spectralshaping,inso-calledpartial-responsesystems. In such cases the output samples can often modeled be as =






If h, = O for i>v (finite impulse response), then we obtain our shift-register model. An illustration of such a model in which ( v = 2) apintersymbol interference spans three time units pears in Fig. 4. It was shown in [29] that even problems where time is actually continuous-Le., the received signal r(t) has the form

r(t) =




Fig. 4.

Model of PAM system subject to intersymbol interference and white Gaussian noise.

L9-jw-g SIGNAL



Fig. 5.






where y k is a deterministic function of a finite number of inputs, say, y k = f ( U k , * * . , Uk-y), a n d n k is a white Gaussian noise sequence. This is precisely Fig. 2. To be still more specific, in pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) the signal sequence y may be taken as the convolution of the input sequenceu with some discrete-time channel impulse-responsesequence (ho,hl, * * ) : yk


- KT) + n(1)


Model for binarycontinuous-phase FSK withdeviationratio 3 and coherent detection in white Gaussian noise.

input sequenceu be binary and letw ( 0 ) a n d w(1) be chosen so t h a t w ( 0 ) goesthroughanintegernumber of cyclesin T seconds and w(1) through an odd half-integer number; i.e., w(O)T=Oandw(l)T=7rmodulo27r. Thenif e o = O , O1=Oorr, accordingtowhether uo equalszero or one,andsimilarly & = O or r , according to whether an even or odd number of ones has been transmitted. Here we have a two-state process, with X = (0, 7r 1. T h e transmitted signal y k is a function of both the current input u k and the state x k : yk








cos w(Uk)f,



< ( R + 1)T.

Since transitions & = ( x k + l , %$ are one-to-one functionsof t h e current state x k and input U k , we may alternately regard y k as being determined by ( k . If we takeqo(t) &os w(0)t a n d vl(t) &os w(1)t as bases of t h e signal space, we may write

for some impulse responseh ( t ) ,signaling interval T , and realization n(t) of a white Gaussian noise process-can be reduced y k = yOk'?O(l) ylkvl(t) without loss of optimality to the aforementioned discrete-time form (via a "whitened matched filter"). where the coordinates ( y o , ylk) are given by


C. Continuous-Phase FSK This example is cited not for its practical importance, but because, first, it leads to a simple model we shall later use in an example, and, second, it shows how the VA may lead to I ( ( 0 ,- I ) , if U k = 1 , Xk = fresh insight even in the most traditional situations. In FSK, a digital input sequence u selects one of m freFinally, if the received signal ( ( t ) is q(t) plus white Gaussian quencies (if z& is m-ary) in each signaling intervalof length T ; noise v ( t ) , then by correlating the received signal against both that is, the transmitted signal q(t) is q o ( t ) and ql(t) in each signal interval (coherent detection), we may arrive withoutloss of information a t a discrete-time output signal where O ( U k ) is the frequency selected by U k , and e k is some phase angle. It is desirable for reasons both of spectral shapz k = (ZW, Z l k ) = (yak, y l k ) (nokt flu) ing and of modulator simplicity that the phase be continuous where no a n d n1 are independent equal-variance white Gausat the transition interval; thatis, t h a t sian noise sequences. This model appears in Fig. 5, where the signal generator generates( y ~y a, ) according to the aforemenw(Uk-1)kT ek-1 E w ( u k ) k T e k modulo 27r. tioned rules. This is called continuous-phase FSK. D . TextRecognition The continuity of the phase introduces memory into the \Ve include this example to show thatVA theis not limited modulation process; i.e., it makes the signal actually transmitted in the kth interval dependent on previous signals. T o todigitalcommunication.Inoptical-character-recognition take the simplest possible case ("deviation ratio" let t h e (OCR) readers,individualcharactersarescanned,salient










Use of VA to improve character recognition by exploiting context.

Fig. 6.

features isolated, and some decision madeas to what letter or other character lies below the reader. When the characters actually occur as part of natural-language text, it has long been recognized that contextual information can be used to assist the reader in resolving ambiguities. One way of modeling contextual constraints is to treat a 01 natural language like English as though it were a discreteIO time Markov process. For instance, we can suppose that the probability of occurrence of eachletterdependsonthe v 11 previousletters,andestimatetheseprobabilitiesfromthe (b) frequencies of (vf1)-letter combinations [(v+l)-grams]. Whilesuchmodelsdonotfullydescribethegeneration of Fig. 7. (a) State diagram of a four-state shift-register process. (b) Trellis f o r a four-state shift-register process. natural language(for examples of digram and trigram English, see Shannon [45], [46]), they account for a large part of t h e statistical dependencies in the language and are easily instant of time. The trellis begins and ends at the knownstates handled. x. and XK. Its most important property is that to every possiWith such a model, English letters are viewed as the out- ble.state sequence x there corresponds a unique path through puts of a n m’-state Markov process, wherem is the numberof the trellis, and vice versa. distinguishable characters, such as 27 (the 26 letters and a Now we show how, given a sequence of observations I, space). If it is further assumed that the OCR output zk is every path may be assigned a “length” proportional to -In dependent only on the corresponding input characteryk, then P ( x , z), where x is the state sequence associated with that the OCR reader isa memoryless channel to whose output se- path. This will allow us t o solve the problem of finding t h e quencewemayapplytheVA to exploitcontextualconstate sequence for whichP(xl z) is maximum, or equivalently straints; see Fig. 6. Here the ‘‘OCR output” may be anything for which P ( x , z) = P ( x i z ) P ( z ) is maximum, by finding the a grid of zeros and ones, to path whose length --in P ( x , Z) is minimum, since In P ( x ,t) is from the raw sensor data, possibly the actual decision which would be made by the reader in the a monotonic function of P ( x , Z) and there isa one-to-one corabsence of contextual clues. Generally, the more raw the data, respondencebetweenpathsandsequences.Wesimply obthe more useful theVA will be. servethatduetotheMarkovandmemorylessproperties, P ( x , z) factors as follows:


E . Othw

Recognizing certain similarities between magnetic recording media and intersymbol interference channels, Kobayashi [SO] has proposed applying the VA to digital magnetic recording systems. Timor [SI] has applied the algorithm to a sequentialrangingsystem.Use of thealgorithminsource coding has been proposed [52]. Finally, Preparata and Ray [53] have suggested using the algorithm to search ‘‘semantic maps”insyntacticpatternrecognition.Theseexhaustthe applications known to the author.

P(x, 2)



P(x)P(z x )

Hence if weassigneachbranch(transition)the


then the total length of the path corresponding to some x is


We now show that the MAP sequence estimation problem k=O previously stated is formally identical to the problem of findas claimed. ing the shortest route through a certain graph. The VA then Finding the shortest route througha graph is an old probarises as a natural recursive solution. lem in operations research. The most succinct solution was \Ye areaccustomedtoassociatingwith a discrete-time givenbyMintyin a quarter-pagecorrespondencein 1957 finite-state Markov process a state diagramof the type shown [ 5 5 ] , which we quote almost in its entirety: in Fig. 7(a), for a four-state shift-register process like that of Fig. 3 or Fig. 4 (in this case, a de Bruijn diagram [54]). Here The shortest-route problem . . . can be solved verysimply . . . as follows: Build a string model of the travel network, ~ K ~ d erepresent s states,branchesrepresenttransitions,and where knots representcities and string lengths represnt disover the course of time the process traces some path from state tances (or costs). Seize the knot ‘Los Angeles”in your left to state through the state diagram. hand and knot the ’Boston” in your right and pull them apart.

(time )



Unfortunately, the Minty algorithm is not well adapted to modern methods of machine computation, nor are assistants as pliable as formerly. I t therefore becomes necessary to move on to the VA, which is also well known in operations research [ 5 6 ] . I t requires one additional observation. We denote by xok a segment (xo, xl, . , xk) consisting of the states to time k of the state sequence x = (xo, x 1 , * , x k ) . I n t h etrellis xok corresponds to a path segment startingat t h e node x0 and terminatingat Xk. For any particular time-k node %kt there will in general be several such path segments, each with some length k-1

UXOk> =


1 1



6 0

The shortest such path segment is called the surriuor corresponding to the node x k , and is denoted ? ( X k ) . For any time k>O, there are M survivors in all, one for eachx k . The observation is this: the shortest complete path i must begin with one of these survivors. (If it did not, but went through state Z k at time k , thenwecouldreplaceitsinitialsegmentby f ( x k ) to get a shorter path-contradiction.) M surT h u s at any time k we need remember only the vivors f(xk) and their lengths l'(xk) p X [ f ( x k ) ] . To get to time k f l , we need only extend all time-k survivors by one time unit, compute the lengthsof the extended path segments, and for each node xk+l select the shortest extended path segment terminatingin xk+1 as thecorrespondingtime-(kfl)survivor. Recursion proceeds indefinitely without the number of survivors ever exceedingM . Many readers will recognizethisalgorithm as a simple version of forward dynamic programming [57], By this or anyothername,thealgorithmiselementaryoncethe problem has been cast in the shortest route form. k=5 We illustrate the algorithm for a simple four-state trellis 8. Fig. 8(a)showsthecomcovering 5 timeunitsinFig. plete trellis, with each branch labeled with a length. (In a real (b) of the received application, the lengths would be functions Fig. 8. (a) Trellis labeled with branch lengths; M = 4, K = 5. data.)Fig.8(b)showsthe 5 recursivestepsbywhichthe (b) Recursive determination of the shortest path via the VA. algorithm determines the shortest path from the initial to the final node. At each stage only t h e 4 (or fewer) survivors are for each x k + l ; store r ( x r + l ) and the corresponding survivor shown, along with their lengths. i(Xk+l). A formal statement of the algorithm follows: S e t k to k+1 and repeat untilk = K . Viterbi Algorithm With finite state sequences x the algorithm terminates at time K with the shortest complete path stored as the survivor



Storage: k ?(xk),


(survivor terminating in (survivor length).


Initialization: k = 0.; X(xo) = x o ;

i(m) arbitrary,

r(Xo)= 0 ;


Recursion: Compute

for all = ( x k + l , Find






1< x k < & f 1


m # xo;

m # xo.

Certaintrivialmodificationsarenecessaryinpractice. When state sequences are very long or infinite, it is necessary to truncate survivors to some manageable length 6. In other a definitedecision o n words,thealgorithmmustcometo nodes up to time k-6 at time k. Note that in Fig. 8(b) all time-4 survivors go through the same nodes up t o time 2. In general, if thetruncationdepth 6 ischosenlargeenough, there is a high probability that all time-k survivors will go through the same nodes up to time k - 6 , so that the initial segment of the maximum-likelihood path is known up to time k-6 and can be put out as the algorithm's firm decision; in In the rare cases when this case, truncation costs nothing. survivors disagree, any reasonable strategy for determining thealgorithm'stime-(k-6)decision will work [20], [21]: choose an arbitrary time-(k-6) node, or the node associated with the shortest survivor, or a node chosen by majority vote,



etc. If 6 is large enough, the effect on performance is negligible. Also, if k becomes large, it is necessary to renormalize the lengths r ( m ) from time to time by subtracting a constant from all of them. Fig. 9. Typical cell of a shift-register process trellis. to get started withFinally, the algorithm may be required out knowledge of the initial state xg. In this case it may be initializedwithanyreasonableassignment of initialnode lengths, such as r(m)=0, all m, or else r(m)= -In r,,,if t h e II states are known to have a priori probabilities r,,,.Usually, after an initial transient, there is a high probability that all survivors will merge with the correct path. Thus the algorithm synchronizes itself without any special procedures. The complexity of the algorithm is easily estimated. First, II ,, ll memory: the algorithm requires M storage locations, one for SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT each state, where each location must be capable of storing a 1-OF- 2 I-OF-2 I-OF-2 1-OF-2 “length” r ( m ) and a truncatedsurvivorlisting % ( m ) of 6 symbols.Second,computation:ineachunit of timethe algorithm must make IEI additions, one for each transition, and M comparisons among the ] E l results. Thus the amount \---y--l TOANOTHER LOGIC UNIT TOANOTHER LOGIC UNIT of storage is proportional to the number of states, and the Fig, 10. Basic VA logic unit for binary shift-register process. amount of computation to the numberof transitions. \\‘ith a shift-register process, M = my and 1 El = mV+l,so that the complexity increases exponentially with the length v of the shift Fourier transform (FFT). In fact, it is identical, except for register. length, and indeed the FFT is also ordinarily organized cellIn the previous paragraph, we have ignored the complexity wise. Li‘hile the add-and-compare computations of the VA involvedingeneratingtheincrementallengths X(&). In a are unlike those involved in the FFT, some of the memoryshift-register process, it is typically true that P ( x k + l I xk) is organization tricks developed for the FFT may be expected either l/m or 0, depending on whether xk+l is an allowable suc- to be equally useful here. cessor t o xk or not; then all allowable transitions have the Because of its highly parallel structure and need for only same value of -In P(xk+lI xk) and this component of X(&) add, compare, and select operations, the VA is well suited to may be ignored. Note that in more general cases P(xk+l I xk) is high-speed applications. A convolutional decoder for a v = 6 known in advance: hence this component can be precomputedcode (Ji= 64, / E l = 128) t h a t is built out of 356 transistora n d ‘wired in.” The component -In P ( z k / 4;c) is the only com- transistor logiccircuitsandthatcanoperate at u pt o 2 ponentthatdepends on the data; again, it is typical that Mbits/s perhaps represents the current state of the art [22]. y k , andhencethevalue many f k lead to the same output Even a software decoder for a similar code can be run at a -In P ( z k 1 yk) need be computed or looked up for all these .$x. ratetheorder of 1000 bits/son a minicomputer.Such only once, givenz k . (\Then the noise is Gaussian, -In P ( z k I y k ) moderate complexity qualifies the VA for inclusion in many is proportional simply to ( z k - y k ) * . ) Finally, all of this can be signal-processing systems. done outside the central recursion (“pipelined”). Hence the For further details of implementation, see [22], [23], a n d complexity of this computation tends not to be significant. the references therein. Furthermore, note that once the X&) are computed, the IV. ASALYSISOF PERFORMAXE observation Zk need not be stored further, an attractive feaJust as important as thestraightforwardness of impleture in real-time applications. A closer lookat t h e trellis of a shift-register process reveals mentation of t h e VA is the straightforwardness with which its additional detail that can be exploited in implementation. Forperformance can be analyzed. In many cases, tight upper and a binary shift register, the transitions in any unitof time can lower bounds for error probability can be derived. Even when t h e VA is not actually implemented, calculation be segregated into 2y-1 disjoint groups of four, each originatof its perof lesscomplex ing in a common pair of states and terminating in another formanceshowshowfartheperformance common pair. A typical such cell is illustrated in Fig. 9, with schemes is from ideal, and often suggests simple suboptimum the time-k states labeled x’0 and x‘l and the time-(k+l) statesschemes that attain nearly optimal performance. labelled Ox‘ a n d lx’, where x’ stands fora sequence of v - 1 bits Thekeyconceptinperformanceanalysisisthat of a n that is constant within any one cell. For example, each time errorevent.Let x be the actual state sequence, and 4 the unit in the trellis of Fig. 8 is made up of two such cells. \Ye state sequence actually chosen by theVA. Over a long time x note that only quantities within the samecell interact in any and i will typically diverge and remerge a number of times, 10 shows a basiclogic m i t that impleonerecursion.Fig. as illustrated in Fig. 11. Each distinct separation is called a n mentsthecomputationwithinanyone cell. A high-speed errorevent.Erroreventsmayingeneralbe of unbounded parallel implementation of the algorithm can be built around length if x is infinite, but the probability of a n infinite error 2-l such identical logic units; a low-speed implementation, event will usually be zero. or a softwareversion, aroundonesuchunit,time-shared; The importance of erroreventsisthattheyareprobaround the corresponding subroutine. abilistically independent of one another; in the language of of Fig. 7(b) probability theory they arerecurrent. Furthermore, they allow Many readers will have noticed that the trellis reminds them of the computational flow diagram of the fast us to calculate error probability per unit time, which is neces-




1, &r



9+! 9 {*;




u r n1973


- u W w Fig. 11. Typical correct path X (heavy line) and estimated path (lighter line) in the trellis, showing three error events.


sary since usually the probability of any error in MAP estimaFig. 12. Typical correct path X (heavy line) and time-k incorrect subset for trellis of Fig. 7(b). tion of a block of length K goes t o 1 as K goes to infinity. Instead we calculate the probabilityof an error event starting at some given time, given that the starting state is correct, i.e., that an error event is not already in progress at that time. . . .. Given the correct path X , the set &k of all possible error events startingat some time k is a treelike trellis which starts at x k and each of whose branches ends on the correct path, as illustratedinFig. 12, for the trellis of Fig.7(b).Incoding Fig. 13. Trellis for continuous-phase FSK. theory this is called the incorrect subset (at timeR ) . The probability of any particular error event is easily calculated; it is simply the probability that the observations will be such that over the time span during which 4 is different from X , f is more likely thanX . If the error event has length T, this is simplya two-hypothesis decision problem between two sequences of length T, and typically has a standard solution. Fig. 14. Typical incorrect subset. Heavy line: correct path. The probability P ( & k ) t h a t any error event in&k occurs can Lighter lines: incorrect subset. then be upper-bounded, usually tightly, by a union bound, i.e., by the sum of the probabilities of all error events in &k. 14. The shortest possible While this sum may well be infinite, it is typically dominated a typical incorrect subset in Fig. error event is of length 2 and consists of a decision t h a t t h e by one or a few large leading terms representing particularly w(l)t, -cos o(1)t) rather than {cos w(O)t, likely error events, whose sum then forms a good approxima- signalwas{cos cos w ( 0 ) t 1, or in our coordinate notation that { (0,l), (0, - 1) ] tion to P(&k).True upper bounds can often be obtained by is chosen over { (1, 0),(1, 0) 1. This is a two-hypothesis deflow-graph techniques [4], [SI, [%I. cisionproblemin a four-dimensionalsignalspace [59]. I n On the other hand, a lowerbound to error-event probu* per dimension, only the EuclidGaussian noise of variance ability,againfrequentlytight,canbeobtainedbyagenie argument. Take the particular error event that has the great- ean distance d between the two signals matters; in this caseest probability of all those in &k. Suppose thata friendly genie d = 4 3 , and therefore the probability of this particular error tells you that the true state sequence is one of two possibili- eventis Q(d/%)=Q(l/ad/Z), where Q(x) istheGaussian ties: the actual correct path,or the incorrect path correspond- error probability function defined by ing to that error event. Even with this side information, you will still make an error if the incorrect path ismorelikely given z, so your probability of error is still no better than the probability of this particular error event. In the absence of the genie, your error probability must be worse still, since one of By examination of Fig. 14 we see that the error events of lengths 3, 4, . . lie atdistances 4 6 , dG, . fromthe the strategies you have, given the genie’s information, is to ignore it. In summary, the probability of any particular error correct path; hence we arrive at upper and lower bounds on P ( & k ) of event isa lower bound toP ( & k ) . An important side observation is that this lower bound applies to any decision scheme, not just the VA. Simple exten- Q ( 4 2 / 2 u ) 2 P(&k) 5 Q ( d 2 / 2 ~ ) Q(d6/eu) Q(4i6/2u) ..* sions give lower bounds to related quantities like bit probability of error. If the VA givesperformanceapproaching I n view of the rapid decreaseof Q ( x ) with x , this implies that these bounds, then it may be claimed that it is effectively optiP ( & k ) is accurately estimated as Q(d/2/2u) for any reasonable mum with respect to these related quantities as well [3O]. 13 that this In conclusion, the probability of any error event starting noise variance a*. I t is easily verified from Fig. result is independentof the correct pathx or the timeK. at time k may be upper- and lower-bounded as follows: This result is interesting in that thebest one can do with max P(error event) 5 P(&k) 5 max P(error event) coherent detection in a single symbol interval is Q(1/2a) for other terms. orthogonal signals. Thus exploiting the memory doubles the effective signal energy, or improves the signal-to-noise ratio With luck these bounds will be close. by 3 dB. It may therefore be claimed that continuous-phase FSK is inherently 3 dB better than noncontinuous for deviaExample tion ratio 3, or as good as antipodal phase-shift keying. (While For concreteness, and because the resultis instructive, we we have proved this onlyfor a deviation ratio of ), it holds for carry through the calculation for continuous-phase FSK of nearly any deviation ratio.) Even though theVA is quite simof error ple for a two-state trellis, the fact that only one type theparticularlysimpletype definedearlier.Thetwo-state trellis for this process is shown in Fig.13, and the first part of event has any significant probability permits still simpler sub-


+ +






optimum schemes to achieve effectively the same performance formance superior to all other coding schemes save sequential decoding,anddoesthis at highspeeds,withmodestcom[431,[441.’ plexity,andwithconsiderablerobustnessagainstvarying V. APPLICATIONS channelparameters. A number of prototypesystemshave We conclude with a review of the results, both theoretical been implemented and tested [21]-[26], some quite original, and practical, obtained with the VA to date. and it seems likely that Viterbi decoders will become common in space communication systems. A , ConvolutionalCodes Finally, Viterbi decoders have been used as elements in very-high-performanceconcatenatedcodingschemes [lo]It was for convolutional codes that the algorithm was first of convolutionalcodesinthe developed, and naturally it has had its greatest impact here. [12], [27] andindecoding presence of intersymbol interference [35], [6O]. The principal theoretical result is contained in Viterbi’s original paper [ l ] ;see also [SI-[7]. I t shows that for a suitably defined ensemble of random trellis codes and MAP decod- B . IntersymbolInterference ing, the error probability can be made to decrease exponenApplication of the VA to intersymbol interference probtially with the constraint lengthv a t all code rates R less t h a n lems i s more recent, and the main achievements have been channel capacity. Furthermore, the rate of decrease is contheoretical. The principal result, for PAM in white Gaussian siderably faster than for block codes with comparable decod- noise, is t h a t P ( & k ) can be tightly bounded asfollows: ing complexity (although the same as that for block codes K ~ Q ( d m i n / 2I ~ )P ( & k ) I KrQ(drnirJ2~) with the same decoding delay). In our view, the most telling comparison between block and convolutional codes is that an where K L and Kv are small constants, Q(x) is the Gaussian effectively optimum block code of a n y specified length and error probability function defined earlier, u? is t h e noise varirate can be created by suitably terminating a convolutional ance, and dmin is the minimum Euclidean distance between (trellis)code, but with a lowerratefortheblockcode of any two distinct signals[29]. This result implies that on most course [7]. In fact, if convolutional codes were any better, channels intersymbol interference need not lead to any sigthey could be terminated to yield better block codes than are nificant degradation in performance, which comes as rather a theoretically possible-an observation which shows that the surprise. bounds on convolutional code performance must be tight. Forexample,withthemostcommonpartialresponse For fixed binaryconvolutionalcodes of nonasymptotic systems, the VA recovers the 3-dB loss sustained by convenlength on symmetricmemorylesschannels,theprincipal tional detectors relative to full-response systems [29],[32]. result [6] is that P ( & k ) is approximately given by Simplesuboptimumprocessors [29],[33] candonearly as well. P(&k) ;\r,2-dD have proposed adaptive Several workers [34],[35],[42] where d is the free distance, Le., the minimum Hamming dis- versions of thealgorithmforunknownandtime-varying tance of any path in the incorrect subset &h from the correct channels. [41], [42] and hlackechnie [35] Ungerboeck path: N d is the number of such paths; and D is the Bhathave shown that onlya matched filter rather thana whitened tacharyya distance matched filter is needed in PAM. I t seems most likely that the greatest effect of the VA on D = logs P ( z O)l’*P(z 1)l I 2 digital modulation systemswill be t o reveal those instances in Z whichconventionaldetectiontechniquesfallsignificantly where the sum is over all outputs z in the channel output spaceshort of optimum,andtosuggesteffectivesuboptimum 2. methods of closing the gap. PAM channels that cannot be On Gaussian channels linearly equalized without excessive noise enhancement due t o nulls or near nulls in the transmission band are the likeliest candidates for nonlinear techniques of this kind. where & / N O is the signal-to-noise ratio per information bit. The tightness of this bound is confirmed by simulations [8], C. Text Recognition [9], [22]. For a v = 6 , d = 10, R=+ code, for example, error An experiment was run in which digram statistics were are achieved at Eb/No used t o correct garbled text produced by a simulated noisy probabilities of l e * , lC5,a n d le7 =3.0, 4.3, a n d 5.5 dB,respectively,which is within a few characterrecognizer [47]. Resultsweresimilartothose of tenths of a dceibel of this bound [22]. Raviv [48] (using digram statistics), although the algorithm Channelsavailableforspacecommunicationsarefreconfiwas simpler and only had hard decisions rather than quently accurately modeled as white Gaussian channels. The dence levels t o work with. It appears that the algorithm may VAisattractiveforsuchchannelsbecauseitgivesperbe a useful adjunct t o sophisticated character-recognition systemsforresolvingambiguitieswhenconfidencelevelsfor different characters are available. * De Buda [44] actually proves thatanoptimum decision onthe



phase x t at time k can be made by examining the received waveform only at times k- 1 and k ; Le., ( z o . ~ - I z, ~ t - l ) (ZU, , w ) . The proof is that the log likelihood ratio -In

P ( Z 0 . k - 1 , Z1.k-I,

ZOk, Zlk

P ( Z 0 . t - 1 , Z1.t-1,

Z O t , &t-1,




Xk Xk


*, Y t + d

is proportional to - z ~ , t - l + z ~ . ~ - 1 - z u - -for ~ ~ any values of the pair of states ( ~ l t - 1 ~xk+1). For this phase decision (which differs slightly from our sequence decision) the error probability is exactly Q(&/2n).

VI. CONCLUSIOK The VA has already had a significant impact on our understanding of certain problems, notably in the theories of convolutional codes and of intersymbol interference. I t is beginning to have a substantial practical impact as well in the engineering of space-communication links. The amountof work it has



inspired in the intersymbol interference area suggests that here too practical applications are not far off. The generality of the model t o which it applies and the straightforwardness with which it can be analyzed and implemented lead one to believe that in both theory and practice itwill find increasing application in the years ahead.


Now we note the recursive formula




p ( z kx,k - 1 , Zk-1



p ( z k - 1Z,O " ' ) p ( z k4 ,- 1



which allows us to calculate theM quantities P(%, ~0"') from , with IZI multiplications and the M quantities P ( x ~ 1zo"*) additions using the exponentiated lengths




In this Appendix we mention some processing structures = p ( z k %k-l)P(zk-l &-I). that are closely related t o t h eVA, chiefly sequential decoding and minimum-bit-error-probability algorithms. We also men- Similarly we have the backward recursion tion extensions of the algorithm to generate reliability inforp(Zk" xk) = p(zkK,x k + l Z k ) mation, erasures, and lists. ZW1 When the trellis becomes large, it is natural to abandon = p ( z k x, k + l xk)p(zk+l" Zk+d the exhaustive search of the VA in favorof a sequential trialZkil and-error search that selectively examines only those paths likely t o be the shortest. In the coding literature, such al- which has a similar complexity. Completion of these forward gorithms are collectively known as sequential decoding [Is]- and backward recursions for all nodes allowsP ( x k , Z) and/or [l6]. The simplest to explain is the 'stack" algorithm [IS], P(&,z) t o be calculated for all nodes. [16],in which a list is maintainedof the shortest partial paths Now, to be specific, let us consider a shift-register process found to date, the path on the top of the list is extended, and and let S(uk) be the setof all states zel whose first component is %k. Then its successors reordered in the list until some path is found t h a t reachesthe &eLminalnode, or elsedecreaseswithout p ( u k , 2) = p ( x k + l , 2)limit. (That some pathwill eventually do so is ensured in codZk+lES(Ut) ing applications by the subtraction of a bias term such that the length of the correct path tends to decrease while thatof Since P(uk, z) =P(ukI z ) P ( z ) , MAP estimation of u k reduces of thisquantity.Similarly, if we all incorrect paths tends to increase.) Searches that start fromt o findingthemaximum wish t o find the MAP estimate of an output y k , say, then let either end of a finite trellis [I71 are alsouseful. In coding applications, sequential decoding has many of S(p) be the setof all & that leadto yk and compute the same properties as Viterbi decoding, including the same P(Yk, 4 = p ( f k , 2). error probability. I t allows the decoding of longer and there€t= k t ) fore more powerful codes, at the cost of a variable amount of A similar procedure can be used to estimate any quantity computationnecessitatingbufferstoragefortheincoming a deterministic function of states or transitions. which is d a t a z. It is probably less useful outside of coding, since i t Besidesrequiringmultiplications,thisalgorithmisless depends on the decoder's ability to recognize when the best attractive than the VA in requiring a backward as well as a pathhasbeenfoundwithoutexaminingotherpaths,and forward recursion and consequently storage of all data. The therefore requires eithera finite trellisor a very large distance [39], [48] eliminates the latter following amended algorithm between the correct path andpossible error events. ugly feature at the cost of suboptimal performance and addiIntheintersymbolinterferenceliterature,many of the early attempts tofind optimum nonlinear algorithms used bit- tional computation. Letus restrict ourselves toa shift-register process with input sequence u and agree to use only observaerrorprobability as theoptimalitycriterion.TheMarkov tions up to time k+6 in estimating U k , say, where 6 2v- 1. W e property of the process leads to algorithms that are managethen have able but less attractive than the Viterbi [36]-[42]. The general principle of several of these algorithms is as P ( u k , 20") = ' * * p(Ukk*, ZOw"). follows.8 First, we calculate the joint probability P ( x k , z) for uti1 Uti6 every state x k in the trellis, or alternately P(&,z) for every Thequantities in thesumcan be determinedrecursively transition &. This is done by observing that by p ( z k , 2) = p ( x k , ZO"')p(ZkK x k , 20"')






I ZOk1)p(zkKI xk)

p ( U k k M , ZOk*)





since, given Xk, the outputs zkK from time k t o K are independ e n t of the outputs zoL-' from time 0 t o K - 1 . Similarly






W k Y l , '




'The author is indebted to Bahl et al. 1181 foraparticularly exposition of this type of algorithm.





While the recursion is now forward only, we now must store m*' quantities rather than m'. If I is large, this is most unattractive; if 6 is close t o v-1, the estimate may well be decidedly suboptimum. These variations thus seem considerably less attractive t h a n t h e VA. Nonetheless, something like this may need to as trackbe hybridized with the VA in certain situations such



space communication,” I E E E Trans. Commun. Technol., vol. COMing a finite-state source overa finite-state channel, where only 19, pp. 835-847, Oct. 1971. the state sequence of the source is of interest. [23] G. C. Clark, Jr., and R. C. Davis, “Two recent applicationsof errorcorrection coding to communications system design,” I E E E Trans. Finally, we can consider augmented outputs from the VA. Technol., vol. COM-19, pp. 856-863, Oct. 1971. A good general indication of how well the algorithm is doing [24] Commun. I. M. Jacobs and R. J. Sims, “Configuring a TDMA satellite comis the depthat which all paths are merged; this can be used to munication system with coding, in Proc. 5th Hawaii Int. Conf. SystemsScience. Honolulu,Hawaii:WesternPeriodicals, 1972, pp. establish whether or not a communications channel is on the 443-446. air, in synchronism, etc.[ l l ] ,[28]. A more selective indicator 1251 A. R. Cohen, J. A. Heller, andA. J. Viterbi, “A new coding technique forasynchronousmultiple access communication,” I E E E Trans. of howreliableparticularsegmentsare is the difference in Commun. Technol., vol. COM-19, pp. 849-855, Oct. 1971. lengths between the best and the next-best pathsat the point (261 D. Quagliato,“Errorcorrecting codes applied to satellitechanof merging; this reliability indicator can be quantized into an nels,= in 1972 I E E E Int. Conf. Communications (Philadelphia, Pa.), pp. 15/13-18. erasure output. Lastly, the algorithm can be altered to store Corp.,“Hybridcodingsystemstudy,”FinalRep. on t h e L best paths, rather than the single best path, as the sur- [27] Linkabit Contract NAS2-6722, NASA Ames Res. Cen., Moffett Field, Calif., vivors in each recursion, thus eventually generating a list of NASA Rep. CR114486, Sept. 1972. [281 G. C. Clark, Jr., and R. C. Davis, “Reliability-of-decodingindicators t h e L most likely path sequences.

REFERENCES Conuolutwnal Codes [l] A. J. Viterbi, “Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymp-

I E E E Trans.Inform. toticallyoptimumdecodingalgorithm,” Theory, vol. IT-13, pp. 260-269, Apr. 1967. 121 G. D.Forney,Jr.,“Convolutional codes I: Algebraic structure,” I E E E Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-16, pp. 720-738, Nov. 1970. [3] -, “Review of randomtreecodes,” NASA Ames Res. Cen., Moffett Field, Calif., Contract NAS2-3637, NASA CR 73176, Final Rep., Dec. 1967, appendix A. [4] G. C. Clark, R. C. Davis,J. C. Herndon, and D. D. McRae, “Interim report on convolution coding research,” Advanced System Operation, Radiation Inc., Melbourne, Fla., Memo Rep.38, Sept. 1969. (5) A. J. Viterbi and J. P. Odenwalder, “Further results on optimal decoding of convolutional codes,” I E E E Trans. Inform. Theory (Corresp.), vol. IT-15, pp. 732-734, Nov. 1969. [a] A. J. Viterbi, “Convolutional codes and their performance in communicationsystems,” I E E E Trans. Commun. Technol.,vol. COM-19, pp. 751-772, Oct. 1971. [7] G. D.Forney,Jr.,“Convolutional codes 11: Maximum likelihood decoding,’! Stanford Electronics Labs., Stanford, Calif., Tech. Rep. 7004-1, June 1972. Space 181 J. A. Heller, “Short constraint length convolutional codes,” in Program Summary 37-54, vol. 111. Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. Technol., pp. 171-177, 0ct.-Nov. 1968. “Improved performance of short constraint length convolu(91 -, tional codes,” inSpace Program Summary37-56,vol. 111. Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. Technol., pp. 83-84, Feb.-Mar. 1969. [lo] J. P. Odenwalder, “Optimal decoding of convolutional codes,” Ph.D. dissertation,Dep.Syst. Sci., Sch.Eng. Appl. Sci., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, 1970. M I T Res. Lab.Electron., [Ill J. L. Ramsey,“Cascadedtreecodes,” Cambridge, Mass., Tech. Rep. 478, Sept. 1970. [12] G. W. Zeoli, “Coupled decodingof block-convolutional concatenated codes,”Ph.D.dissertation,Dep. Elec. Eng.,Univ. of California, Los Angeles, 1971. [I31 J. M. Wozencraft,“Sequential decoding for reliable communication,” in 1957 I R E Nat. Conv. Rec., vol. 5, pt. 2, pp. 11-25. [I41 R. M. Fano,“A heuristic discussion of probabilistic decoding,”I E E E Trans. Inform. Theory,vol. IT-9, pp. 64-74, Apr. 1963. Probl. 1151 K. S. Zigangirov, “Some sequentialdecodingprocedures,” Pered. Inform., vol. 2, pp. 13-25, 1966. [161 F. Jelinek, “Fast sequential decoding algorithmusing a stack,” I B M J . Res. Develop., vol. 13, pp. 675-685, Nov. 1969. [171 L. R. Bahl, C. D. Cullum, W. D. Frazer, and F. Jelinek, ”An efficient algorithm for computing free distance,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory (Corresp.), vol. IT-18, pp. 437-439, May 1972. [ l a ] L. R. Bahl, J. Cocke,F. Jelinek, and J. Raviv, “Optimal decodingof linear codes for minimizing symbol error rate’ (Abstract), in 1972 In#. Symp. InformationTheory (Pacific Grove, Calif., Jan.1972), p. 90. 1191 P. L. McAdam, L. R. Welch, and C. L. Weber, “M.A.P. bit decoding 1972 I n f . Symp.InformafionTheory of convolutionalcodes,”in (Pacific Grove, Calif., Jan. 1972), p. 91.

Space Applications [20] Linkabit Corp., “Coding systems study for high data rate telemetry links, ’Final Rep. on N4SA Ames Res. Cen., Moffett Field, Calif., Contract NASZ-6024, Rep. CR-114278, 1970. [21] G. C. Clark, “Implementation of maximum likelihood decoders for convolutional codes,” in Proc. Int. Telcmetering Conf. (Washington, D. C., 1971). [22] J. A. Heller and I. M. Jacobs, “Viterbi decoding for satellite and

for maximum likelihood decoders,” in Proc. 5th Hawaii I n f . Conf. SystemsScience. Honolulu, Hawaii: Western Periodicals, 1927, pp. 447-450.

Intersymbol Interference (291 G. D.Forney,Jr.,“Maximum-likelihoodsequenceestimation of digital sequences in thepresence of intersynlbol interference,”I E E E Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-18, pp. 363-378, May 1972. [30] -, “Lower bounds on error probability in the presence of large intersymbolinterference,” I E E E Trans.Commun. Technol. (Corresp.), vol. COM-IO, pp. 76-77, Feb. 1972. [31] J. K.Omura,”Onoptimum receivers forchannelswithintersymbol interference,” abstract presented at the IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June 1970. [32] H. Koba;ashi, ”Correlative level codingand maximum-likelihood vol. IT-17, PP. 586-594, decoding, I E E E Trans.Inform.Theory, Sept. 1971. (331 M. J. Ferguson, ”Optimal receptionfor binary partial response channels,” Bell Syst. Tech. J . , vol. 51, pp. 493-505, Feb. 1972. (341 F. R. Magee, Jr., and J. G. Proakis, “Adaptive maximum-likelihood sequence estimationfor digital signaling in thepresence of intersymbo1 interference,” I E E E Trans.Inform.Theory (Corresp.), vol. IT-19, pp. 120-124, Jan. 1973. (351 L. K. Mackechnie, ”Maximum likelihood receivers for channels having memory,’ Ph.D. dissertation, Dep. Elec. Eng., Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind., Jan. 1973. [36] R. W. Chang andJ. C. Hancock, “Onreceiver structures for channels having memory,’ I E E E Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-12, pp. 463468, Oct. 1966. [37] K.Abend,T. J. Harley,Jr., B. D.Fritchman,and C. Gumacos, “On optimum receivers for channels having memory,”I E E E Trans. Inform. Theory (Corresp.), vol. IT-14, pp. 819-820, Nov. 1968. [38] R. R. ?wen, “Bayesian decision procedures for interfering digital (Corresp.), vol. IT-15, pp. signals, I E E E Trans.Inform.Theory 506-507, July 1969. [39] K. Abend and B. D. Fritchman, “Statistical detection for communiProc. I E E E , vol. cationchannelswithintersymbolinterference,” 58, pp. 779-785, May 1970. (401 C. G. Hilborn, Jr., “Applications of unsupervised learning to problems of digital communication,” in Proc. 9th I E E E Symp. Adaptive Processes, Decision, and Control (Dec. 7-9, 1970). C. G. Hilborn, Jr., andD.G.Lainiotis,“Optimalunsupervised learning multicategory dependent hypotheses pattern recognition,” I E E E Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-14, pp. 468-470, May 1968. [41] G. Ungerboeck, “Nonlinear equalization of binary signals in Gaussian noise,”I E E E Trans. Commun. Technol.,vol. COM-19, pp. 11281137, Dec. 1971. [42] --, ”Adaptive maximum-likelihood receiver for carrier-modulated data transmission systems,” in preparation.

Continuous-Phase FSK [43] M. G. Pelchat, R. C. Davis, and M . B. Luntz, “Coherent demodulation of continuous-phase binary FSK signals,” in Proc. Inl. Telemetry Conf. (Washington, D. C., 1971). [44] R. de Buda, “Coherent demodulation of frequency-shift keying with low deviation ratio,”I E E E Trans. Commun. Technol.,vol. COM-20, pp. 429-435, June 1972.

Text Recognition [45] C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The MUthemdica! Theory of Communication. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Ill.Press, 1949. [46] C. E. Shannon, “Prediction and entropy of printed English,” Bell Syst. Tech. J . , vol. 30, pp. 50-64, Jan. 1951. (471 D. L. Neuhoff, “The Viterbi algorithm asan aid in textrecognition,’ Stanford Electronic Labs., Stanford, Calif., unpublished. (481 J. Raviv, “Decision making in Markov chains applied to problem the of pattern recognition,” I E E E Trans.Inform.Theory, vol. IT-13, pp. 536-551, Oct. 1967.


Miscellaneous [49] H.Kobayashi,“Asurvey of codingschemesfortransmissionor recording of digital data,” IEEETrans.Commun.Technol., vol. COM-19, pp. 1087-1100, Dec. 1971. [SO] -, “Application of probabilistic decoding t o digital magnetic recordingsystems,” I B M J . Res. Develop., vol. 15, pp. 64-74, Jan. 1971. [51] U. Tirnor, ‘Sequential ranging with the Viterbi algorithm,” JetPropulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif., JPL Tech. Rep. 32-1526, vol. 11, pp. 75-79, Jan. 1971. [52] J.K.Omura, “On the Viterbi algorithm forsourcecoding”(Abstract), in1972 ZEEE Znt. Symp. Information Theory (Pacific Grove, Calif., Jan. 1972), p. 21. [53] F. P. Preparata and S. R. Ray, “An approach to artificial nonsymbolic cognition,”Inform. Sci.,vol. 4, pp. 65-86, Jan. 1972.



[54] S. W.Golomb, Shift Regisln Sequcrrccs. San Franasm, Calif.: Holden-Day, 1967, pp..13-17. [ 5 5 ] G. J. Minty, ‘A comment on the shortest-route problem,” O p a . Res., vol. 5 , p. 724, Oct. 1957. [56] M. Pollack andW. Wiebenson,“Solutions of the shortest-route problem-A review,” O p a . Res., vol. 8, pp. 224-230, Mar. 1960. [57] R. Busacker and T. Saaty, Finite Graphs and Networks: A n Z n t r o duction with Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965. [58] J. K. Omura, “On the Viterbi decoding algorithm,” ZEEE Trans. Inform. T h m y , vol. IT-15, pp. 177-179, Jan. 1969. [59] J. M. Wozencraft and I. M. Jacobs, Principres of Cmnunicaliorr Engineering. New York: Wiley, 1965, ch. 4. [a] J. K. Omura, ‘Optimal receiver design for convolutional codes and channelswithmemory via control theoreticalconcepts,” Inform. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 24S-266, July 1971.

The Viterbi Algorithm - IEEE Xplore

HE VITERBI algorithm (VA) was proposed in 1967 as a method of decoding convolutional codes. Since that time, it has been recognized as an attractive solu-.

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Iv~~~~~~~~W - IEEE Xplore
P. Arena, L. Fortuna, G. Vagliasindi. DIEES - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e dei Sistemi. Facolta di Ingegneria - Universita degli Studi di Catania. Viale A. Doria, 6. 95125 Catania, Italy [email protected]. ABSTRACT. The no

Device Ensembles - IEEE Xplore
Dec 2, 2004 - Device. Ensembles. Notebook computers, cell phones, PDAs, digital cameras, music players, handheld games, set-top boxes, camcorders, and.

Fountain codes - IEEE Xplore
7 Richardson, T., Shokrollahi, M.A., and Urbanke, R.: 'Design of capacity-approaching irregular low-density parity check codes', IEEE. Trans. Inf. Theory, 2001 ...

Multipath Matching Pursuit - IEEE Xplore
Abstract—In this paper, we propose an algorithm referred to as multipath matching pursuit (MMP) that investigates multiple promising candidates to recover ...

Privacy-Enhancing Technologies - IEEE Xplore
filling a disk with one big file as a san- ... “One Big File Is Not Enough” to ... analysis. The breadth of privacy- related topics covered at PET 2006 made it an ...

Binder MIMO Channels - IEEE Xplore
Abstract—This paper introduces a multiple-input multiple- output channel model for the characterization of a binder of telephone lines. This model is based on ...