Towards a Distributed Clustering Scheme based on Spatial Correlation in WSNs Trong Duc Le, Ngoc Duy Pham, and Hyunseung Choo School of Information and Communication Engineering Sungkyunkwan University, Korea Email: {letrongduc, phmngocduy}@skku.edu, [email protected]

Abstract—In the development of various large-scale sensor systems, a particularly challenging problem is how to dynamically organize the sensor nodes into clusters and route the sensing information to a remote base station. By leveraging the spatial correlation, there have been some noteworthy clustering schemes proposed recently, such as EEDC and ASAP. However, they are based on an impractical assumption of single-hop network architecture, and the cluster construction communication cost is relatively high. With such motivation, we introduce a novel distributed clustering scheme to group the sensor nodes that have the highest similarity in observations into the same cluster and also construct a dynamic backbone of efficient data collection in wireless sensor networks. Accordingly, with a given spatial accuracy requirement, only part of the sensor nodes in each cluster should be required to work for sampling and data transmitting in order to save energy. Comprehensive computer simulations show that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the overall number of communications in the cluster construction phase, whilst maintaining the small variance between the readings of sensor nodes in the same clusters.

I. I NTRODUCTION We can broadly divide data collection, a major functionality supported by wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [1], [3], into two categories, i.e. event-based and periodic forms [5], [8]. In periodic data collection, periodic updates are sent to the base node (called sink hereinafter) from the sensor network, based on the most recent information sensed from the environment. Naturally, the spatial correlation usually exists among the readings of close sensor nodes, meaning that the sensed value from a sensor node may be predicted from its neighboring sensors with high confidence [9]. This is the motivation of clustering schemes for WSNs based on spatial correlation of the sensor readings. In such methods, the sensor nodes that have the highest similarity in the observations should be grouped into the same clusters. Therefore, instead of having all the sensors in the same cluster report data simultaneously, it is more efficient to schedule the sensors in a cluster to alternately report their sensed data. One of the scheme proposed recently to employ the spatial correlation is the distributed clustering scheme ASAP of Gedik et al. [4]. In this scheme, after calculating the dissimilarity measure between the sensor readings with that of the volunteer cluster heads, every sensor node joins into the cluster formed by the highest correlated cluster head. However, there is a limitation such that the number of volunteer cluster head is highly depend on the predefined parameters; accordingly, the

formed clusters seem not well represent the spatial correlations in the environment. Another clustering algorithm is EEDC presented in [6] by Liu et al. It is designed to be run centralized at the sink node for grouping the sensor nodes into clusters and dynamically maintaining the clusters in responding to environmental changes. In fact, to achieve the good performance in terms of the sensor readings variance, the work assumes the single-hop network architecture, i.e., all the sensor nodes are within single-hop radio transmission to the sink node (or local centers); of course, this assumption is impractical in largescale area networks. In this paper, to improve the existing approaches, we propose a novel distributed clustering scheme by leveraging the spatial correlation in large-scale area WSNs. Our method is believed to enhance the efficiency and prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes in the network. The key features of the proposed scheme are: 1) The proposed scheme works in a distributed manner to dynamically construct and maintain the clusters. 2) Cluster head declarations are based on the relative energy-level between the cluster head candidates and their neighbors to balance the workload and prolong the network lifetime. 3) When the cluster construction phase is finished, a backbone of data collection is dynamically established as well. 4) Only one parameter, spatial dissimilarity threshold (T ), is predefined by the user to describe the accuracy requirement of the result. 5) After a simple calculation to measure the dissimilarity between the sensor readings of sender and receiver nodes, one cluster construction message per node is transmitted on average; accordingly, our approach is very suitable for sensor networks and for the preservation of their limited resources. In order to evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme, we implement ASAP and our distributed approach using the ns-2 simulator. Moreover, the centralized algorithm of EEDC is also implemented by C++. Extensive simulations are performed with different number of nodes and environmental spatial patterns in order to investigate theirs influence on the clustering performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme saves a significant number

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of message transmissions, hence energy, while guaranteeing small variance of the readings in the formed clusters. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section II briefly discusses about the previous work in this area. The novel distributed clustering based on the spatial correlations of the sensor readings in WSNs is presented in section III. Section IV presents the performance evaluation with the simulation results. Finally, we conclude our work in the last section. II. R ELATED WORK Most recent clustering protocols, particularly those for wireless sensor networks, have been carefully reviewed in [10]. In this section, we concentrate on recent approaches that are compared with our proposed scheme. A. Distributed Sensing-Driven Clustering Scheme - ASAP In ASAP [4], the authors provide a distributed sensingdriven clustering scheme to construct a network organization that achieves the objectives of energy awareness and high quality data collection. They provide three phases for the clustering scheme, as follows: cluster head selection, cluster formation, and clustering period. During the cluster head selection phase, the nodes decide whether they should take the role of the cluster head based on cluster count factor and energy level. Next, the cluster formation phase organizes all the nodes in the network into clusters by two major steps: message circulation and cluster engagement. In the message circulation step, after nominate itself as a cluster head, the node sends out a message containing the value of its sensor readings. The message is continuously relayed by neighbors within t hops from the cluster head (using the field T T L in the message). In the cluster engagement step, upon receiving the advertisement from a cluster head, the sensor node calculates the attraction score of this cluster head and decides to join to the cluster with highest score. A predefined data collection tree is constructed on top of the network for the communication between the sensor node and the base node. The sink node is the root of the data collection tree [2]. However, the data collection tree, somehow, actually becomes a disadvantage of the scheme because keeping the tree for a long time will exhaust the energy of the nodes belonging to this tree. Another disadvantage is the method of selecting cluster head based on probability. If a node receives a cluster formation message from one cluster head only, it has to join this cluster regardless of the dissimilarity between the sensor reading the cluster head and that of it are not small. This causes the variance of the readings between all the nodes in same cluster to be relatively large; therefore, affecting the accuracy of the sampling. B. Centralized Clustering Scheme based on Spatial Correlation - EEDC Liu et al. proposed an Energy-Efficient Data Collection framework (EEDC) [6] for continuously collecting data in sensor networks, with the assumption that all the sensor

nodes are a single-hop radio transmission distance to the sink node, or to a local center. The clustering scheme in EEDC employs two metrics magnitude m-dissimilarity and trend tdissimilarity to evaluate the differences in the time series of the sensed data from two sensor nodes. The method in EEDC uses a centralized algorithm to partition the sensor nodes into exclusive clusters such that, within each cluster, the pair-wise dissimilarity measures of the sensor nodes are below a given threshold. Based on the sensed values received from all the sensor nodes in the network, the base node calculates the pairwise dissimilarities between each two sensor nodes, and then runs the clustering algorithm to partition the network. The overall problem is solved by modeling it as a clique-covering problem in graph theory and use a greedy algorithm to obtain the result. We can see that the primary limitation of the scheme is the assumption of the single-hop network architecture. This assumption is impractical and hard to justify in large-scale wireless sensor networks. Another disadvantage is that the clustering algorithm is centralized and run at the sink which means data from all the sensor nodes have to be sent back to the sink which then stores and processes a huge amount of data to partition the network. III. P ROPOSED C LUSTERING S CHEME A. Scheme Overview A novel clustering scheme is introduced based on the assumption that each sensor node communicates with only one-hop neighbors and be aware of their energy levels by exchanging the HELLO messages periodically. The network model considered in this paper consists of one sink node and N sensor nodes (Fig. 1a). At the beginning of the cluster construction phase, every node set the initial state INI. During this phase, the sensor nodes in the network will receive and relay to its neighbors the cluster formation messages originated from the sink. When the cluster formation phase is finished, all the nodes in the network will be assigned a specific state of CH, GW, EXT, or MEM which nominates the role of the cluster head, gateway, cluster-extend, or member node in a cluster, respectively. The node which is assigned one of the states CH, GW, EXT will remain fixed until the current cluster construction phase ends; they are also called the “backbone nodes.” On the other hand, there are three temporary states: INI, GWR (gateway-ready), and CHC (cluster head candidate); the nodes of these three states are called “temporary state nodes.” In order to exploit the spatial correlation, the cluster formation message m always includes the mean value of the sensing readings during the time period preceding (referred to as mean sensor reading hereinafter). Based on the type of message m, each node will change its state, make a new cluster formation message m , and propagate it to its neighbors. Note that the ID of the predecessor node (pID) which is the source address of message m, is also included in the cluster formation message m . As all nodes will propagate a new cluster formation message after receiving a cluster formation message, this cluster construction process has the linear overall

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communication cost O(N), where N is the total number of sensor nodes in network. This cost can be further reduced if efficient flooding techniques with greater assumptions of neighbor knowledge are applied [7].

Member (MEM) Initial state (INI) Gateway (GW) Gateway Ready (GWR) Cluster Head (CH) Cluster Head Candidate (CHC) Logical Physical room with colored background cluster as the environmental sensing value

B. Dissimilarity Measures It is denoted that a mean sensor reading of node s with n types of reading data by {s1 , s2 , ..., sn }. The dissimilarity measure d(s, v) of two sensor nodes s and v is calculated as follows. (1) d(s, v) = ω1 |s1 − v1 | + ... + ωn |sn − vn | n Where the value of the positive constant ωi ( i=1 ωi = 1) shows how much the ith data type of the sensor reading effects the dissimilarity measure. Henceforth, the term “strong correlated,” is used, for two sensor nodes s and v if their dissimilarity measure is smaller than a predefined spatial dissimilarity threshold T , or d(s, v) ≤ T . In the background of Fig. 1a, it also shows a colored image that represents the environmental values sensed by the sensors. For instance, if T is set to 0, it is easy to conclude that nodes 32 and 33 are strong correlated, while nodes 33 and 34 are not strong correlated (weak correlated) because their sensor readings are different.

where α is a constant number of time units. After getting the result of re(s), the timer tadv is randomly chosen from the range of [minadv , re(s)], where minadv is a predefined constant. And the CHC (e.g. node 32 in Fig. 1c) declares itself as a new CH by broadcasting the CHADV (Cluster head Advertisement) message once the time tadv has expired. This manner of choosing the timer tadv enables us to favour nodes with higher energy-levels for the cluster head selection. After receiving the CHADV message, every temporary state node calculates the dissimilarity measure with the new CH. If

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C. Cluster Construction The sink starts the cluster formation phase by broadcasting the CFRM (Cluster Formation) message. Upon receiving this message, every INI node (e.g. nodes 41 and 51 in Fig. 1a) changes its state to GWR and set two timers treq and twait . When time treq randomly chosen has expired, the GWR node (e.g. node 41 in Fig. 1b) creates a new CHREQ (Cluster head Request) message and send it to neighbors in order to find a voluntary CH. When receiving the CHREQ message, every INI node calculates the dissimilarity measure with the sender GWR node; subsequently, the strong correlated receiver node will change its state to CHC (e.g. nodes 31, 32, 42 in Fig. 1b). Every node that is a CHC sets a new timer tadv based on the relative energy level factor. With the energy available at sensor node s denoted as e(s), the relative energy level, re(s), is calculated by comparing e(s) with the average energy available at the nodes within the one-hop neighborhood of node s, nbr(s).  e(s) + i∈nbr(s) e(i) ×α (2) re(s) = e(s) × (|nbr(s)| + 1)

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Fig. 1. An example of Clustering Process and Backbone Establishment in proposed scheme

the result shows that they are strong correlated, the receiver node will become a member (MEM) of the cluster formed by this CH; otherwise, it goes to GWR state (e.g nodes 24 and 34 in Fig. 1d) and performs all the tasks mentioned above as for the other GWR nodes. In other hand, every strong correlated GWR node having just received the CHADV message m compares m.pID with its own ID. If they are equal, which implies this m is originated from its successor (e.g. node 34 receives CHADV from successor node 25 in Fig. 1e), this GWR node alters its GWR state to GW; otherwise, it becomes a new member of this new CH (e.g. node 24 in Fig. 1e). After time twait has expired, the GWR node also sets its state to CHC if there is no CHADV message broadcasted from its neighbors. Certainly, the timer twait of GWR nodes must be long enough for them to be able to receive a CHADV message from neighboring CHCs. The GW and MEM nodes continue to propagate the cluster formation message by creating and broadcasting CEXT (Cluster Extend) messages to discover the rest of the network. Note that the CEXT message m will keep the mean sensor reading value of the originated CH instead of the current node.

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After receiving CEXT message m, every temporary state node calculates the dissimilarity measure between the mean sensor reading of sender node’s CH and that of itself. If they are strong correlated, the receiver node joins the formed cluster (e.g. nodes 11, 12, 13 join the cluster of CH 32 in Fig. 1d), and the sender node (e.g. node 22 in Fig. 1d) will become a EXT node; otherwise, the receiver node becomes a new GWR node. In this manner, the cluster construction messages eventually reach all the nodes in the network. Since it is known which sensor node belongs to which room based on the physical deployment in Fig. 1a, it is easy to verify the accuracy of the clustering result by observing the logical formed clusters in Fig. 1f. D. Backbone Establishment While other noteworthy clustering schemes, such as ASAP, use the fixed backbone of data collection, or EEDC uses a system of sink and local centers to collect the sensor data, this scheme constructs a dynamic backbone based on the reversed paths of the cluster formation message propagation paths. Fig. 1f shows the result in the network after the cluster construction phase; the backbone paths for data collection in network are marked as the arrows. Naturally, for each cluster construction phase, a new backbone is established dynamically, based on the relative energy level between sensor nodes. In this way, it prolongs the lifetime, and balances the energy, of the WSNs. As mentioned above, when the cluster construction phase finishes, the nodes with the role of CH, GW, EXT have two duties of being the backbone nodes: Collecting the sensor reading data. Each node is randomize scheduling, meaning that it will send the sensed data in an interval with probability λ via the established backbone. The round robin scheduling guarantees at least one node active in any time slot [6]. In order to relay the sensor reading from the network to the sink, data from any node inside a cluster is sent to the predecessor node by using the pID field stored in that sensor. Hence, the sensing data from any member in each cluster is gathered at the CH and also further compressed if possible. Then the aggregated data is transmitted from that CH to the cluster’s GW. After that, the GW pushes the data back to its predecessor node which belongs to another cluster. Finally, the data will travel through some intermediate clusters’ backbone nodes before reaching the sink. In this manner, the data from everywhere in network is transmitted to the sink with small communication cost. Propagating the control messages from sink to entire WSN. When the Sink wants to propagate the control messages to all sensor nodes in the network, it can simply broadcast the control message. Then, every active backbone node is required to rebroadcast the control message whenever it receives the message for the first time. Hence, it is also indicated that the spatial grouping of nodes can help reduce the propagation of redundant data inside the network, i.e. only 20 backbone nodes in Fig. 1f retransmits the message in order to cover the entire network.

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Environmental spatial patterns

E. Cluster Maintenance Once the CH detects that its cluster should be split, it asks all sensor nodes in the cluster to work simultaneously. Then, the cluster’s GW will initiate a new local cluster construction phase to regroup these sensor nodes into several clusters in response to local spatial correlation changes. It is obvious that the number of clusters will keep increasing, since there are only splitting operations in the above adjustment. In the worst case, most sensors in the network will be woken up to work simultaneously. To avoid this situation, the sink node can recluster the whole network when the current number of clusters becomes significantly larger than the number of clusters at the previous network-wide clustering. IV. P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION A. Simulation Environment and Comparison Metrics To demonstrate the distributed manner of the proposed scheme, it has been implemented alongside ASAP, based on the ns-2 simulator, and also the centralized algorithm of the clustering EEDC scheme using C++. Our proposed scheme and the EEDC are running with the same dissimilarity threshold T set to 20. For the ASAP scheme, the cluster count factor (fc ) and INI-TTL are set to 10 and 5, respectively. The main object of the spatial correlation based clustering schemes is to reduce the number of cluster construction messages, while maintaining a strong correlation between the readings of every sensor node in the same clusters. Thus, it has been considered how the number of nodes, and three specific spatial patterns (shown in Fig. 2) impact on three metrics: the number of construction messages, the average dissimilarity of the sensor readings (denoted as d), and the number of clusters (denoted as N C). Three additive primary colors red, green, and blue of each pixel in the spatial pattern are used as three different types of sensing data. With the average value of mean sensor readings of every node that is in the same cluster with s denoted as ar(s), the value of d is calculated as follows.  d(s, ar(s)) (3) d= s N These metrics are used because the value of d reflects the variance between the readings of every sensor node inside the same cluster, and the values of N C shows how heterogeneous the readings of all the sensor nodes in the networks are. The results shown below lead to determining the average value of

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TABLE I T HE COMPARISON OF EEDC, ASAP AND OUR PROPOSED SCHEME IN TERM OF THE THE AVERAGE D ISSIMILARITY OF THE SENSOR READINGS (d) AND THE N UMBER OF FORMED C LUSTERS (N C)

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spatial pattern (c) Ours ASAP d NC d NC

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certain of separate runs. For each run, a number of sensor nodes, ranging from 200 to 1000, are randomly placed on a square area of 1000 × 1000 m2 , and the radio range of each sensor is fixed at 150m. The HELLO message exchanging the protocol is implemented in all three schemes; therefore, the cost of the HELLO message is ignored in this evaluation.

better than the two others in terms of the number of control messages. As well as the communication cost, more specific results are shown in Table I, which are the average of 100 runs for each spatial pattern. The smaller the value of d, the more accurate the cluster grouping is. It is also shown that the number of clusters in ASAP highly depends on the predefined parameters regardless of the spatial patterns. Moreover, the value d of ASAP is relatively high due to the nature of the scheme in that the cluster heads are chosen randomly. The EEDC and the proposed schemes have a dynamic number of clusters, which represents well the spatial correlation in the environmental sensed data of every sensor nodes. By observing the simulation results, we can conclude that the clusters formed our distributed scheme, are relatively similar to the resulting clusters formed by the centralized clustering scheme in EEDC framework. V. C ONCLUSION

Fig. 3. Influence of the number of sensor nodes on the number of cluster construction messages

B. Simulation Results The simulation results, which are plotted in Fig. 3, show the influence of the number of nodes on the number of cluster construction messages in the three clustering schemes. The result of this simulation is the average of 300 runs which includes 100 runs for each spatial pattern. For the EEDC scheme, every sensor node has to send its reading to the sink or a local center. After the greedy algorithm running at the sink is finished, the sink replies with its cluster decision to every sensor nodes. As a result, there are two messages generated for each sensor node. On the other hand, the number of control messages generated in ASAP depends on the predefined values of parameters fc and INI-TTL. Because of the nature of the scheme, the greater fc is, the greater the number of clusters and the higher the correlation between nodes. In our research, the value 10 of fc is used as the trade-off between the accuracy and the communication cost of this approach. These curves show that the performance of the proposed scheme is significantly

In this paper, a novel clustering scheme has been introduced, with its performance results compared to two other noteworthy clustering schemes recently published, namely the EEDC and ASAP. The proposed scheme utilizes the spatial correlation to distributed formation of clusters and backbone of data collection. The simulation results show that results of the proposed scheme are almost similar to that of the centralized algorithm presented in EEDC. In addition, it is shown that the clustering scheme has a linear communication cost in performing the cluster construction, O(N). ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research was supported by the MKE(Ministry of Knowledge Economy), Korea, under the ITRC(Information Technology Research Center)support program supervised by the IITA(Institute of Information Technology Advancement) (IITA-2008-(C1090-0801-0046)) R EFERENCES [1] I. F. Akyldiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramanian and E. Cayirci, “A survey of sensor networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 102–114, August 2002.

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[2] T. Arici, B. Gedik, Y. Altunbasak, and L. Liu, “PINCO: A Pipelined In-Network Compression Scheme for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, pp. 539–544, October 2003. [3] D. Culler, D. E. M. Srivastava, “Overview of Sensor Network”, IEEE Computer Magazine, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 41–49, August 2004. [4] B. Gedik, L. Liu, and P. S. Yu, “ASAP: An Adaptive Sampling Approach to Data Collection in Sensor Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1766–1783, December 2007. [5] M. Liliana, C. Arboleda, “Comparison of Clustering Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, pp. 1787–1792, May 2006. [6] C. Liu, K. We, and J. Pei, “An Energy-Efficient Data Collection Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks by Exploiting Spatiotemporal Correlation,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1010–1023, July 2007. [7] T. D. Le and H. Choo, “An Efficient Flooding Scheme based on 2hop Backward Information in Ad hoc Networks,” IEEE Proceedings of International Conference on Communications 2008, pp. 2343–2347, May 2008. [8] A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, “Wireless Sensor Networks for Habitat Monitoring,” ACM Proceedings of The First Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, pp. 88–97, September 2002. [9] M. C. Vuran, O. B. Akan, I. F. Akyildiz, “Spatio-Temporal Correlation: Theory and Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks,” The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunication Networking, vol. 45, pp. 245–259, June 2004. [10] S. Yoon, C. Shahabi, “The Clustered AGgregation (CAG) Technique Leveraging Spatial and Temporal Correlations in Wireless Sensor Networks”, ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, vol. 3, no. 1, March 2007.

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Vector potential equivalent circuit based on PEEC ... - IEEE Xplore
Jun 24, 2003 - ABSTRACT. The geometry-integration based vector potential equivalent cir- cuit (VPEC) was introduced to obtain a localized circuit model.

A Fault Detection and Protection Scheme for Three ... - IEEE Xplore
Jan 9, 2012 - remedy for the system as faults occur and save the remaining com- ponents. ... by the proposed protection method through monitoring the flying.

A Distributed Self-Healing Approach to Bluetooth ... - IEEE Xplore
Abstract—This paper proposes a distributed self-healing tech- nique for topology formation in dynamic Bluetooth wireless personal area networks (BT-WPANs) ...

Codebook-Based Opportunistic Interference Alignment - IEEE Xplore
May 9, 2014 - based on the exiting zero-forcing receiver. We first propose a codebook-based OIA, in which the weight vectors are chosen from a predefined ...

Random FH-OFDMA System Based on Statistical ... - IEEE Xplore
Email: [email protected]. Abstract—We propose a random frequency hopping orthog- onal frequency division multiple access (RFH-OFDMA) system.

Inverse Halftoning Based on the Bayesian Theorem - IEEE Xplore
Abstract—This study proposes a method which can generate high quality inverse halftone images from halftone images. This method can be employed prior to ...

Relevance feedback based on non-negative matrix ... - IEEE Xplore
Abstract: As a powerful tool for content-based image retrieval, many techniques have been proposed for relevance feedback. A non-negative matrix factorisation ...