Verbal Report ANDREW D. COHEN The performance of language ability (i.e., through listening, speaking, reading, or writing) involves cognitive processes that are not easily observable, nor are language learners’ strategies for accomplishing these activities. Verbal report in its various forms has established itself as a useful means of obtaining sometimes one-of-a-kind data on the cognitive processes people use to perform first language (L1) and second language (L2) tasks (Cohen, 1991; Green, 1998; Gass & Mackey, 2000; Bowles, 2010). One especially productive field for verbal report applications has been language assessment. Green (1998) notes that “verbal protocols are increasingly playing a vital role in the validation of assessment instruments and methods [in that they] offer a means for more directly gathering evidence that supports judgments regarding validity than some of the other more quantitative methods” (p. 3). This author notes, in fact, that verbal reports are frequently used to address what she terms “one of the most fundamental questions” about language tests (p. 3): What is it that a test actually measures? As rightly pointed out by Leow and Morgan-Short (2004), “all verbal reports are not equal” (p. 36). There are different types of verbal report data. One important variable is whether the verbal report reflects think-aloud data, introspection, or retrospection. In the case of think-aloud data, the subjects merely voice their thoughts without trying to analyze or explain what they are doing, while introspection implies that they report on what they think they are doing to accomplish a task. One way to distinguish these two is by describing think-aloud as self-revelation, while introspection in contrast constitutes self-observation (Cohen, 2000). In principle, self-revelation would more accurately reflect the actual thought processes. So, while think-aloud and introspective verbal reports are collected as subjects perform a given task, retrospective verbal reports are obtained after the completion of a given task. The first two types of data collection are considered preferable since they do not tax the memory as much as do retrospective ones, which are more susceptible to reconstructive modifications. A caveat regarding think-aloud or introspective reports is that the process of collecting them may alter the task being undertaken because “the think-aloud data collection method itself acts as an additional task that must be considered carefully when examining learner performance” (Jourdenais, 2001, p. 373). Nonetheless, there is evidence that the way subjects approach tasks while thinking aloud is very much in keeping with how they approach tasks normally (see Ericsson & Simon, 1993). In corroboration of this view, Leow and Morgan-Short (2004) found that they were able to obtain introspective verbal reports in a study of L2 reading comprehension by adult readers without any detrimental effects. Let us take a closer look at the three broad types of verbal report data (Cohen, 1987, 1991): 1.


Self-report, where learners provide descriptions of what they do, characterized by generalized statements, for instance, about their language use strategies. For example: “When I read in an L2, I try to look for clues in the immediate context when I encounter words I don’t know.” Self-reports are retrospective and mentalistic in nature. Self-observation, which is the inspection of specific, not generalized, language behavior, either introspectively (i.e., within 20 seconds of the mental event) or retrospectively.

The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Edited by Carol A. Chapelle. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Published 2013 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. DOI: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1261



verbal report A further distinction would be between immediate retrospection (i.e., within an hour or so of the mental event) and delayed retrospection (say, up to a week or more after the event). Here is an example of immediate retrospection: “What I just did was to quickly skim the next several paragraphs to see if there were any clues as to the meaning of the word that I’m stumped on here. And sure enough, I found a handy synonym for that word, one that I did know.” Self-revelation, typically referred to as think-aloud, is characterized by the stream-ofconsciousness disclosure of thought processes while the information is being attended to. For example: “Hmm . . . I wonder if these three words are actually a paraphrase of that word in the previous paragraph that I didn’t recognize.” Self-revelation is introspective and non-mentalistic in nature, and is seen as most accurately reflecting learners’ cognitive processes (Ericsson & Simon, 1993; Cohen, 2000). Researchers need to be mindful of the fact that verbal reports may inadvertently comprise a combination of these different types (Radford, 1974; Cohen & Hosenfeld, 1981; Cohen, 1987), and so, if the intention is to use only one type, care must be taken in controlling for the type of data collected.

Oral interview or written questionnaire items that prompt respondents to describe the way that they usually learn language and perform what they have learned tend to elicit self-report data. Self-observation data would entail reference to some actual instance(s) of language behavior. For example, recollection of how L2 readers figure out what a word means in a given text would count as retrospective self-observation. Self-revelation or think-aloud data are only available at the time that the language event is taking place, and the assumption would be that the respondent is simply describing, say, the struggle to determine what a word means in context. Any thoughts that the respondent has that are immediately analyzed would constitute introspective self-observation. For example: “Now, does sensible in Spanish mean ‘sensible’ in English or does it have some other meaning? Let me see . . .” Think-aloud and introspective protocols have the advantage of giving a more direct view of what language users do at the moment that they are doing it (Cohen, 1987). Retrospective interviews, in turn, provide an opportunity for investigators to ask directed questions to gain clarification of what was done. If data are also collected during the performance of the task as well, then the retrospective data can serve as a means for clarifying and amplifying the picture. In the past there was a concern not to instruct respondents in verbal reporting so as not to bias the nature of the data. But anyone who has been faced with analyzing transcriptions of undirected verbal report protocols has seen how such data may well be too general and incomplete. So, even methodological hard-liners like Ericsson and Simon came out in favor of instructions to the respondents so as to make the verbal reports more complete (1993, p. 11). Not so surprisingly, then, many studies now do include instructions to elicit particular cognitive behaviors, with researchers cueing different processes depending on the study. Not only has it proven effective to have respondents receive specific prompts as to what to verbally report about, but it has also been seen that instruction in how to provide verbal report for a given task improves the quality of the data. Ericsson and Simon (1993) found that, to ensure that the verbal report does not interfere with the task at hand, there must be warm-up trials (after the instructions) with tasks that yield easy-to-analyze think-aloud, introspective, and retrospective reports. Likewise, Green (1998; see also Cohen, 2000) underscored the need to ensure that “as much valid and complete data as possible are collected,” and consequently highlighted the importance of orienting subjects to give quality verbal reports (p. 41). In her summary of key steps in collecting verbal report data, Green included the following:

verbal report • • • • •


Prepare the subjects: Give “clear and unambiguous instructions” (p. 41). Brief the subjects: “Brief individuals on what is required of them and explain the procedure that is to be used” (p. 41). Practice the technique: “Give individuals some practice tasks to familiarize them with the technique” (p. 42). Practice the task: “Provide individuals with practice in the chosen procedure on the task . . . that will form the focus for the study” (p. 42). Give feedback: “Provide feedback on thinking aloud . . . performance” (p. 42).

The collection of verbal report data usually starts with an orientation session whereby respondents learn about verbal report and about how to provide it in the given context. They usually see or hear a model of someone performing the verbal report in the intended manner, and then ideally engage in a warm-up task (Bowles, 2010, chap. 4). The actual verbal report data can be elicited in a host of different ways, depending on the type of verbal report being elicited. For example, the data can be gathered by the subjects themselves, in the form of responses created as an audio file (say, while reading a text in a language lab), as written responses to a questionnaire (say, while engaged in writing an essay), or as journal entries (say, while strategizing about how to organize a talk to give in class). It may be advisable to have the verbal report in the subjects’ L1. More common than having respondents collect their own verbal report data is to have the verbal report prompted by an investigator, especially when there is value in prompting for specifics, in order to facilitate subsequent data analysis. After an extensive review of the verbal report literature, Pressley and Afflerbach (1995) concluded that prompting respondents to use particular processes may be necessary: “It is reasonable to prompt [processes] in order to assure that a sample of the target processes will, in fact, be observed” (p. 133). One specific type of prompted verbal report, popular in the research literature, is referred to as stimulated recall, and entails “a prompted interview, for example, watching a video of an event, listening to an audio recording of an event, or even seeing a piece of writing just completed” (Gass & Mackey, 2000, p. 13). In reading studies, verbal report often entails having researchers cue different processes, such as the way readers summarize, make inferences, or attend to stylistic differences. With regard to analysis of the data from verbal report, it will depend on the type of verbal report involved, the quantity of data, the way that the data were collected, and the immediacy of the verbal report. There may be value in having subjects listen to their own verbal report in order to clarify unclear points in the data (see, for example, the study by Nyhus, 1994, described in Cohen, 2011, pp. 104–5). Bowles (2010, chap. 5) provides guidelines for data analysis issues, such as how to code the data. In addition, data analysis software packages such as ATLAS.ti provide a means for qualitative analysis of unstructured data, particularly when working with larger bodies of textual and audio or video data. As to research results using verbal report, numerous studies have employed verbal report data to determine the strategies that students use in language performance (see White, Schramm, & Chamot, 2007). Perhaps the bulk of these studies have been conducted with L2 readers (see Singhal, 2001, for a review). Verbal report measures have helped determine, for example, how respondents actually take reading comprehension tests, as opposed to what they may be expected to be doing (Cohen, 1984, 1994, pp. 130–6). Studies calling on respondents to provide immediate or delayed retrospection as to their testtaking strategies regarding reading passages with multiple-choice items have, for example, yielded the following results: •

Whereas the instructions ask students to read the passage before answering the questions, students have reported either reading the questions first or reading just part of the article and then looking for the corresponding questions.


verbal report

Whereas advised to read all alternatives before choosing one, students stop reading the alternatives as soon as they have found one that they decide is correct. Students use a strategy of matching material from the passage with material in the item stem and in the alternatives, and prefer this surface-structure reading of the test items to one that calls for more in-depth reading and inferencing. Students rely on their prior knowledge of the topic and on their general vocabulary.

These findings from the study of test-taking strategies illustrate the unique perspectives on learners’ performance that can be obtained through the use of verbal reports. Such qualitative findings are useful on their own or as a complement to quantitative results. SEE ALSO: Interviews; Mixed Methods; Qualitative Research in Language Assessment; Validation of Language Assessments

References Bowles, M. A. (2010). The think-aloud controversy in second language research. Abingdon, England: Routledge. Cohen, A. D. (1984). On taking language tests: What the students report. Language Testing, 1(1), 70–81. Cohen, A. D. (1987). Using verbal reports in research on language learning. In C. Faerch & G. Kasper (Eds.), Introspection in second language research (pp. 82–95). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Cohen, A. D. (1991). Feedback on writing: The use of verbal reports. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13(2), 133–59. Cohen, A. D. (1994). Assessing language ability in the classroom. Boston, MA: Heinle. Cohen, A. D. (2000). Exploring strategies in test taking: Fine-tuning verbal reports from respondents. In G. Ekbatani & H. Pierson (Eds.), Learner-directed assessment in ESL (pp. 131–45). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Cohen, A. D. (2011). Strategies in learning and using a second language (2nd ed.). Harlow, England: Longman Applied Linguistics/Pearson Education. Cohen, A. D., & Hosenfeld, C. (1981). Some uses of mentalistic data in second-language research. Language Learning, 31(2), 285–313. Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data (rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2000). Simulated recall methodology in second language research. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Green, A. J. F. (1998). Using verbal protocols in language testing research: A handbook. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Jourdenais, R. (2001). Protocol analysis and SLA. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language acquisition (pp. 354–75). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Leow, R. P., & Morgan-Short, K. (2004). To think aloud or not to think aloud: The issue of reactivity in SLA research methodology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(1), 35–57. Nyhus, S. E. (1994). Attitudes of non-native speakers of English toward the use of verbal report to elicit their reading comprehension strategies. Unpublished Plan B Paper, Department of English as a Second Language, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Radford, J. (1974). Reflections on introspection. American Psychologist, 29(4), 245–50. Singhal, M. (2001). Reading proficiency, reading strategies, metacognitive awareness and L2 readers. The Reading Matrix, 1(1), 8.

verbal report


White, C., Schramm, K., & Chamot, A. U. (2007). Research methods in strategy research: Re-examining the toolbox. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies: Thirty years of research and practice (pp. 93–116). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Suggested Readings Cohen, A. D. (2011). Verbal reports. In Strategies in learning and using a second language (2nd ed., pp. 79–86, 98–112). Harlow, England: Longman Applied Linguistics/Pearson Education. Woodfield, H. (2010). What lies beneath?: Verbal report in interlanguage requests in English. Multilingua, 29(1), 1–27.

Verbal Report - Wiley Online Library

Nyhus, S. E. (1994). Attitudes of non-native speakers of English toward the use of verbal report to elicit their reading comprehension strategies. Unpublished Plan B Paper, Department of English as a Second Language, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: ...

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