Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

Department of Psychology, Harvard University [email protected] In three experiments, we explored the semantic interference effect in verb production with the picture-word interference paradigm. Experiments 1 and 3 addressed whether there is an effect of semantically related distracters on gerundial verb production; In Experiment 2, we explored the effect in naming verbs in sentence production and the third person singular form. The semantic interference effect was found in two of the three experiments. However, the effect was inconsistent when transitive and intransitive verbs were analyzed separately. The results are discussed in the context of models of the semantic interference effect in lexical access.

1. Introduction How do we select the lexical nodes that express the meaning we want to communicate? This crucial issue for understanding the processes involved in speech production occupies the attention of many researchers in the language production field (e.g., Caramazza & Costa, 2000; Dell, 1986: Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999; Roelofs, 1992; Starreveld & La Heij, 1995, 1996). However, the focus has been almost entirely on the production of simple nouns. In this article, we study lexical access for words of another grammatical category - verbs - by exploring a contextual effect in the picture-word interference paradigm, the semantic interference effect. The picture-word interference paradigm is one of the most widely used paradigms to study the mechanisms involved in lexical selection in speech production (for reviews see Glaser, 1992; MacLeod, 1991). In this paradigm, participants name a picture while ignoring the presentation of a distractor word. A robust effect in this paradigm is the semantic interference effect. This refers to the observation that naming latencies are slower when the picture and the distractor belong to the same semantic category (e.g., 'table'I'chair') than when they do not (e.g., 'table'I'hand') Journal of Cognitive Science 3 : J - 26, 2002.

(i)20()J Institute for Cognitive Science, Seoul National University.

2

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

(Glaser & Glaser, 1989; Lupker, 1979; Schriefers, Meyer, & Levelt, 1990; Starreveld & La Heij, 1995). It is generally assumed that the semantic interference effect reveals competition among lexical nodes during the lexical selection stage (Levelt et al., 1999; Roelofs, 1992; Starreveld & La Heij, 1995). For example, when the speaker sees the picture 'table", its concept (TABLE) is activated as well as other concepts that are semantically related, such as CHAIR. The activation of these concepts spreads and activates their corresponding lexical nodes. If the distractor is the word 'chair', it activates directly its lexical node "chair" which has been at this point also activated by the picture 'table'. In such a scenario, both lexical items ("chair" and "table") are highly activated. Lexical selection is delayed in this case on the assumption that the ease with which the target lexical node is selected depends on how much larger its level of activation is than that of other lexical nodes", Another robust effect is the phonological facilitation effect. Here, the selection of a phonological representation is speeded up when the picture and distractor are phonologically related (e.g., 'table'I'tape') than when they are not (e.g. 'table? 'hand'). This acceleration of speech is thought to be a result of the overlap of sound representations between the picture name and the written word (Schriefers et aI., 1990). The semantic interference effect has been used to investigate various issues regarding lexical access in speech production. For example, Schriefers et a1. (1990) used the time-course of the semantic interference effect in relation to that of the phonological facilitation effect to argue that lexical access follows strictly serial processing. Meyer (1996) also used the semantic interference effect to explore the size of the grammatical planning units during the production of multiword utterances. Thus, it appears that the semantic interference effect in the picture-word interference paradigm can be a useful tool to constrain claims about lexical access. The question is whether this effect can also be used to study the lexical access of verbs. There are two studies that address the issue of whether semantic interference effects exist in verb naming. Roelofs (1993) obtained a reliable semantic interference effect in bare verb naming in Dutch. Naming latencies for pictures depicting actions ('eating') were slower

Ve

when the distrac1 when it was un between the resu principles guidiru This view is cc Meinshausen (191 to study the proo addressed the ext both transitive ar asked to produce transitive or intrar that the verb was Verb-Subject (VS: transitive verbs) intransitive verbs They found that tl semantic interferer observed only wln no semantic interf of where the verb, Schriefers et a1. three of the four ! when the verb is utterances), it is corresponding to t Therefore, any inti will be invisible explain the lack of were located in the that this lack of an canonical order of word order is the r automatically planr sentence to conforn when intransitive v

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

.evelt, 1990; he semantic ; during the reveld & La ~ 'table", its ns that are esc concepts : distractor is ." which has

h a scenario, ued. Lexical ,e with which :::1' its level of t effect is the phonological istractor are are not (e.g. 1 result of the rd the written

tigate various :;'or example, c interference t to argue that 96) also used grammatical Ices. Thus, it picture-word claims about used to study her semantic ,) obtained a 19 in Dutch. were slower

3

when the distractor word was a semantically related verb ('drinking') that when it was unrelated ('jumping'). Roelofs argued that the similarity between the results obtained with noun and verb naming suggests that the principles guiding the selection of those two word types are the same. This view is complicated by more recent results. Schriefers, Teruel, and Meinshausen (1998) made use of the semantic interference effect for verbs to study the processes involved in the production of sentences. They also addressed the extent to which the semantic interference effect arises for itl both transitive and intransitive verbs . In their study, participants were asked to produce utterances in German in which the verb was either transitive or intransitive. They also manipulated the utterance format such that the verb was located either in the first position of the utterance (e.g. Verb-Subject (YS) for intransitive verbs or Yerb-Subject-Object (YSO) for transitive verbs) or in later positions (e.g., Subject-Verb (S Y) for intransitive verbs or Subject-Object-Yerb (SOY) for transitive verbs). They found that the transitivity of the verb affected the magnitude of the semantic interference effect. Semantic interference for transitive verbs was observed only when they occupied the first position in the utterance, and no semantic interference effects were seen for intransitive verbs regardless of where the verb occurred in the sentence. Schriefers et al. offer two explanations for the lack of effect seen for three of the four utterance formats used in their study. They argue that when the verb is not the first element of the utterance (SY or SOY utterances), it is not obligatory to have access to the lexical node corresponding to the verb before the articulation of the sentence starts. Therefore, any interference with the selection of the verb's lexical node will be invisible in naming latencies. However, this account cannot explain the lack of semantic interference observed when intransitive verbs were located in the first position of the utterance (YS). The authors argue that this lack of an effect is due to a specific property of German, the non­ canonical order of the YS utterances. According to them, since the YS word order is the non-canonical order in German, participants may have automatically planned the canonical order (SY) and then re-structured the sentence to conform to the required YS order". They further speculate that when intransitive verbs are in the first position of the utterance this re­

4

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

structuring process may mask the effect of semantically related distractors in naming latencies. Whatever the merits of these explanations, it is possible that the source of the differential effects of semantically related distractors in transitive and intransitive verb naming may be caused by factors unrelated to word order. Because Schriefers et al. tested the semantic interference effect for verbs only in the context of sentence production, it is unknown whether a reliable semantic interference effect can be obtained when they are tested outside the context of the utterance formats used in their experiments. Thus, before using the picture-word paradigm to study finer-grained assumptions about the processes involved in the lexical access of verbs, it is important to explore the reliability of the phenomenon in experimental conditions similar to those used for noun lexical access. Thus, the main goal of this article is to assess the robustness of the semantic interference effect for verb naming under various utterance formats. This paper presents three experiments designed to explore this issue in English. Measures were taken to establish the reliability of the semantic interference effect in verb production. First, we tested a large number of picture-word pairs. Second, we asked several groups of participants to name the pictures in a single verb-naming task and in a sentence-naming task. To anticipate our results, a semantic interference effect was observed in two of three experiments. However, intransitive verbs were more consistent in showing the semantic interference effect in comparison to transitive verbs.

who chose the alternatives. Th experiments. Di experiment, whi pairs across exp varied them in St the three experi target pictures (walking; curtin, walks; he/she Cl third person forn 2). Unless othen in Experiment 1. Table 1. A sumr participa and form Experiment Exp.l Exp.2(Group Exp.2(Group' ExpJ

2. An Overview of the Experiments

3. Experiment 1

We report three experiments in which the semantic interference effect was explored in verb naming. In all the experiments, the target pictures were paired with a semantically related and unrelated verb. The distractors paired with a given picture had the same transitivity value as that of the depicted action v. Additionally, all the distractor words were presented in the gerundial form (ing). The categorical relationship between the pictures and the semantically related verbs was assessed by native English speakers

Semantic interfer Method Participants. S paid for their pan Materials. Tw(

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

5

:on50 Caramazza

iantically related distractors

it is possible that the source lted distractors in transitive ly factors unrelated to word iantic interference effect for on, it is unknown whether a nained when they are tested used in their experiments. 19m to study finer-grained he lexical access of verbs, it henomenon in experimental .ical access. Thus, the main of the semantic interference formats. gned to explore this issue in e reliability of the semantic we tested a large number of al groups of participants to sk and in a sentence-naming

renee effect was observed in .ansitive verbs were more nee effect in comparison to

who chose the best match for the picture-distractor pair out of several alternatives. The most agreed upon pair was selected for use in the experiments. Different groups of five raters judged the stimuli for each experiment, which resulted in different semantically related picture-word pairs across experiments. Regarding the type of utterances produced, we varied them in several ways. Table 1 summarizes some of the properties of the three experiments. As described in Table 1, participants named the target pictures using: a) the gerundial form of the action depicted (walking; cutting etc.) - Experiments 1 and 3; b) short sentences (he/she walks; he/she cuts the paper etc.) - Experiment 2 (Group 1); and c) the third person form of the singular (walks; cuts etc.) - Experiment 2 (Group 2). Unless otherwise noted, all experiments were conducted as described in Experiment 1. Table 1. A summary of properties for each experiment (Exp): number of participants (#Part), number of pictures (# Pies), response (response), and format of response (Format Response). Experiment

#Part.

#Pics.

Response

Format Response

Exp.l

16

22

Verb Alone

Gerundial (running)

Exp.2(Group 1)

19

28

Sentence

3 rd Person (He runs)

Exp.2(Group 2)

19

28

Verb Alone

3rd Person (runs)

Exp.3

20

36

Verb Alone

Gerundial (running)

3. Experiment 1 semantic interference effect leriments, the target pictures nrelated verb. The distractors nsitivity value as that of the tor words were presented in tionship between the pictures ed by native English speakers

Semantic interference effect in bare verb naming Method Participants. Sixteen Harvard University undergraduate students were paid for their participation. All were native English speakers. Materials. Twenty-two black and white photographs depicting actions

6

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

were used as target stimuli (a modified set based on the materials used in (Fiez & Tranel, 1997) (see Appendix A for the list of stimuli). Eleven of the pictures depicted an actor performing an intransitive action (e.g., running), and 11 depicted an actor performing an action on an object (a transitive action, e.g., cutting). Each picture was presented with two distractor words: (a) semantically related verb (e.g., walking for running); and (b) semantically unrelated verb (e.g., laughing for running). As shown in Table 2, the semantically related and unrelated distractors were matched for frequency and word length such that words from both conditions were as similar as possible on these lexical characteristics (all Fs < I) (This was the case across all 3 experiments, as demonstrated in Table 2). We manipulated the target-distractor semantic relatedness in two separate sets of items. This allowed us to investigate the effect of semantic relatedness with a relatively large number of observations (88 per participant) as well as to assess the replicability of any effect of semantic relatedness across word sets. Two sets of distractors were used for a total of 4 picture repetitions. Table 2. A summary of the average frequency (frequency) and letter length (# Letters) for the semantically related and unrelated distractors for each experiment.

# Letters

Frequency Experiment

Related

Unrelated

Related

Unrelated

Exp.1

89

92

7.7

7.4

Exp.2(Group 1)

102

99

7.7

7.1

Exp.2(Group 2)

102

99

7.7

7.1

Exp.3

74

74

7.6

7.6

Four pictures were included as warm-up trials at the beginning of each block. The distractors were shown in 28-point boldface capital letters in Geneva font and were superimposed on the pictures. Pictures were

centered at f around fixati portion of th individual pic The experii trials were rat in the same bl than 3 times between subje Before the ( first series par X's printed in: for each picti presented witl every picture. experiment. Apparatus. PsychLab pre Columbia, Car millisecond b) from onset of t Procedure. room. They Wl:; as possible. W they were ask: follows: A fixa followed by pr ms. The exper incorrect respoi lasted approxirr Analyses. production of utterance repair than 300 ms ;: eliminated. A

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

vlfonso Caramazza

ased on the materials used in

the list of stimuli). Eleven of

an intransitive action (e.g.,

ng an action on an object (a

Ire was presented with two

'b (e.g., walking for running);

ghing for running). As shown

ated distractors were matched

'ds from both conditions were

teristics (all Fs < 1) (This was

monstrated in Table 2). We

-latedness in two separate sets

effect of semantic relatedness

ns (88 per participant) as well

if semantic relatedness across

ised for a total of 4 picture

:y (frequency) and letter length

ed and unrelated distractors for

~

# Letters

Related

Unrelated

7.7

7.4

7.7

7.1

7.7

7.1

7.6

7.6

trials at the beginning of each .oint boldface capital letters in the pictures. Pictures were

7

centered at fixation, and word position varied randomly in the region around fixation to prevent participants from systematically fixating the portion of the picture not containing the distractor. However, for an individual picture, the position of all its distractors was the same. The experimental stimuli were presented in different blocks, where the trials were randomized such that (a) the same picture did not occur twice in the same block; and (b) the same distractor condition occurred no more than 3 times in a row. The block presentation was counterbalanced between subjects according to a Latin-square design. Before the experiment proper, participants had 3 practice series. In the first series participants were presented with all the pictures with a row of X's printed inside each picture, to train the subject to use the correct name for each picture. In the second and third practice series they were presented with all the pictures with practice distractors printed inside every picture. These practice distractors were not used during the experiment. Apparatus. The pictures were presented on a Macintosh using the Psych Lab program (Bub and Gym, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada). Response times (RTs) were measured to the nearest millisecond by means of a voice key (KOSS headset/ CMU voicebox) from onset of the picture unti I the voice key was triggered. Procedure. Participants were tested individually in a darkened testing room. They were instructed to name pictures as quickly and as accurately as possible. When participants made mistakes during the practice session, they were asked to name the picture correctly. Each trial proceeded as follows: A fixation point ( + ) was shown for 700 ms, with a 300 ms lSI, followed by presentation of the stimulus. Interstimulus-interval was 2000 ms. The experimenter remained in the testing room in order to record incorrect responses and when voice key malfunctions occurred. A session lasted approximately 25 minutes. Analyses. Three types of responses were classified as errors: (a) production of the wrong name; (b) verbal disflucncies (stuttering, utterance repairs, etc.); and (c) voice key malfunctions. Responses slower than 300 ms and 2 SDs from a subject's condition mean were also eliminated. All missing data points were replaced by a subject's

Verb PI

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

8

condition mean. Separate analyses were carried out with subjects and items as dependent variables, yielding f 1 and £,2 statistics, respectively. Two variables were analyzed: "type of verb" (transitive vs. intransitive) and "type of distractor" (semantically related vs. unrelated). The two variables were considered within-subject variables for the fl. For the f2 statistics, the first variable was considered as a between-item variable and the second as within-item. We also analyzed transitive and intransitive pictures separately to assess the reliability of the semantic interference effect for the two types of verbs. Results Table 3 presents a summary of the response time means and error rates broken down by type of distractor (semantically related and unrelated). Similar error rates were obtained for the semantically related (l0.4%) and unrelated conditions (8.2%) indicating that the RT results do not reflect a speed-accuracy trade-off [f:I (I, I5) = 1.38, MSE = .1598, Q = .26; E2 < 1]. A Iso, error rates did not depend on type of verb [E 1 (1,15) = 2.71, MSE= .3132, 12= .12; £,2 (1,20) = 1.21, MSE = .3132, 12 = .28] or the interaction between type of distractor and type of verb [Fl (l, 15) = 1.04, MSE = .1200,12 = .32; E2 < 1]. Table 3. Summary of the results by experiment, broken down by type of verb and type of distractor. Error rates are in parentheses. Significant differences in response times ofp < .05 indicated by an *. Experiment

Type of Distractors Transitiv~

Exp.1 Exp.2 (Grp l ) Exp.2 (Grp2)

Exp.3

Intransitive

Total

Related

Unrelated

Effect

Related

Unrelated

Effect

764* (8.0)

737 (7.7)

-27

753* (12.8)

730 (8.8)

-23

-25

692 (15.0) 69\ (11.3)

-1

695* (12.0)

657(6.8)

-38

-19

730 (8.3)

720 (8.6)

-10

738* (12.8)

697 (10.2)

-41

-26

727 (4.8)

714 (5.2)

-13

708(5.1)

717(5.2)

+9

-2

The main effect of 15) = 19.82, MSE = Q < .01], revealing t the pictures were pre an unrelated distract not significant LE 1 (1 the interaction betwe was not significant ei We analyzed trans] sure that the sernant verbs (following Sc transitive pictures sh subject [El (1, 15) = = 11.88, MSE = 1 significant semantic (1,15) = 4.55, MSE = 87987, Q < .05]. When each set of effect is marginally 3.40, MSE = 52303, and clearly signific 184835, Q < .001; E2 Discussion Semantically rela com parison to unrel verbs. This suggests as semantically relat Given the assum consequence of the I related distractor in selection, we can co the fo llowing experi "natural" task in w question then is wh

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

fonso Caramazza

ried out with subjects and i E2 statistics, respectively. (transitive vs. intransitive) .d vs. unrelated). The two ables for the El. For the E2 a between-item variable and i transitive and intransitive ,f the semantic interference

e time means and error rates .ally related and unrelated). intically related (10.4%) and e RT results do not reflect a SE = .1598, Q = .26; E2 < 1]. of verb LEI (1,15) = 2.71, ;E = .3132, Q = .28] or the )e of verb [Fl (1,15) = 1.04,

, broken down by type of verb re in parentheses. Significant indicated by an *.

I

ors Total

Intransitive

lted

Unrelated

Effect

:12.8)

730 (8.8)

-23

-25

:12.0)

657 (6.8)

-38

-19

(12.8) 697(10.2)

-41

-26

717(5.2)

+9

-2

(5.1)

9

The main effect of the variable type of distractor was significant, [E 1 (1, 15) = 19.82, MSE = 216892, Q < .01; E2 (1, 20) = 16.84, MSE = 216892, Q < .01], revealing that naming latencies were significantly longer when the pictures were presented with a semantically related distractor than with an unrelated distractor. The main effect of the variable type of verb was not significant [El (1, 15) = 2.47, MSE = 27022, Q> .10; E2 < 1]. Finally, the interaction between the variables type of distractor and type of verb was not significant either LE 1 and E2 < 1]. We analyzed transitive and intransitive pictures separately in order to be sure that the semantic interference effect was robust for both types of verbs (following Schriefers et al., 1998). When analyzed separately, transitive pictures showed a 27 ms semantic interference effect both by subject LE 1 (1, 15) = 5.68, MSE = 131040, Q < .05] and by item LE2 (1,10) = 11.88, MSE = 131040, Q < .01)] Intransitive pictures showed a significant semantic interference effect of 23 ms, both by subject [f.l (1,15) = 4.55, MSE = 87987, Q < .05] and by item [E2 (1,10) = 5.97, MSE = 87987, Q < .05]. When each set of items is analyzed separately the semantic interference effect is marginally significant for the first set of distractors [E 1 (1,15) = 3.40, MSE = 52303, Q = .085; E2 (1, 20) = 3.89, MSE = 52303, Q = .062] and clearly significant for the second set [El (1,15) = 19.35, MSE = 184835, Q < .001; f.2 (1,20) = 13.58, MSE = 184835, Q < .01]. Discussion Semantically related distractors increased picture-naming latencies in comparison to unrelated distractors, for both transitive and intransitive verbs. This suggests that semantically related verbs produce similar effects as semantically related nouns. Given the assumption that the semantic interference effect arises as a consequence of the larger lexical competition produced by a semantically related distractor in comparison to an unrelated distractor during lexical selection, we can conclude that verb selection is a competitive process. In the following experiment, we will try to extend this observation in a more "natural" task in which participants are asked to produce sentences. The question then is whether a delay in the selection of the verb lexical node

lO

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

translates into a delay in the production of the whole utterance. There are results that have addressed the extent to which semantic interference can be obtained when multi word utterances are produced. These studies have reported important differences between nouns and verbs. For example, semantic interference effects were found when the distractor word was semantically related to the second noun in coordinate noun phrases (e.g., the arrow and the bag) (Meyer, 1996), suggesting that a delay in the selection of a noun located in quite late positions in the utterance slows down naming latencies. The scenario is quite different for verbs. Schriefers and colleagues (1998) obtained a semantic interference effect only when the verb (transitive) was placed in the first position in the utterance and no semantic interference effects when the verb occurred later in the utterance. Experiment 2 is designed to examine whether a delay in the selection of verbs located in non-initial positions slows speech onset. At issue is whether the results will fall in line with previous work in noun phrase production (e.g., Meyer, 1996) or in sentence production (e.g., Schriefers et al., 1998).

4. Experiment 2 Sentence production and bare verb naming The main goal of this experiment is to explore the semantic interference effect for verbs in a sentence context. Two major differences between Experiments 1 and 2 were the use of different materials and the fact that rd participants were asked to produce the 3 person present tense. A first group of participants (Group 1) was asked to name pictures using full sentences (e.g., "she pets the cat", or "she jumps"), while ignoring semantically related and unrelated verb distractors. We also included a control group (Group 2) in which participants were asked to name the same pictures using the 3 rd person singular form of the verb (e.g., "pets", "jumps"). Although our primary interest was in the results of Group 1 (sentence production), the results of Group 2 help us test the sensitivity of the experimental design.

Verb Prod

Method Participants. Thirty­ Experiment 1 took pa Group 1 and the ot Experiment 1. Materials. Twenty-ei target stimuli for Exper in (Masterson & Druk Fourteen of these pict action, and 14 depicte transitive action). Half female. Each line drav of 3 repetitions. The related verbs (28 items) (c) a baseline condition I Procedure. Participan using simple sentences ( asked to use the 3 rd pen

A 11 other aspects of the t Analysis. We analyze together. For the .E1 ar vs. single verb) as a (transitive vs. intransitiv unrelated) as two with considered "type of verI and "type of distractor" ( Results

Mean response times. type of verb and utterar related distractors led to 9.2% respectively; .El (1 < .05]. Error rates did nc 1.52 12 > .20)] or type interaction was observe:

lfonso Caramazza

whole utterance. extent to which semantic ird utterances are produced. erences between nouns and ffects were found when the le second noun in coordinate eyer, 1996), suggesting that a l quite late positions in the scenario is quite different for .ined a semantic interference ced in the first position in the cts when the verb occurred ~

ter a delay in the selection of s speech onset. At issue is evious work in noun phrase e production (e.g., Schriefers

lore the semantic interference J major differences between mt materials and the fact that person present tense. A first to name pictures using full :he jumps"), while ignoring tractors, We also included a mts were asked to name the form of the verb (e.g., "pets", as in the results of Group 1 : help us test the sensitivity of

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

11

Method Participants. Thirty-six participants from the same population as in Experiment 1 took part in the experiment. Half of them were assigned to Group 1 and the other half to Group 2. None had participated in Experiment 1. Materials. Twenty-eight line drawings depicting actions were used as target stimuli for Experiment 2 (a modified set based on the materials used in (Masterson & Druks, 1998) (see Appendix B for the list of stimuli). Fourteen of these pictures depicted an actor performing an intransitive action, and 14 depicted an actor performing an action on an object (a transitive action). Half of the actors depicted were male, and half were female. Each line drawing was used in 3 distractor conditions, for a total of 3 repetitions. The distractor conditions included: (a) semantically related verbs (28 items); (b) semantically unrelated verbs (28 items); and (c) a baseline condition (a string of 6 XIS printed inside each picture). Procedure. Participants in Group 1 were asked to name the pictures using simple sentences (e.g., He laughs) and participants in Group 2 were asked to use the 3 rd person singular form of the action name (e.g. laughs). All other aspects of the experiment were the same as Experiment 1. Analysis. We analyzed naming latencies and error rates for both groups together. For the II analysis, we considered "utterance type" (sentence vs. single verb) as a between-subjects variable, and "type of verb" (transitive vs. intransitive) and "type of distractor" (semantically related vs. unrelated) as two within-subjects variables. For the E2 analysis, we considered "type of verb" a between item variable, and "utterance type" and "type of distractor" as within items variables. Results Mean response times and error rates as a function of type of distractor, type of verb and utterance type, are presented in Table 3. Semantically related distractors led to more errors than unrelated distractors [120/0 and 9.2% respectively; El (l, 36) = 5.34, MSE = 12 < .05; I2 (1, 26) = 6.97, 12 < .05]. Error rates did not depend on utterance type [II < 1; E2 (l, 26) = 1.52 12 > .20)] or type of verb (El and E2 < 1). Only one significant interaction was observed in the error rates analyses [type of verb and

12

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

utterance type, E1 (1,36) = 7.68, MSE = .6090, 12 < .01; E2 (1,26) = 10.04, MSE = .6090, 12 < .01]. All the other interactions were not significant (all 12's> .1). Semantically related distractors led to longer naming latencies than unrelated distractors [F1 (1,36) = 28.92, MSE = 187867, P < .001; F2 (1, 26) = 50.40, MSE = 13843, p < .001]. The main effects of utterance type, and type of verb were only marginally significant [utterance type: F1 (1, 36) = 2.39, MSE = 54117, p> .10; F2 (1, 26) = 145.18, MSE = 398757, P < .001; type of verb: FI (1,36) = 8.04, MSE = 5221, P < .001; F2 (1, 26) = 1.38, Tv1SE = 3847, P >. 20]. This suggests that verbs named in isolation or as part of a sentence did not differ in how quickly they were named. It also suggests that transitive and intransitive pictures were named equally

fast". Importantly, the interaction between type of distractor and type of verb was significant [F1 (l, 36) = 17.38, MSE = 11290, P < .001; F2 (1, 26) = 30.29, MSE = 8319, P < .001], revealing that the difference in the semantic interference effect observed for transitive (5 ms) and intransitive (40 ms) verbs was significant. Planned comparisons showed that the semantic interference effect for transitive pictures was not significant [F 1 < 1; F2 (1, 13) = 2.14, MSE = 350, P > .10] while for intransitive pictures it was significant [F 1 (1, 36) = 45.10, MSE = 29602, P < .001; F2 (1, 13) = 56.48, MSE = 21812, P < .001]. No other interactions were significant (all Fs < 1). Discussion The results of this experiment partially replicate those observed in Experiment 1: verb distractors semantically related to the named action increased response times in comparison to unrelated distractors. This effect was observed both when verbs were performed in isolation and when they were produced as part of sentences. However, a closer look at the data reveals that the semantic interference effect is only present when participants named intransitive verbs. The difference between semantically related and unrelated distractors for transitive verbs was not significant in either naming condition (sentences or isolated). Caution must be exercised when interpreting the failure to observe a

Verb

semantic interferer of results contrast ~ results observed b conclusions from verbs, it is reason effect observed in ]

5. Experiment 3

Semantic interferer The aim of this effect observed in asked to name tlu whether the lack ot to the different res verbs used in th Experiments 1 and interference effect j Experiment unlike related and unrelat obtaining a semanti items used in the tv.

Method Participants. Tw( previous experimen ex peri ments. Materials. Thirty Appendix C for the an actor performing an actor performin cutting). Semantica order to control for semantically relatec experiment were the

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

l,26) = 10.04, ignificant (all latencies than

< .001; F2 (1, rtterance type, .e type: Fl (1, E = 398757, P )01; F2 (1, 26) led in isolation were named. It named equally

td type of verb 11; F2 (1, 26) = fference in the and intransitive howed that the c significant [F 1 ansitive pictures 10 1; F2 (1, 13) = e significant (all

ose observed in Ie named action distractors. This in isolation and a closer look at 11y present when een semantically 10t significant in

.ire to observe a

13

semantic interference effect for transitive verbs. Not only does this pattern of results contrast sharply with Experiment 1, but it also contrasts with the results observed by Schriefers et al. (1998). Thus, before drawing any conclusions from the lack of semantic interference effect for transitive verbs, it is reasonable to attempt to replicate the semantic interference effect observed in Experiment 1.

5. Experiment 3 Semantic interference effect in bare verb naming The aim of this experiment is to replicate the semantic interference effect observed in Experiment 1. As in Experiment 1, participants were asked to name the pictures in gerundial form. This allows us to test whether the lack of an effect for transitive pictures in Experiment 2 is due to the different response formats between experiments. Furthermore, the verbs used in this experiment were different from those used in Experiments 1 and 2, allowing us to test the reliability of the semantic interference effect for both transitive and intransitive verbs. Finally, in this Experiment unlike in Experiment 1, the same verbs served as semantically related and unrelated distractors (see below), reducing the possibility of obtaining a semantic interference effect due to extraneous properties of the items used in the two conditions. Method Participants. Twenty participants from the same population as in the previous experiments participated here. None had participated in previous experiments. Materials. Thirty-six line drawings were used as target stimuli (see Appendix C for the list of stimuli). Eighteen of the target pictures depicted an actor performing an intransitive action (e.g., running), and 18 depicted an actor performing an action on an object (a transitive action, e.g., cutting). Semantically related and unrelated distractors were identical in order to control for unintentional pairing effects between different sets of semantically related and unrelated distractors Vii. All other aspects of the experiment were the same as Experiment 1.

-

]4

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

Results and discussion Error rates for each condition were statistically similar (5.0 % for the semantically related condition and 5.2 % for the unrelated condition; E1 and E2 < 1). There were no differences in error rates for type of verb, or for the interaction between type of verb and type of distractor (E1 and E2 < 1). Means per condition and error rates are reported in Table 3. No significant effects were obtained in this experiment. Semantically related distractors led to comparable naming latencies as unrelated distractors (E1 and E2 < 1). Transitive pictures were named at the same rate as intransitive pictures [E] (1, 19) = 3.25, MSE =1231, 12 < .01; E2 < 1]. The interaction between type of verb and type of distractor condition was not significant [E1 (1, 19) = 5.99, MSE = 2270, 12 < .05; E2 (1, 34) = 2.29, MSE = 2042.941, 12 > .10]. When responses to transitive and intransitive verbs were analyzed separately, there was no effect of the semantically related distractors in comparison to the unrelated distractors (For transitive picture naming: E1 (1, 19) = 3.58, MSE = 1464,12 < .10; E2 (1, 17) = 1.56, MSE = 1317.759,12 = < .30; For intransitive picture naming E1 (1, 19) = 2.34, MSE = 847.62,12 < .20; E2 < 1). The results of this experiment contrast sharply with those of Experiment 1. In Experiment 1, naming latencies were slower for semantically related distractors than for unrelated distractors, whereas no differences were observed here. However, the results confirm the absence of a semantic interference effect for transitive verbs as observed in Experiment 2. 6. General Discussion

The goal of this study was to explore the semantic interference effect in the picture word interference paradigm as a tool to further study the processes involved in the production of verbs. We have reported three experiments in which participants were asked to produce verbs while ignoring the presentation of a semantically related or unrelated distractor verb. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants named the pictures more slowly when they were accompanied by a semantically related distractor than by an unrelated distractor (see Table 3). In contrast, in Experiment 3 naming

latencies '" the resuln semantical intransitive In the In the semant effect seerr example, S only for vr were trans verbs even Although ~ effect for i recent exp Italian (Co the reliabil: language sf failed to ( contrasting which verb. semantic in In the f inconsisten, semantic i relationship semantic in semanticall restricted tc categoricall category. F picture of a are merely, seen (Alaric relationship effects. For

vlfonso Caramazza

tically similar (5.0 % for the ,r the unrelated condition; E1 rror rates for type of verb, or type of distractor (E 1 and E2 reported in Table 3. this experiment. Semantically ming latencies as unrelated ures were named at the same 5, MSE =1231, p < .01; E2 < d type of distractor condition = 2270, £ < .05; E2 (1, 34) = responses to transitive and 1, there was no effect of the on to the unrelated distractors ),58, MSE = 1464, £ < .10; E2 ::or intransitive picture naming ~

< 1). ly with those of Experiment 1. ower for semantically related whereas no differences were m the absence of a semantic erved in Experiment 2.

semantic interference effect in s a tool to further study the erbs. We have reported three sked to produce verbs while related or unrelated distractor amed the pictures more slowly cally related distractor than by itrast, in Experiment 3 naming

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

15

latencies were independent of the type of distractor. Further inspection of the results of Experiment 2 revealed that the difference between semanticalJy related and unrelated distractors was only reliable for intransitive verbs. In the Introduction, we discussed some of the studies that have explored the semantic interference effect in verb production, and we argued that this effect seems to be less reliable than that observed in noun production. For example, Schriefers et al. (1998) observed a semantic interference effect only for verbs in the first position of the utterance and only when they were transitive: no semantic interference was obtained for intransitive verbs even when they were located in the first position in the utterance. Although Schriefers et al. explained the lack of semantic interference effect for intransitive verbs in terms of specific properties of German, recent experiments conducted in Spanish (Santesteban, 2000) and in Italian (Collina & Tabossi, personal communication), raise doubts about the reliability of the semantic interference effect for verbs, regardless of language specific properties. The studies conducted in Spanish and Italian failed to observe any systematic semantic interference. Given these contrasting results, before drawing any conclusion about the processes by which verbs are selected, it is important to clarify the contexts in which a semantic interference effect for verbs is obtained. In the fol1owing, we entertain some possible explanations for the inconsistency of the semantic interference effect with verbs. Because the semantic interference effect relies on the semantic (categorical) relationship between the word produced and the distractor, the lack of semantic interference for verbs may be due to the way verbs are organized semantically. The semantic interference effect seen in object naming is restricted to those cases in which the distractor word and the picture are categorically related, that is, when two words belong to the same semantic category. For example, semantic interference is seen when naming a picture of a 'cat' and the distractor is 'dog'. If the response and distractor are merely associates (e.g. 'mouse'/ 'cheese') no semantic interference is seen (Alario, Segui, & Ferrand, 2000; Lupker, 1979). However a semantic relationship between two words does not guarantee semantic interference effects. For example, the production of 'animal' to the picture 'cat' when

l6

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

the distractor word is 'dog' (a subordinate member of the response word 'animal') is facilitated rather than inhibited by the distractor word (Glaser & Glaser, 1989). It seems that in order to observe semantic interference, not only do distractor words and responses need to belong to the same semantic category, but they also need to belong to the same level of categorization. Finding words that are related to each other both in terms of category and level within category is a simpler task for nouns than for verbs. For example, table and chair clearly belong to the same category (furniture) and are at the same level within the category. Did the materials we chose across the three experiments follow this relationship? The way verbs are conceptually related to one another is not entirely clear (Miller & Fellbaum, 1991). Consider the verbs walk, run, and jQg. Is jQg a subordinate member of the category run, where walk belongs to a different category? Or are run and iss co-ordinate members (such a table and chair) of the same category as walk? This example illustrates that the selection of the right distractors for verbs is very difficult. Materials may be satisfying some conditions (response and distractor part of the same category) and failing other criteria (response and distractor not at the same level of categorization). Therefore, it is possible that the inconsistency of the semantic interference effect is due to the complex semantic organization of verbs where semantic categories are difficult to distinguish \'111. The difficulty in choosing appropriate semantic distractors should affect both transitive and intransitive verbs, and this is the pattern that has been seen across studies. However, we speculate that the consistently smaller semantic interference effect seen here for transitive verbs may be due to a separate but related difficulty in choosing appropriate semantic relationships for transitive verbs. It is possible that the determination of semantic relationships for intransitive and transitive verbs is based on different properties. That is, two intransitive verbs are semantically related by virtue of the action they refer to, in the same way that two nouns are semantically related by virtue of the category they belong to. In comparison, for transitive verbs the semantic relationship can be based on the action or the object that is being acted upon. For example, for the transitive verb shuffle (cards), we could choose a verb that is semantically

v

related to the l question is then interference pau potentially mask Although the se that affect the s may be more sus This scenario that suggest the particularly imp Savova, & Can affects the magn independent of ~ that the overall il other things, on same level of c pictures using distractors (e.g., distractors (e.g.: observed when category-level n categorization of modulates the m. variable is relati different levels 0 at the same lev However as ( representation of levels of categori in terms of leve question of whet share the same Ie of categorization, be produced frau; In short, the St

j

Alfonso Caramazza

~ member of the response word

i by the distractor word (Glaser

observe semantic interference, .es need to belong to the same ) belong to the same level of ited to each other both in terms simpler task for nouns than for ly belong to the same category 1 the category. Did the materials ow this relationship? d to one another is not entirely r the verbs walk, run, and jQg. Is y run, where walk belongs to a )-ordinate members (such a table ? This example illustrates that verbs is very difficult. Materials ionse and distractor part of the response and distractor not at the fore, it is possible that the ce effect is due to the complex mantic categories are difficult to

semantic distractors should affect

i this is the pattern that has been

late that the consistently smal1er . transitive verbs may be due to a choosing appropriate semantic ossible that the determination of md transitive verbs is based on .ive verbs are semantical1y related the same way that two nouns are e category they belong to. In antic relationship can be based on icted upon. For example, for the choose a verb that is semantically

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

17

related to the object deal (cards) or related to the action whisk. The question is then whether these two types of relationships lead to the same interference pattern. A lack of effect or even facilitation in one case could potential1y mask a semantic interference effect overal1 for transitive verbs. Although the semantic organization and level of categorization are factors that affect the semantic interference effect for al1 verbs, transitive verbs may be more susceptible. This scenario is even more complicated when we consider recent results that suggest that the choice of the unrelated distractor may also be particularly important in creating semantic interference. Costa, Mahon, Savova, & Caramazza (in press) have identified another variable that affects the magnitude of the interference produced by a distractor that is independent of semantic relatedness. In that study, Costa et al. observed that the overal1 interference produced by a distractor word depends among other things, on whether the distractor word and the response share the same level of categorization. When participants are required to name pictures using basic-level names (e.g., dog), unrelated basic-level distractors (e.g., truck) interfere more than unrelated category-level distractors (e.g., vehicle). The complementary pattern of results is observed when participants are required to name the pictures using category-level names (e.g., animal). Thus, it appears that the level of categorization of a distractor word in relation to that of the response word modulates the magnitude of the interference created by the distractor. This variable is relatively easy to control in the case of nouns, because the different levels of categorization are quite distinct (e.g., dog and truck are at the same level of categorization while dog and vehicle are not). However as discussed above, when considering the semantic representation of verbs it is more complicated to establish the different levels of categorization. It appears that the semantic organization of verbs in terms of levels of categorization is less transparent. This raises the question of whether the paired distractors presented with a given picture share the same level of categorization. If they do not share the same level of categorization, varying levels of interference or even facilitation might be produced from picture to picture. In short, the semantic interference effect seems to be a complex

I

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

18

Verb Prod

phenomenon where several variables may contribute to its detection. Therefore, a better understanding of how verbs are semantically related is needed in order to evaluate the cause of the transient semantic interference effect.

Acknowledgement This work was supported in part by NIH grant DC 04542 to Alfonso Caramazza. Tatiana T. Schnur was supported in part by the Sackler Scholars Programme in Psychobiology. Albert Costa was supported by a Post-doctoral

Fellowship

from

the

Spanish

government

(Fulbright

program). The authors wish to thank Kiawen Kam and Mike Espiritu for their help in conducting the experiments reported here. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Tatiana Schnur,

Cognitive

Neuropsychology

Laboratory;

Department

of

Psychology; Harvard University; 33 Kirkland Street; Cambridge, MA 02138; USA. Electronic mail may be sent to [email protected].

References Alario, EX., Segui, J., & Ferrand, L.(2000). Semantic and associative priming in picture naming. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology, 53A(3), 741-764. Caramazza, A., & Costa, A. (2000). The semantic interference effect in the picture-word interference paradigm: does the response set matter? Cognition, 75, B5] - B64. Costa, A., Mahon, B., Savova, v., & Caramazza, A. (in press). Level of categorization effect: a novel effect in the picture-word interference paradigm. Language & Cognitive Processes. Dell, Goo S. (1986). A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review, 93(3), 283-321. Fiez, 1. A., & Tranel, D. (1997). Standardized stimuli and procedures for investigating the retrieval of lexical and conceptual knowledge for actions. Memory and Cognition, 25(4),543-569. Glaser, W. R. (1992). Picture naming. Cognition, 42,61-105. Glaser, W. R., & Glaser, M. O. (1989). Context effects in Stroop-like word and picture processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1I8(1 ), I 3-42 .

Levelt, W. 1. M., Roel< access in speech pre Levin, B. (1993). En& investigation. Chica Lupker, S. J. (1979). 1 picture-word interfe: MacLeod, C. M. (1991) integrative review. 1 Masterson, 1., & Druks, verbs matched for I acquisition. Journal Meyer, A. S. (1996). I Results from picture & Language, 35(4), ' Miller, G. A, & FelH Cognition, 41(1-3), ] Roelofs, A (] 992). A speaking. Cognition, Roelofs, A. (1993). Testi in speaking: Rctrie Santesteban, M. (2000). Verbs. Paper presen Cognitive Psycholog Schriefers, B., Meyer, A of lexical access iJ studies. Journal of M Schriefers, B., Teruel, E sentences: Results fr ofMemory & Langue. Starreveld, P. A., & La I­ facilitation, and their P5ychology: Learning Starreveld, P. A., & La Bt orthographic context Psychology: Learning

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

Alfonso Caramazza

, contribute to its detection. rbs are semantically related is transient semantic interference

-I grant DC 04542 to Alfonso orted in part by the Sackler oert Costa was supported by a mish

government

(Fulbright

en Kam and Mike Espiritu for

iorted here.

Department

of


) [email protected].

Semantic and associative priming

of Experimental Psychology. A, 741-764.

~),

:mantic interference effect in the does the response set matter?

amazza, A. (in press). Level of n the picture-word interference

sses.

1

Levelt, W. 1. M., Roelofs, A., & Meyer, A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical

access in speech production. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 22(1), 1-75.

Levin, B. (1993). English verb classes and alternations: a preliminary

investigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lupker, S. 1. (1979). The semantic nature of response competition in the picture-word interference task. Memory and Cognition, 7(485-495). MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109(2), 163-203. Masterson, J., & Druks, J. (1998). Description of a set of 164 nouns and 102 verbs matched for printed word and frequency, familiarity and age-of­ acquisition. Journal ofNeurolinguistics, 11(4), 331-354. Meyer, A. S. (1996). Lexical access in phrase and sentence production: Results from picture-word interference experiments. Journal of Memory & Language, 35(4), 477-496. Miller, G. A., & Fellbaum, C. (1991). Semantic networks of English.

Cognition, 41(1-3), 197-229.

should be addressed to Tatiana

Laboratory;

19

theory of retrieval in sentence

),283-321.

Iized stimuli and procedures for

conceptual knowledge for actions.

tion, 42,61-105.

mtext effects in Stroop-like word

perimental Psychology: General,

Roelofs, A. (1992). A spreading-activation theory of lemma retrieval in speaking. Cognition, 42(1-3),107-142. Roelofs, A. (1993). Testing a non-decompositional theory of lemma retrieval in speaking: Retrieval of verbs. Cognition, 47, 59-87. Santesteban, M. (2000). Semantic Interference Effect in the Production of Verbs. Paper presented at the Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Edinburgh, Scotland. Schriefers, H., Meyer, A. S., & Levelt, W. J. (1990). Exploring the time course of lexical access in language production: Picture-word interference studies. Journal of Memory & Language, 29(1), 86-102. Schriefers, H., Teruel, E., & Meinhausen, R. M. (1998). Producing simple sentences: Results from picture-word interference experiments. Journal ofMemory & Language, 39(4), 609-632. Starreveld, P. A., & La Heij, W. (1995). Semantic interference, orthographic facilitation, and their interaction in naming tasks. Journal ofExperimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21(3), 686-698. Starreveld, P. A., & La Heij, W. (1996). Time-course analysis of semantic and orthographic context effects in picture naming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 22(4), 896-918.

20

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

APPENDIX A: Stimuli for Experiment 1. Naming verbs alone: Gerundial

verbs.

Verb Produt

APPENDIX A continuec PICTURE

I

--~-------

PICTURE

Distractors set 1

- - - - ~ - ~ ~ - - -

Transitive Verbs

Semantically Related

Semantically Unrelated

CARRYING

dragging

flipping

CUTTING

tearing

mixing

FLEXING KICKING KISSING PUNCHING

stretching hitting hugging

climbing selling pinching

slapping writing

tilting

throwing

feeding

READING ROLLING

keeping

ROWING

sailing

leaping

SHUFFLING SQUEEZING

dealing crushing

riding

popping

Intransitive Verbs FISHING

hunting

packing

KNEELING

sitting pounding

reaching blushing

LEANING LISTENING

standing

trying

peeking

skating

POINTING

clapping

erupting

SMILING

laughing

flying

SNEEZING WALKING WHISPERING WINKING

coughing running

crumbling living

yelling squinting

digging

scrawling

KNOCKING

Transitive Verbs

~

CARRYING CUTTING FLEXING KICKING

h

KISSING

n

s c

Sl

PUNCHING

Sl

READING ROLLING

te

b

ROWING

d

SHUFFLING

\\

SQUEEZING

\\

Intransitive Verbs FISHING

gc

KNEELING

sc

KNOCKING LEANING

sl

LISTENING POINTING

st w

SMILING SNEEZING

fn yc

WALKING

jo

WHISPERING WINKING

gl

b.

si:

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

Alfonso Caramazza

21

APPENDIX A continued. Iaming verbs alone: Gerundial Distractors Set 2 PICTURE -------­

~

Transitive Verbs

Semantically Related

Semantically Unrelated

flipping mixing climbing selling pinching tilting keeping feeding leaping

CARRYING CUTTING FLEXING KICKING KISSING PUNCHING READING ROLLING ROWING SHUFFLING SQUEEZING

holding slashing clenching smashing nuzzling scratching teaching bouncing driving whisking wringing

turning whirling blurring weaving weighing

riding popping

Intransitive Verbs golfing squatting banging slumping staring waving frowning yawning

barking snowing diving gleaming sleeping ringing

Semantically Unrelated

packing reaching blushing trying skating erupting flying crumbling living digging scrawling

FISHING KNEELING KNOCKING LEANING LISTENING POINTING SMILING SNEEZING WALKING WHISPERING WINKING

jogging singing glaring

shaving catching biting watching ironing combing

floating galloping juggling fighting dripping

I

Tatiana 1'. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

22

APPENDIX B: Stimuli for Experiment 2 (Group 1): Simple sentences, rd and (Group 2): Naming Verbs Alone, 3 personal singular verbs. -._-----­

HE HE SHE HE SHE SHE SHE HE HE SHE SHE HE SHE HE

-------------­

Transitive Verbs

Semantically Related

Semantically Unrelated

CARRIES (a pumpkin) DRAWS (a racket) DROPS (a glass) IRONS (a shirt) KICKS (a drum) KISSING (a horse) LIGHTS (a candle) OPENS (a door) PEELS (an orange) PETS (a cat) READING (a book) SMELLING (a flower) TICKLES (a dog) WATERS (a plant)

throwing copying lifting cleaning hitting nuzzling burning shutting chopping hugging writing touching scratching spraying

ending yanking washing tearing eating stashing pushing flipping banging turning drinking guarding drowning

running smiling stumbling sitting screaming standing skipping clapping whistling

reaching riding melting playing flowing moving tilting erupting blushing

mixmg

Intransitive Verbs SHE SHE SHE SHE HE HE HE SHE HE

CRAWLS CRIES DANCES KNEELS LAUGHS LEANS MARCHES POINTS SINGS

Verb f

SHE HE HE SHE HE

SKATES SLEEPS SWINGS WALKS YAWNS

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

Alfonso Caramazza

(Group 1): Simple sentences, sonal singular verbs.

ntically ed

Semantically Unrelated

ling

ending yanking washing tearing eating stashing pushing mixing flipping banging turning drinking guarding drowning

mg

:J

::;,

ing g ling

mg

ing ping ,ing ng ling ching ying

ing ing ibling

19 aming ding ping ping stling

reaching riding melting playing flowing moving tilting erupting blushing

SHE HE HE SHE HE

SKATES SLEEPS SWINGS WALKS YAWNS

sledding resting climbing jogging burping

slouching flying nodding pouting squeaking

23

24

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

APPENDIX C: Stimuli for Experiment 3. Naming verbs alone: Gerundial verbs.

Verb Pn

APPENDIX C contin PICTURE

PICTURE

Distractors

Transitive Verbs

Semantically Related

Semantically Unrelated

CARRYING

dragging

scratching

DIVING

CATCHING

tossing

shutting

FISHING

DRIVING

piloting

pruning

KNEELING

DROPPING IRONING

lifting washing

washing lifting

KNOCKING

KICKING

punching

piloting

Intransitive Verbs CRAWLING CRYING

LAUGHING

KISSING

nuzzling

stabbing

MARCHING POINTING

OPENING PAINTING

shutting

tossing

PRAYING

sculpting

nuzzling

PEELING

chopping

hugging

PETTING

hugging

chopping

PLANTING

pruning

punching

PUSHING

holding

writing

READING

writing

holding

SEWING

weaving

tasting

SHOOTING

stabbing

sculpting

SIVIELLING

tasting

weaving

TICKLING

scratching

dragging

SINGING SKATING SLEEPING SWIMMING SWINGING WALKING WINKING YAWNING

I

I Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect

md Alfonso Caramazza

. Naming verbs alone: Gerundial

ted

Semantically Unrelated

APPENDIX C continued. PICTURE

Distractors

Intransitive Verbs

Semantically Related

Semantically Unrelated

CRAWLING

skipping

floating

CRYING

smiling

dreaming

scratching

DIVING

floating

waving

shutting

FISHING

hunting

smiling

prumng

KNEELING

sitting

running

washing

KNOCKING

ringing

lifting

LAUGHING MARCHING

screaming

begging sliding

jogging

burping

stabbing

POINTING

waving

skipping

tossing nuzzling

PRAYING

begging

ringing

SINGING

whistling

wading

hugging

SKATING

sledding

squinting

chopping

SLEEPING

dreaming

hunting

punching

SWIMMING

wading

whistling

writing

SWINGING

sliding

screaming

holding

WALKING

running

sitting

tasting

WINKING

squinting

jogging

sculpting weaving

YAWNING

burping

sledding

piloting

25

dragging

I

26

Tatiana T. Schnur, Albert Costa and Alfonso Caramazza

Loglinear] Foot notes

Throughout this article, single quotation marks will be used to denote

pictures and distractors, double quotation marks for lexical representations,

and capitalization for conceptual representations.

ii According to this explanation, the mechanism that produces the semantic

interference effect is slightly more complicated, since the distractor word also

sends activation to the lexical node corresponding to the picture's name

("table").

iii In Roelofs' experiments the transitivity of the verb was not a controlled

factor. For discussion of the role of verb transitivity in lexical selection see

Schriefers et al. (1998).

iv In the experiment, participants were required to produce S(O)Y and YS(O)

utterances intermixed.

v The transitivity of a distractor word was determined by its most frequent

dictionary definition.

VI For this and subsequent experiments, the baseline condition was significantly faster than the combined semantically related and unrelated conditions. This analysis will not be separately reported. VIi Using unrelated distractors that differ from related distractors has merits. Each semantically related and unrelated pair can be maximally different semantically, and optimally matched for other criteria (letter length, syllable, etc.). As explained, however, using identical related and unrelated distractors also has advantages. It has been argued that semantic categories for verbs are more difficult to establish in comparison to nouns due to the shallow nature of verbs' semantic hierarchy (e.g., many potential categories with few members) (Miller & Fellbaum, 1991) and the added contribution of verbs' syntactic properties in defining categories (Levin, 1993) among other reasons.

i

1. Introductior

While it is c social sciences and chi-square' of language acq statistics. As tlu been admirable publications of (Anshen, 1978; Hughes, 1986; ~ books has discu: categorical data. been applied wi: will first examin may have enc categorical data analysis overcoi analysis are aV(J easily accessibh technicality and avoid very teel rationale behind and a real exai significance of lc

2. Limitations

0

Chi-square (X' the most frequer reason for the p< Journalo/Cognitil (£)2001Institute/m

I

Verb Production and the Semantic Interference Effect 1 ...

schnur@wjh.harvard.edu. In three ... (i)20()J Institute for Cognitive Science, Seoul National University. ... (1990) used the time-course of the semantic interference ..... the data reveals that the semantic interference effect is only present when.

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Canonicity in argument realization and verb semantic ...
other words, thematic roles are in part responsible for transferring meaning to ...... but it complies with hierarchical regularities related to semantic properties of.

The Verb
... an action verb. The type depends on the word's use in the sentence. ▫ Example: The wet dog smelled horrible. ▫ Example: The dog smelled the baked bread.

The Mid-Domain Effect and Species Richness ... - Semantic Scholar
abstract: If species' ranges are randomly shuffled within a bounded geographical domain free of environmental gradients, ranges overlap increasingly toward ...

The Mid-Domain Effect and Species Richness ... - Semantic Scholar
geographical domain free of environmental gradients, ranges overlap increasingly toward the ... geometric constraints, mid-domain effect, null models, range size frequency distributions. ...... American Naturalist 100:33–. 34. Pineda, J., and H.

The Effect of Unemployment Benefits and ... - Semantic Scholar
key policy parameters: the effect of UI on reservation wages and the effect of nonemployment durations on wage offers. ... we call the causal effect of unemployment duration on wages – is important for understanding the costs and ...... of UI exten

The Effect of Unemployment Benefits and ... - Semantic Scholar
in the part of the wage offer distribution relevant for workers' employment decisions. If the condition on reemployment wages is satisfied in the data, the only effect of nonem- ployment durations on wages must arise from a change in the wage-offer d

Opportunistic Interference Alignment for MIMO IMAC: Effect of User ...
Then, their performance is analyzed in terms of user scaling law required to .... A. Each MS reports this metric to the associated BS, and each. BS selects S MSs ...

Effect of Other-Cell Interference on Multiuser Diversity in Cellular ...
system capacity of two cellular systems in an interference-limited environment: a ... a given blocking probability is not a good measure for wireless communication ..... Institute of Information Technology Assessment (IITA) and the BrOMA IT ...

Psychological Medicine Atypical interference effect of ...
Jun 13, 2013 - Method. High-functioning adults with ASC and age- and IQ-matched healthy controls performed horizontal sinusoidal ... in social interaction, language and communication. (APA ...... Atypical network connectivity for imitation.

Effect of Other-Cell Interference on Multiuser Diversity in ... - CiteSeerX
Email: [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]. Abstract— We ... multiuser diversity scheme can be a good candidate for future cellular networks. ... In Section IV, we show numerical examples. In Sectioin V,.

Effect of Other-Cell Interference on Multiuser Diversity in ... - CiteSeerX
This model can be also applied to the orthogonal resource multiple access systems, such as TDMA and OFDMA. It is assumed that the received signal at each cell is interefered by the BSs of adjacent cells. The received symbol at an MS in the zero-th ce

The Effect of Team Production on Individual Performance
and individual exploitation for overtime-work and long-hour reductions. Variation .... the late work shift, and from 10:00 pm until 6:30 am in the night work shift.

Limited effect of fly-wheel and spinal mobilization ... - Semantic Scholar
Jun 11, 2011 - none of the countermeasures are, of course, ''perfect'' and it is appropriate ...... as subjects maintain spinal posture and their motor skill in the exercise ... the maintenance of the musculature during bed-rest, there is a relativel

Cross-layer Interference-aware Routing for ... - Semantic Scholar
Jul 6, 2006 - We introduce the concept of set-based routing in an attempt to in- corporate ... However, [3] assumes no interference between links in the same.

Avoiding Interference: How People Use Spatial ... - Semantic Scholar
1Department of Computer Science, 2Department of Psychology. University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4. +1 403 220 6087. @cpsc.ucalgary.ca, [email protected]. ABSTRACT. Single Display Groupware (SDG) lets multiple co-located people, each

Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and ... - Semantic Scholar
Article Plus (online only) materials for this article appear on the Journal's Web ..... c Mann-Whitney U test. VAN DER HEIJDEN ET ..... Neuropsychol Dev Cogn C.