IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015, Pg.31-37

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT)

www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

GSM & GPS Based Geo-Weather Monitoring System Uzma Ferdaus1, K.Rambabu2 ¹M.Tech (ES), Kasireddy Narayanreddy College of Engineering & Research, JNTU, Hyderabad, India ² Associate Professor (ECE), Kasireddy Narayanreddy College of Engineering & Research, JNTU, Hyderabad, India 1 [email protected]

Abstract—This paper aims at developing a system which helps in monitoring and logging the geo weather parameters. Meteorology is the science that studies the changes that happen in the atmosphere. Meteorology is extremely important as it allows people to be able to predict and forecast the weather. Meteorologists are scientists that study meteorology. They depend on thousands of weather stations, which are placed all over the world on land and at sea. Measurements are taken at all the stations, and then are sent to weather centres so that the information can be studied and analysed. Once this information has been studied, then it is sent to newspapers, television, online, and radio so that people can know what weather to expect, and this is known as the weather forecast. Microcontroller forms the controlling module and it is the heart of the device. The controller performs the functionality of receiving data from the GPS along with different sensors connected to it like temperature, pollution, humidity and these sensor parameter readings will be sent in the form of messages by using GSM Sim to a predefined mobile number. Index Terms— GPS, GSM, Microcontroller. I. INTRODUCTION The Meteorology [1] is the science that studies the changes that happen in the atmosphere. Meteorology is extremely important as it allows people to be able to predict and forecast the weather. Meteorologists [2] are scientists that study meteorology. They depend on thousands of weather stations, which are placed all over the world on land and at sea. Measurements are taken at all the stations, and then are sent to weather centres so that the information can be studied and analysed. Once this information has been studied, then it is sent to newspapers, television, online, and radio so that people can know what weather to expect, and this is known as the weather forecast. Micro controller forms the controlling module and it is the heart of the device. The controller performs the functionality of receiving data from the GPS along with different sensors [3] connected to it like temperature, pollution, humidity. The controller can be operated in two modes depending on the user input... The Microcontroller is loaded with a program written in embedded ‘C’ language to perform the task.

Uzma Ferdaus, IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015, Pg.31-37

Fig.1.1 Block Diagram An embedded system is a combination of software and hardware to perform a dedicated task. Some of the main devices used in embedded products are Microprocessors [4] and Microcontrollers. Microprocessors are commonly referred to as general purpose processors as they simply accept the inputs, process it and give the output. In contrast, a microcontroller [5] not only accepts the data as inputs but also manipulates it, interfaces the data with various devices, controls the data and thus finally gives the result. The design of GPS and GSM [3] based Geo weather monitoring using PIC18F452 Microcontroller. An Embedded System is a computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many [7] [8] devices in common use today. Embedded Systems are controlled by one or more main processing cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP). The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task, which may require very powerful [6] processors. For example, air traffic control systems may usefully be viewed as embedded, even though they involve mainframe computers and dedicated regional and national networks between airports and radar sites. II. RELATED TECHNOLOGY 2.1 Embedded Systems: Each day, our lives become more dependent on 'embedded systems', digital information technology that is embedded in our environment. More than 98% of processors applied today are in embedded systems, and are no longer visible to the customer as 'computers' in the ordinary sense. An Embedded System is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few pre-defined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale. The increasing use of PC hardware is one of the most important developments in high-end embedded systems in recent years. Hardware costs of high-end systems have dropped dramatically as a result of this trend, making feasible some papers which previously would not have been done because of the high cost of non-PC-based embedded hardware. But software choices for the embedded PC platform are not nearly as attractive as the hardware. Definition of an Embedded System Embedded system is defined as, for a particular/specific application implementing the software code to interact directly with that particular hardware what we built. Software is used for providing features and flexibility, Hardware = {Processors, ASICs, Memory,...} is used for Performance (& sometimes security). Applications of Embedded Systems

Uzma Ferdaus, IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015, Pg.31-37

Some of the most common embedded systems used in everyday life are Home Appliances, intercom, telephones, security systems, garage door openers, answering machines, fax machines, home computers, TVs, cable TV tuner, VCR, camcorder, remote controls, video games, cellular phones, musical instruments, sewing machines, lighting control, paging, camera, pinball machines, toys, exercise equipment. Office Telephones, computers, security systems, fax machines, microwave, copier, laser printer, color printer, paging. Auto Trip computer, engine control, air bag, ABS, instrumentation, security system, transmission control, entertainment, climate control, cellular phone, keyless entry. 2.2 GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION (GSM): Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the world‘s most popular standard for mobile telephony systems. The GSM Association estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 1.5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. This ubiquity means that subscribers can use their phones throughout the world, enabled by international roaming arrangements between mobile network operators. GSM differs from its predecessor technologies in that both signalling and speech channels are digital, and thus GSM is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This also facilitates the wide-spread implementation of data communication applications into the system. The GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers, who may benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones, and also to network operators, who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors. GSM also pioneered low-cost implementation of the short message service (SMS), also called text messaging, which has since been supported on other mobile phone standards as well. GSM Specification Frequency: 900 MHz or 1800 MHz (Some countries in the Americas including Canada and the United States use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands, 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries, notably Scandinavia) Modulation: Modulation is a form of change process where we change the input information into a suitable format for the transmission medium. We also changed the information by demodulating the signal at the receiving end. The GSM uses Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation method. Access Methods: Because radio spectrum is a limited resource shared by all users, a method must be devised to divide up the bandwidth among as many users as possible. GSM chose a combination of TDMA/FDMA as its method. The FDMA part involves the division by frequency of the total 25 MHz bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200 kHz bandwidth. One or more carrier frequencies are then assigned to each BS. Each of these carrier frequencies is then divided in time, using a TDMA scheme, into eight time slots. One time slot is used for transmission by the mobile and one for reception. They are separated in time so that the mobile unit does not receive and transmit at the same time. Transmission Rate: The total symbol rate for GSM at 1 bit per symbol in GMSK produces 270.833 K symbols/second. The gross transmission rate of the time slot is 22.8 Kbps. Frequency Band: The uplink frequency range specified for GSM is 933 - 960 MHz (basic 900 MHz band only). The downlink frequency band 890 - 915 MHz (basic 900 MHz band only). Channel Spacing: This indicates separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is 200 kHz. Speech Coding: GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. The signal passes through this filter, leaving behind a residual signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps. Duplex Distance: The duplex distance is 80 MHz Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 80 MHz apart. GSM Modem:

Fig.2.1 GSM modem

Uzma Ferdaus, IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015, Pg.31-37

A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator perspective, a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves. A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC Card / PCMCIA Card. Typically, an external GSM modem is connected to a computer through a serial cable or a USB cable. A GSM modem in the form of a PC Card / PCMCIA Card is designed for use with a laptop computer. It should be inserted into one of the PC Card / PCMCIA Card slots of a laptop computer. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a SIM card from a wireless carrier in order to operate. Both GSM modems and dial-up modems support a common set of standard AT commands. You can use a GSM modem just like a dial-up modem. In addition to the standard AT commands, GSM modems support an extended set of AT commands. These extended AT commands are defined in the GSM standards. With the extended AT commands, you can do things like: • Reading, writing and deleting SMS messages. • Sending SMS messages. Monitoring the signal strength. • • Monitoring the charging status and charge level of the battery. • Reading, writing and searching phone book entries. SIM Phonebook management • • Fixed Dialing Number (FDN) Real time clock • The number of SMS messages that can be processed by a GSM modem per minute is very low -- only about six to ten SMS messages per minute. 2.3 GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM): The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an un obstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. When people talk about “a GPS," they usually mean a GPS receiver.

Fig.2.2 GPS Device The Global Positioning System (GPS) is actually a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites in operation and three extras in case one fails). The U.S military developed and implemented this satellite network as a military navigation system, but soon opened it up to everybody else. Each of these 3,000- to 4,000-pound solar-powered satellites circles the globe at about 12,000 miles (19,300 km), making two complete rotations every day. The orbits are arranged so that at anytime, anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites "visible" in the sky. A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include the time the message was transmitted precise orbital information (the ephemeris) the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac). The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite. These distances along with the satellites' locations are used with the possible aid of trilateration, depending on which algorithm is used, to compute the position of the receiver. This position is then displayed, perhaps with a moving map display or

Uzma Ferdaus, IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015, Pg.31-37

latitude and longitude; elevation information may be included. Many GPS units show derived information such as direction and speed, calculated from position changes. GPS Principle: The GPS satellites act as reference points from which receivers on the ground detect their position. The fundamental navigation principle is based on the measurement of pseudo ranges between the user and four satellites. Ground stations precisely monitor the orbit of every satellite and by measuring the travel time of the signals transmitted from the satellite four distances between receiver and satellites will yield accurate position, direction and speed. Though three – range measurements are sufficient, the fourth observation is essential for solving clock synchronization error between receiver and satellite. Thus, the term ―pseudo rangesǁ is derived.

Fig.2.3 GPS Principle

Major Components of A GPS Receiver The main components of a GPS receiver are • Antenna with pre-amplifier • RF section with signal identification and signal processing • Micro-processor for receiver control, data sampling and data processing oscillator • Power supply, Memory, data storage • User interface, command and display panel. Function of GPS: It is a “constellation” of twenty-four 20,000km high GPS satellites. The satellites are distributed on 6 orbits, 4 per orbit. Every satellite makes a complete rotation of the Earth every 12 hours. Every satellite possesses an atomic clock, allowing a very precise measure of time. They emit on two different frequencies: L1: 1575 MHz and L2: 1227 MHz. L2 being reserved for the American Army. Every satellite thus sends ceaselessly a code of 1500 bits, containing numerous data such as the time at which the code is to be sent, the position of the satellite, its state, the position of the other satellites... This data allows the receiver to calculate its position. Each GPS satellite transmits radio signals that enable the GPS receivers to calculate where its (or your vehicles) location on the Earth and convert the calculations into geodetic latitude, longitude and velocity. A receiver needs signals from at least three GPS satellites to pinpoint your vehicle‘s position. GPS Receivers commonly used in most Vehicle tracking systems can only receive data from GPS Satellites. They cannot communicate back with GPS or any other satellite.

Uzma Ferdaus, IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015, Pg.31-37

III. IMPLEMENTATION ARCHITECHTURE

Fig.3.1.schematic diagram of Implementation of GSM and GPS based geo weather monitoring system. IV. RESULT AND EXPERIMENTAL TOOLS The paper GSM and GPS based geo weather monitoring system was designed to monitor the different sensor parameter values lively using GSM and GPS. A. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: • PIC microcontroller of type 16F877A is electronic circuits that can be programmed to carry out a vast range of tasks. They can be programmed to be timers or to control a production line and much more. • LED (Light Emitting Diode) sensor is used to detect the intensity of light. As the intensity of light increases, the resistance decreases. • Temperature sensor (LM35) type of temperature sensor is used to detect change in environmental or interior temperature. Precipitation sensor works by absorbing water content in the environmental conditions. • DC Motor 100RPM which represents the vehicle. Relay SPDT to control DC motor to on and off. B. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: • Express PCB – for designing circuit. • PIC C compiler - for compilation part. • Proteus 7 (Embedded C) – for simulation part. V. CONCLUSION Integrating features of all the hardware components used have been developed in it. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully, thus contributing to the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly advanced IC’s with the help of growing technology, the paper has been successfully implemented. Thus the paper has been successfully designed and tested. Our paper GSM and GPS based geo weather monitoring system is mainly intended to provide an interaction with Sensor parameter readings Through sms using GSM and GPS technologies. This paper can be used by using GPS and GSM technologies. Through GPS, we can monitor the location based on latitude and longitude values and sensor parameter readings will be sent in the form of messages by using GSM Sim to predefined mobile number. REFERENCES [1]S Mahajan1, S Malhotra2, “Energy Efficient Path Determination in Wireless Sensor Network Using BFS Approach Wireless Sensor Network, 2011, 3, 351-356. [2] A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, J. Anderson, “Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring”, In: Proc of ACM WSNA’02, 2002.

Uzma Ferdaus, IJRIT

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2015, Pg.31-37

[3] I.F. Akyildiz, T. Melodia, andK.R. Chowdury, “Wireless multimedia sensor networks:A survey,” in IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 32-39, 2007. [4] The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., www.ieee.org ZigBee Alliance, www.zigbee.org ON World Inc.,'Wireless Sensor Networks for the Oil & Gas Industry', October 2005. [5] A. Nasipuri, H. Alasti, P. Puthran, R. Coxand, Conrad J, “Vibration Sensing for Equipment’s Health Monitoring in Power Substations Using Wireless Sensors”, Proceedings of the IEEE SoutheastCon 2010 (SoutheastCon), March 2010, 268-271. [6] M. Aboelaze and F.Aloul, “Current and Future Trends in Sensor Networks: A Survey,” inIEEE,2005. [7] G. Hoblos, M. Staroswiecki, and A. Aitouche, “Optimal Design of Fault Tolerant Sensor Networks,” in Proc. of the IEEE Int’l Conf. on Control Applications, pp. 467-472,September 2000. [8] S. Agarwal, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Katz, and S. Dao,“Distributed Power Control in Ad-hoc WirelessNetworks,” in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Symposium. OnPersonal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communication. Vol.2, pp. F59-F66, September 2001.

Uzma Ferdaus, IJRIT

Uzma Ijrit Paper - International Journal of Research in Information ...

Auto Trip computer, engine control, air bag, ABS, instrumentation, security system, transmission control ... GSM also pioneered low-cost implementation of the short message service (SMS), also called ... Frequency: 900 MHz or 1800 MHz (Some countries in the Americas including Canada and the United States use the 850.

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