IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 33, NO. 5 , SEPTEMBER 1997

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EC Andrei Khurshudov, Bernhard Knigge and Frank E. Talke CMRR, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA Peter Baumgart and Andrew Tam IBM Storage Systems Division and Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA, USA

Abstract: The tribological properties of mechanically-textured and laser-textured magnetic rigid disks are investigated using typical sub-ambient pressure sliders. The effect of slider design and carbon overcoat properties on stiction and friction is studied using starustop and drag testing. Stiction, wear, and acoustic emission for several slider-disk combinations are evaluated. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, laser zone textured disks have been manufactured using laser heating of discrete spots of the disk in the start/stop zone [l].This creates a number of small and evenly spaced “bumps” on the disk surface and reduces the occurrence of stiction during start up of the drive. Laser zone texturing is applied only in the starustop zone, and the data zone of the disk remains smooth and allows flying of magnetic recording sliders at very close spacing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of different slider designs on the tribology of laser-textured and mechanically-textured disks using contact starustop and continuous speed drag testing. 11. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Prior to tribological testing, the flying characteristics of the sliders were determined using monochromatic light interferometry. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ellipsometry was also employed to characterize the carbon overcoats for the different disk types used. Three types of commercially available sub-ambient pressure sliders were investigated. Their design is shown in Fig.1 [2]. On the left side of Fig.1, a sub-ambient tri-rail slider (type A) is shown. An “omega” type slider (type B) is presented in the middle of Fig. 1 and on the right side of Fig. 1 a typical sub-ambient pressure tri-pad slider is shown. Sliders of type A and type B were designed to fly at a nominal flying height of 60nm at a disk velocity of 13.81n/s.The sliders of type A and B were fabricated with a nominal l0nm thick carbon overcoat (manufacturer specifications). Two types of slider C were used, denoted subsequently as C1 and C2. Sliders of type C1 are low flying proximity recording sliders with a nominal flying height of about 25nm. Sliders of type C2 have a similar design but show a nominal flying height of about 35nm. Sliders of type C1 and C2 did not have a carbon overcoat. For all sliders tested, the nominal suspension preload was 35mN.

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The disks, obtained from different manufacturers, were lubricated with Z-Dol with a nominal thickness of 1Snm. The disk topography was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometry (WYKO). AFM measurements showed that the peak to mean values of the surface roughness of the mechanically-textured disks ranged from 8nm to l8nm in the “landing zone“. The peak to mean height of the laser bumps varied from 38nm to 45nm using the AFM. Optical profilometry measurements generally underestimate the bump height by a few nanometers. The density of the “sombrero” type bumps used in our experiments was about 250/mm2. The laser bump diameter of the sombrero type bumps was 25pm. We note that the laser bump height was higher than the nominal flying height of sliders of type C. All disks were carbon coated. The thickness of the carbon overcoat ranged from 12nm to 14nm. Raman spectroscopy showed a D/G ratio of 1.26 for the mechanically-textured media and a DIG ratio of 0.95 for the laser zone textured media. This indicates a reduced sp3 type bonding of the laser zone textured media. Contact starthop (CSS) and low speed drag tests were performed using commercially available stadstop testers. Each CSS cycle was 12 seconds long with a maximum speed of 5200 rpm. The drag tests were performed at low speed (10 rpm), corresponding to a disk velocity of 0 . 2 d s . All CSS tests were performed in a clean room at ambient conditions.

111. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS In Fig.2, the stiction force at the beginning of CSS testing is shown for laser-textured and mechanically-textured disks for all four slider types investigated. Prior to testing, the disks were burnished for 50 cycles.

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Fig. 2. Stiction force at the beginning of CSS testing for different slideddisk combinations

stiction force increases with the number of CSS cycles for the mechanically-textured media, while no change in the stiction force is observed with the number of cycles for the lasertextured disk. The stiction tests for sliders of type C1 and C2 were stopped after about 30,000 CSS cycles due to headldisk interface failure. The reason for this failure appears to be due to the fact that the flying height of the sliders of type C1 and C2 was lower than the nominal bump height of the laser bumps. In Fig.5 the acoustic emission (AE) signal is shown for the four slider types investigated as a function of disk velocity. For this experiment, a laser-textured disk with a peak to mean roughness of Rp=43nm was used. Fig.6 shows similar results for the "rough" mechanically-textured disk with a peak to mean roughness of R,=18nm.

Fig.3 shows the stiction force vs. the number of CSS cycles for the sub-ambient tri-rail slider (type A). Up to 100,000 CSS cycles were performed. We observe that stiction of the "rough" mechanically-textured media increases with the numbers of CSS cycles while stiction of the laser-textured disks remains constant.

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No of cycles x 10,000 Fig. 3 Stiction force vs. the number of CSS cycles for sub-ambient tr-rail slider (A) on mechanically-textured (Rp=18nm)and laser-textured media (R,=43 nm).

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Velocity, m/s Fig.6. AE signal vs. disk velocity for different sliders on mechanicallytextured media (RP= 18 nm).

From Fig.5 we observe that the omega type sliders (type

B) begin to fly at a disk velocity of approximately 2 d s . The omega sliders also show the lowest acoustic emission (AE) signal of all sliders tested. Sliders of type A exhibit a much higher AE signal (on both media) and take off at a much

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No o f cycles x 10,000 Fig. 4 Stiction force vs. the number of CSS cycles for omega-type sliders (B) on mechanically-textured (Rp=18nm)and laser-textured media (Rp=43nm) In Fig.4, the stiction vs. the number of CSS cycles is shown for the omega type slider (type B). Similar to Fig.3, the

higher velocity of approximately 6 d s . For sliders of type C1 and C2, the acoustic emission intensity does not approach zero, not even at the highest disk velocity. This implies that sliders of type C1 and C2 remain in contact with the lasertextured disk even at maximum speed. This result is expected since the measured flying heigh; of sliders C1 and Ci on a glass disk is less than the height of the laser-bumps. Fig.6 shows the AE signal vs. disk velocity for the mechanically-

3 192

textured media. Sliders of type A and B show a similar takeoff characteristics on the mechanically-textured media as on the laser-textured media. Similar to the laser-textured media, the AE signal is higher for sliders of type A compared to sliders of type B. It is interesting to note that for all sliders tested the magnitude of the maximum acoustic emission signal is much lower for the mechanically-textured media than for the laser-textured media. Sliders of type C1 and C2 show a low value of the AE signal for disk velocities larger than 6 d s , indicating that hydrodynamic flying is attained. The higher AE signal for sliders of type A corresponds to a higher contact force [3] and consequently, an increased wear rate. Also, due to the longer take off time of sliders of type A, it is likely that more lubricant is collected on the air bearing surface of this type of slider, thereby causing higher meniscus forces [4] and a faster increase in stiction. In addition to CSS tests, low speed drag tests were also performed with all slider types on laser-textured media. A typical result from drag tests with sliders of type A and B is shown in Fig.7. Since air bearing effects are absent at low speed drag testing, the main factors determining the tribological behavior of the interface are the contact behavior of the slider with the disk and the type of overcoat on the slider. rag cycles 0

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the air bearing surface. To understand which of these two factors is responsible for the difference in friction, we have coated the air bearing surfaces of sliders of type A and type B with a thin (-40 nm) layer of gold, and have then measured the coefficient of friction of the coated sliders in a low speed drag test on the laser-textured disk. In Fig.8 low speed friction results are given for slider type A and B prior and after gold coating. ... . ...............................

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Fig.8. Coefficient of friction for sub-ambient pressure tri rail slider (A) and omega-type slider (B) during drag testing before and after gold coating.

We observe, that prior to gold coating the friction coefficient for slider type A was approximately 0.4 and about 0.2 for the omega type slider. After gold coating, the friction coefficient was essentially the same for both sliders. From this we conclude that the friction of the headldisk interface depends not only on whether a slider is carbon coated or not, but also on the type and characteristics of the carbon overcoat used on the slider surface. We have also investigated the wear of laser bumps by measuring the height reduction of the bumps after CSS testing. AFM measurements showed that the center part of sombrero laser bumps decreased in height by approximately 5nm after the disks were subjected to 100,000CSS cycles. CONCLUSIONS The stiction force of laser-textured disks remained constant during 100,000 CSS cycles while the stiction force for mechanically-textured disks increased with the number of CSS cycles 11. The acoustic emission signal of laser-textured disks was found to be generally higher than that of mechanicallytextured disks. 111. The frictional behavior of the head disk interface is strongly influenced by the type of overcoat used on the air bearing surface of the slider.

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REFERENCES [l] P. Baumgart, D. Krajnovich, T. Nguyen, A. C. Tam, "Safe Landing: Laser Texturing of High-density Magnetic Disks", Dara Storage, March 1996, pp. 21-27. [2] R. Koka, H. Huang, R. Bass, "Flying Low: Predicting Head Stiction Behavior", Data Storage, Sep. 1996, pp. 43-SO. [ 3 ] A. Khurshudov and F.E. Talke, "A Tribological Study of Proximity Recording Sliders Using Acoustic Emission", IDEMA-96, San Jose. Culijorniu, USA, pp. 75-79. [4] H. Tian and T. Matsudaira, J. of Tribology, ASME Vol 1IS,p400

Tribiology of Laser-textured And Mechanically-textured ... - IEEE Xplore

CMRR, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. Peter Baumgart and Andrew Tam. IBM Storage Systems Division and Almaden Research Center, ...

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